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Celebrity fitness trainer Tiffiny Hall might be recovering in hospital after intense wrist surgery, buy cialis bitcoin but she managed to see the bright side of her situation. Tiffiny Hall has been hospitalised after undergoing surgery on her wrist to repair a ligament that had become a “big mess” after she ignored it for “many months”.The fitness guru buy cialis bitcoin shared the news with her 222k followers in an Instagram story, flashing her cast she called her “new accessory”.“My jab is coming back strong”, she captioned the story.Like what you see?. Sign up to our bodyandsoul.com.au newsletter for more stories like this.But despite the seriousness of the injury, the celebrity trainer is still in good spirits.“I hear casts are very in this summer!.

Picked this one up at my local buy cialis bitcoin hospital, thoughts?. € she joked in a recent Instagram post.“Back buy cialis bitcoin story. Yesterday I had to have surgery on my wrist – a scapholunate ligament reconstruction to be precise – which was a bit daunting (being a trainer and all!.

) but also buy cialis bitcoin very relieving. After experiencing a bit of pain earlier this year and thinking it was just your run of the mill "parents' wrist", I then found out that there was a little more going on in there,” the mother-of-one continued.Tiff even managed to see the silver lining of her injury, thanking erectile dysfunction treatment lockdown and her TIFFXO workouts for not exacerbating the situation.“Let me tell you, it's buy cialis bitcoin super weird knowing that you need surgery but being in next to no pain!. €œThank goodness for my TIFFXO workouts being so low impact that I didn't do any further damage, in fact I could barely feel a thing.

They're the only workouts I've been doing all year in lockdown, but who knows what buy cialis bitcoin would have happened if I'd been hitting the dojang!. Silver linings of lockdown you might say.”It’s definitely the #inspo we need right now to be the glass-half-full kind of person.After 17 new erectile dysfunction treatment cases in Sydney’s northern beaches, many Australians have woken up to find their Christmas travel plans in chaos as state governments reimpose tough restrictions.Christmas plans buy cialis bitcoin are in chaos after a erectile dysfunction treatment-cluster exploded on Sydney’s northern beaches.Contact tracers confirmed a list of nearly 20 new affected venues and three train lines.With just one week out from Christmas, thousands of Australians had plans to travel across state borders to visit loved ones for the first time in months. However, states announced a raft of toughened interstate travel restrictions to stop the spread of the cialis – and it couldn’t have come at a more inconvenient time.Like what you see?.

Sign up to our bodyandsoul.com.au newsletter for more stories like this.All the latest interstate travel restrictions, state by stateQueenslandThe Queensland government announced anyone arriving from Sydney on Friday, and who has been to the northern beaches since December 11, must get tested and self-quarantine for 14 days.These rules will toughen at 1am Saturday, when any travelers from Sydney who have been to the region will be forced into hotel quarantine.The state has also banned anyone who has gone to the northern beaches region since December 11 from visiting hospitals, aged care homes and prisons in Queensland.Western AustraliaWestern Australia Premier Mark McGowan announced that anyone arriving from NSW is required to self-quarantine for 14 days and get tested on day 11.“I understand these changes will cause some frustration and uncertainty for some people,” Mr McGowan announced on Thursday evening.TasmaniaTasmania has prevented people who visited the Northern Beaches in NSW, from entering the island state.Northern territoryNorthern Territory authorities warned anyone coming from the northern beaches area will need to enter 14 days of mandatory, supervised quarantine in either Alice Springs or Darwin.VictoriaThose travelling to Victoria and who have visited the high-risk locations, must get tested and quarantine in buy cialis bitcoin their home or accommodation for 14 days.Victorians have voiced their frustration on social media, saying harsher restrictions need to be imposed after the state endured one of the world’s toughest erectile dysfunction treatment lockdowns.“Sorry NSW, I think we should support you in all the ways that we can but having an open border under the circumstances is totally unacceptable,” one person Tweeted. €œI know buy cialis bitcoin that’d ruin some Xmas plans but TBH this is life and death so I don’t care RN.”Another one said. €œClose the border.

They would buy cialis bitcoin if it was us. We don’t want to go back buy cialis bitcoin into lockdown here because of this. It’s still not mandatory to wear a mask in NSW despite the (erectile dysfunction treatment) outbreak underway.

Honestly this is just too much risk for a cialis that is airborne and if NSW govt is too scared of its business paymasters to take buy cialis bitcoin the necessary action, then other states have to.”A third person begged. €œPlease oh please not be the undoing of all our hard work and sacrifices.”.

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€œThis week, we’ll how to get cialis prescription probably pass the two billion doses - if we have not already passed it…in terms of number of doses Discover More of these treatments, these new erectile dysfunction treatments that have actually been developed. And these have been distributed now in over 212 countries,” said Dr Bruce how to get cialis prescription Aylward, Head of the Access to erectile dysfunction treatment Tools Accelerator (ACT-A) Hub.Dr. Aylward, who is also Senior Advisor to the WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, noted that of those two billion doses, “over 75 per cent” had gone to just 10 countries, notably China, the US and India.This trio “account for about 60 per cent of those doses”, said Dr Aylward, speaking via Zoom, adding that “at the other end of that spectrum” only about “point five per cent of doses” had reached the lowest income countries, which account for about 10 per cent of world how to get cialis prescription population.‘Two track recovery’This had led increasingly to “a two-track recovery”, characterised by the successful rollout of treatments to high-risk populations and even younger populations in higher income and treatment-producing countries.By contrast, “in the lower income countries, they’re still struggling to get sufficient product just to be able to vaccinate the health care workers, older populations, who are really the key to getting out of the health, societal and economic crisis that we’re in the midst of”, Dr.

Aylward explained, in an urgent appeal for 250 million doses to protect frontline workers and the most vulnerable people.“The call is for a quarter of a billion doses through the period through end of September, to be donated, at least 100 million of those in June and July - that’s what we need to get the system going.”80 million doses from the USHe how to get cialis prescription noted that on Thursday the United States had helped to kickstart the appeal and bolster the UN-partnered equitable treatment distribution scheme COVAX with the announcement that it intended to donate up to 80 million doses, including an initial 25 million shots, this month. €œThat’s an important start (but) we need many other countries to be joining and important for the US, crucially, is they said these doses are going to come in June.”It was “absolutely ridiculous” that some countries were still unable to protect their key workers amid “escalating epidemics” even though treatments had been available for six months, he how to get cialis prescription said.Briefing reporters in New York on Friday, the UN Spokesperson Stéphane Dujarric welcomed the announcement made by the Biden administration that it will be sharing millions of treatment doses with both the COVAX facility as well as bilaterally with countries in particular need.He said Secretary-General António Guterres was extremely grateful to the US Government for the inclusion of UN personnel and Member States delegates serving in the US, in its national vaccination programme, "and for the generous offer to provide treatments for United Nations frontline personnel serving in the most challenging and dangerous locations around the world.""The Secretary-General renews his call to the international community to come together to address the unprecedented challenge of this cialis, and for countries to share treatments, particularly with those that are struggling to cope with new surges and variants" he added.Funding gapHighlighting the progress made against the erectile dysfunction compared with a year ago, veteran emergency health expert Dr. Aylward, insisted that the development and increasing number of erectile dysfunction treatments should not distract from the continued need by all countries to test, trace and treat their how to get cialis prescription populations.People will continue to die unless a $16 billion funding gap is filled to pay for sufficient personal protective equipment, ventilators, oxygen and steroid medication to help the poorest nations treat their sick, Dr Aylward insisted.“We still do not understand well enough this cialis, because we are not enough testing enough”, he said.“Remember, Tedros talked about ‘test, test, test’ literally months and months and months ago…we’ve made highly accurate, highly affordable rapid diagnostic tests, but with the fixation on treatments, we’re not getting the money (needed) over there.

And we’ve all seen what happens when this disease hits a country that doesn’t have the oxygen and dexamethasone.” Globally, as of 4 June 2021, there have been 171,708,011 confirmed cases of erectile dysfunction treatment, including 3,697,151 reported deaths, according to WHO.The appeal how to get cialis prescription to the continent’s authorities to boost lifesaving facilities comes as the World Health Organization (WHO) warned that treatment shipments were at “a near halt”.Risk of #erectile dysfunction treatment19 surge in #Africa threatens health facilities. African countries must urgently boost critical care capacity to prevent health how to get cialis prescription facilities from being overwhelmed. This comes as treatment shipments to the continent slow down.

Https://t.co/o2qJExrm2u— WHO African Region (@WHOAFRO) June 3, 2021 “The threat of a third how to get cialis prescription wave in Africa is real and rising”, said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa. €œOur priority is clear – it’s crucial that we swiftly get treatments into the arms of Africans at high risk of falling seriously ill and dying of erectile dysfunction treatment.”20% uptick in casesAs the continent struggles with treatment shortages, the care of critically ill erectile dysfunction treatment patients has lagged behind other parts of the world how to get cialis prescription. While Africa how to get cialis prescription has 2.9 per cent of cases globally, it accounts for 3.7 per cent of deaths.Weak observance of preventive measures likely contributed to the crisis, along with increased population movement and interaction, and the arrival of winter in southern Africa.In the last two weeks, the continent has recorded a 20 per cent increase in erectile dysfunction s, compared to the previous fortnight.

€œThe cialis is trending upwards in 14 countries and in the past week alone (and) eight countries witnessed an abrupt rise of over 30 per cent in cases,” WHO said in a statement.Intensive care filling upSouth Africa has seen “a sustained increase in cases”, while Uganda reported a how to get cialis prescription 131 per cent week-on-week rise last week “with clusters in schools, rising cases among health workers and isolation centres and intensive care units filling up”. Angola and Namibia have also witnessed a resurgence in cases, WHO said, noting that 48.6 million how to get cialis prescription doses have been received in Africa and 31.4 million doses have been administered in 50 countries on the continent.Poor treatmentOnly around two per cent of the population has received at least one dose of erectile dysfunction treatment, compared with the 24 per cent global figure.“While many countries outside Africa have now vaccinated their high-priority groups and are able to even consider vaccinating their children, African countries are unable to even follow up with second doses for high-risk groups,” said Dr. Moeti.

€œI’m urging countries that have reached a significant vaccination coverage to release doses and keep the most vulnerable Africans out of critical care.”Globally, as of 3 June 2021, there have been 171,222,477 confirmed cases of erectile dysfunction treatment, including 3,686,142 deaths, reported to WHO. As of 2 June, a total of 1,581,509,628 treatment doses have been administered..

€œThis week, we’ll probably buy cialis bitcoin pass the two billion doses - if we have not already passed it…in terms of number of doses of these treatments, these new erectile dysfunction treatments http://swifamilies.org/cialis-black-price/ that have actually been developed. And these have been distributed now in over 212 countries,” said Dr Bruce Aylward, Head of the Access buy cialis bitcoin to erectile dysfunction treatment Tools Accelerator (ACT-A) Hub.Dr. Aylward, who is also Senior Advisor to the WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, noted that of those two billion doses, “over 75 per cent” had gone to just 10 countries, notably China, the US and India.This trio “account for about 60 per cent of those buy cialis bitcoin doses”, said Dr Aylward, speaking via Zoom, adding that “at the other end of that spectrum” only about “point five per cent of doses” had reached the lowest income countries, which account for about 10 per cent of world population.‘Two track recovery’This had led increasingly to “a two-track recovery”, characterised by the successful rollout of treatments to high-risk populations and even younger populations in higher income and treatment-producing countries.By contrast, “in the lower income countries, they’re still struggling to get sufficient product just to be able to vaccinate the health care workers, older populations, who are really the key to getting out of the health, societal and economic crisis that we’re in the midst of”, Dr.

Aylward explained, in an urgent appeal for 250 million doses to protect frontline workers and the most vulnerable people.“The call is for a quarter of a billion doses through the period through end of September, to be donated, at least 100 million of those in June and July - that’s what we need to get the system going.”80 million doses from the USHe noted that on Thursday the United States had helped to kickstart the appeal and bolster the UN-partnered equitable treatment distribution scheme COVAX with the announcement that it intended to donate up to 80 million doses, including buy cialis bitcoin an initial 25 million shots, this month. €œThat’s an important start (but) we need many other countries to be joining and important for the US, crucially, is they said these doses are going to come in June.”It was “absolutely ridiculous” that some countries were still unable to protect their key workers amid “escalating epidemics” even though treatments had been available for six months, he said.Briefing reporters in New York on Friday, the UN Spokesperson Stéphane Dujarric welcomed the announcement made by the Biden administration that it will be sharing millions of treatment doses with both the COVAX facility as well as bilaterally with countries in particular need.He said Secretary-General António Guterres was extremely grateful to the US Government for the inclusion of UN personnel and Member States delegates serving in buy cialis bitcoin the US, in its national vaccination programme, "and for the generous offer to provide treatments for United Nations frontline personnel serving in the most challenging and dangerous locations around the world.""The Secretary-General renews his call to the international community to come together to address the unprecedented challenge of this cialis, and for countries to share treatments, particularly with those that are struggling to cope with new surges and variants" he added.Funding gapHighlighting the progress made against the erectile dysfunction compared with a year ago, veteran emergency health expert Dr. Aylward, insisted that the development and increasing number of erectile dysfunction treatments should not distract from the continued need by all countries to test, trace and treat their populations.People will continue to die unless a $16 billion funding gap is filled to pay for sufficient personal protective equipment, ventilators, oxygen and steroid medication to buy cialis bitcoin help the poorest nations treat their sick, Dr Aylward insisted.“We still do not understand well enough this cialis, because we are not enough testing enough”, he said.“Remember, Tedros talked about ‘test, test, test’ literally months and months and months ago…we’ve made highly accurate, highly affordable rapid diagnostic tests, but with the fixation on treatments, we’re not getting the money (needed) over there.

And we’ve all seen what happens when this disease hits a country that doesn’t have the oxygen and dexamethasone.” Globally, as of 4 June 2021, buy cialis bitcoin there have been 171,708,011 confirmed cases of erectile dysfunction treatment, including 3,697,151 reported deaths, according to WHO.The appeal to the continent’s authorities to boost lifesaving facilities comes as the World Health Organization (WHO) warned that treatment shipments were at “a near halt”.Risk of #erectile dysfunction treatment19 surge in #Africa threatens health facilities. African countries must urgently buy cialis bitcoin boost critical care capacity to prevent health facilities from being overwhelmed. This comes as treatment shipments to the continent slow down.

Https://t.co/o2qJExrm2u— WHO African Region buy cialis bitcoin (@WHOAFRO) June 3, 2021 “The threat of a third wave in Africa is real and rising”, said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa. €œOur priority is clear – it’s crucial that we swiftly get treatments into the arms of buy cialis bitcoin Africans at high risk of falling seriously ill and dying of erectile dysfunction treatment.”20% uptick in casesAs the continent struggles with treatment shortages, the care of critically ill erectile dysfunction treatment patients has lagged behind other parts of the world. While Africa has buy cialis bitcoin 2.9 per cent of cases globally, it accounts for 3.7 per cent of deaths.Weak observance of preventive measures likely contributed to the crisis, along with increased population movement and interaction, and the arrival of winter in southern Africa.In the last two weeks, the continent has recorded a 20 per cent increase in erectile dysfunction s, compared to the previous fortnight.

€œThe cialis is trending upwards in 14 countries and in the past week alone (and) eight countries witnessed an abrupt rise of over 30 per cent in cases,” WHO said in a statement.Intensive care filling upSouth Africa has seen “a sustained increase in cases”, while buy cialis bitcoin Uganda reported a 131 per cent week-on-week rise last week “with clusters in schools, rising cases among health workers and isolation centres and intensive care units filling up”. Angola and Namibia have also witnessed a resurgence in cases, WHO said, noting that 48.6 million doses have been received in Africa and 31.4 million doses have been administered in 50 countries on the continent.Poor treatmentOnly around two per cent of the population has received at least one dose of erectile dysfunction treatment, compared with the 24 per cent global figure.“While many countries outside Africa have now vaccinated their buy cialis bitcoin high-priority groups and are able to even consider vaccinating their children, African countries are unable to even follow up with second doses for high-risk groups,” said Dr. Moeti.

€œI’m urging countries that have reached a significant vaccination coverage to release doses and keep the most vulnerable Africans out of critical care.”Globally, as of 3 June 2021, there have been 171,222,477 confirmed cases of erectile dysfunction treatment, including 3,686,142 deaths, reported to WHO. As of 2 June, a total of 1,581,509,628 treatment doses have been administered..

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Cialis experience forum

Justice, one of the four Beauchamp and Childress prima facie basic principles cialis experience forum of biomedical ethics, is explored in Find Out More two excellent papers in the current issue of the journal. The papers stem from a British Medical Association (BMA) essay competition on justice and fairness in medical practice and policy. Although the competition was open to (almost) all comers, of the 235 entries both the winning paper by Alistair Wardrope1 and the highly commended runner-up by Zoe Fritz and Caitríona Cox2 cialis experience forum were written by practising doctors—a welcome indication of the growing importance being accorded to philosophical reflection about medical practice and practices within medicine itself. Both papers are thoroughly thought provoking and represent two very different approaches to the topic.

Each deserves a careful read.The competition was a component of a BMA 2019/2020 ‘Presidential project’ on fairness and justice and asked candidates to ‘use ethical reasoning and theory to tackle challenging, practical, contemporary, problems in health care and help provide a solution based on an explained and defended sense of fairness/justice’.In this guest editorial I’d like to explain why, in 2018 on becoming president-elect of the BMA, I chose the theme of justice and fairness in medical ethics for my 2019–2020 Presidential project—and why in a world of massive and ever-increasing and remediable health inequalities biomedical ethics requires greater international and interdisciplinary efforts to try to reach agreement on the need to achieve greater ‘health justice’ and to reach agreement on what that commitment actually means and on what in practice it requires.First, some background. As president I was offered the wonderful opportunity cialis experience forum to pursue, with the organisation’s formidable assistance, a ‘project’ consistent with the BMA’s interests and values. As a hybrid of general medical practitioner and philosopher/medical ethicist, and as a firm defender of the Beauchamp and Childress four principles approach to medical ethics,3 I chose to try to raise the ethical profile of justice and fairness within medical ethics.My first objective was to ask the BMA to ask the World Medical Association (WMA) to add an explicit commitment ‘to strive to practise fairly and justly throughout my professional life’ to its contemporary version of the Hippocratic Oath—the Declaration of Geneva4—and to the companion document the International Code of Medical Ethics.5 The stimulus for this proposal was the WMA’s addition in 2017 of the principle of respect for patients’ autonomy. Important as that addition is, it is widely perceived (though in my own view mistakenly) as being too much focused on individual patients and not enough on communities, groups cialis experience forum and populations.

The simple addition of a commitment to fairness and justice would provide a ‘balancing’ moral commitment.Adding the fourth principleIt would also explicitly add the fourth of those four prima facie moral commitments, increasingly widely accepted by doctors internationally. Two of them—benefiting our patients (beneficence) and doing so with as little harm as possible (non-maleficence)—have been an integral part of medical ethics since Hippocratic times. Respect for autonomy and justice are cialis experience forum very much more recent additions to medical ethics. The WMA, having added respect for autonomy to the Declaration of Geneva, should, I proposed, complete the quartet by adding the ‘balancing’ principle of fairness and justice.Since the Declaration is unlikely to be revised for several years, it seems likely that the proposal to add to it an explicit commitment to practise fairly and justly will have to wait.

However, an explicit commitment to justice and fairness has, at the BMA’s request, been added to the draft of the International cialis experience forum Code of Medical Ethics and it seems reasonable to hope and expect that it will remain in the final document.Adding a commitment to fairness and justice is the easy part!. Few doctors would on reflection deny that they ought to try to practise fairly and justly. It is far more difficult to say what is actually meant by this. Two additional components of my Presidential project—the essay competition and a conference (which with luck will have been held, virtually, shortly before publication of this editorial)—sought to help elucidate just what is meant by practising fairly and cialis experience forum justly.One of the most striking features of the essay competition was the readiness of many writers to point to injustices in the context of medical practice and policy and describe ways of remedying them, but without giving a specific account of justice and fairness on the basis of which the diagnosis of injustice was made and the remedy offered.Wardrope’s winning essay comes close to such an approach by challenging the implied premise that an account of justice and fairness must provide some such formal theory.

In preference, he points to the evident injustice and unsustainability of humans’ degradation of ‘the Land’ and its atmosphere and its inhabitants and then challenges some assumptions of contemporary philosophy and ethics, especially what he sees as their anthropocentric and individualistic focus. Instead, he invokes Leopold Aldo’s ‘Land Ethic’ (as well as cialis experience forum drawing in aid Isabelle Stenger’s focus on ‘the intrusion of Gaia’). In his thoughtful and challenging paper, he seeks to refocus our ethics—including our medical ethics and our sense of justice and fairness—on mankind’s exploitative threat, during this contemporary ‘anthropocene’ stage of evolution, to the continuing existence of humans and of all forms of life in our ‘biotic community’. As remedy, the author, allying his approach to those of contemporary virtue ethics, recommends the beneficial outcomes that would be brought about by a sense of fairness and justice—a developed and sensitive ‘ecological conscience’ as he calls it—that embraces the interests of the entire biotic community of which we humans are but a part.Fritz and Cox pursue a very different and philosophically more conventional approach to the essay competition’s question and offer a combination and development of two established philosophical theories, those of John Rawls and Thomas Scanlon, to provide a philosophically robust and practically beneficial methodology for justice and fairness in medical practice and policy.

Briefly summarised, they recommend a two-stage approach for cialis experience forum healthcare justice. First, those faced with a problem of fairness or justice in healthcare or policy should use Thomas Scanlon’s proposed contractualist approach whereby reasonable people seek solutions that they and others could not ‘reasonably reject’. This stage would involve committees of decision-makers and representatives of relevant stakeholders looking at the immediate and longer term impact on existing stakeholders of proposed solutions. They would then check those solutions against substantive criteria of justice derived from Rawls’ theory (which, via his theoretical device of the ‘veil of ignorance’, Rawls and the authors cialis experience forum argue that all reasonable people can be expected to accept!.

). The Rawlsian criteria relied on by Fritz and Cox are equity cialis experience forum of access to healthcare. The ‘difference principle’ whereby avoidable inequalities of primary goods can only be justified if they benefit the most disadvantaged. The just savings principle, of particular importance for ensuring intergenerational justice and sustainability.

And a criterion of cialis experience forum increased openness, transparency and accountability.It would of course be naïve to expect a single universalisable solution to the question ‘what do we mean by fairness and justice in health care?. €™ As the papers by Wardrope1 and Fritz and Cox2 demonstrate, there can be very wide differences of approach in well-defended accounts. My own cialis experience forum hope for my project is to emphasise the importance first of committing ourselves within medicine to practising fairly and justly in whatever branch we practise. And then to think carefully about what we do mean by that and act accordingly.Following AristotleFor my own part, over 40 years of looking, I have not yet found a single substantive theory of justice that is plausibly universalisable and have had to content myself with Aristotle’s formal, almost content-free but probably universalisable theory, according to which equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally in proportion to the relevant inequalities—what some health economists refer to as horizontal and vertical justice or equity.6Beauchamp and Childress in their recent eighth and ‘perhaps final’ edition of their foundational ‘Principles of biomedical ethics’1 acknowledge that ‘[t]he construction of a unified theory of justice that captures our diverse conceptions and principles of justice in biomedical ethics continues to be controversial and difficult to pin down’.They still cite Aristotle’s formal principle (though with less explanation than in their first edition back in 1979) and they still believe that this formal principle requires substantive or ‘material’ content if it is to be useful in practice.

They then describe six different theories of justice—four ‘traditional’ (utilitarian, libertarian, communitarian and egalitarian) and two newer theories, which they suggest may be more helpful in the context of health justice, one based on capabilities and the other on actual well-being.They again end their discussion of justice with their reminder that ‘Policies of just access to health care, strategies of efficiencies in health care institutions, and global needs for the reduction of health-impairing conditions dwarf in social importance every other issue considered in this book’ ……. €˜every society cialis experience forum must ration its resources but many societies can close gaps in fair rationing more conscientiously than they have to date’ [emphasis added]. And they go on to stress their own support for ‘recognition of global rights to health and enforceable rights to health care in nation-states’.For my own part I recommend, perhaps less ambitiously, that across the globe we extract from Aristotle’s formal theory of justice a starting point that ethically requires us to focus on equality and always to treat others as equals and treat them equally unless there are moral justifications for not doing so. Where such justifications exist we should say what they are, explain the moral assumptions that justify them and, to cialis experience forum the extent possible, seek the agreement of those affected.IntroductionIt did not occur to the Governor that there might be more than one definition of what is good … It did not occur to him that while the courts were writing one definition of goodness in the law books, fires were writing quite another one on the face of the land.

(Leopold, ‘Good Oak’1, pp 10–11)As I wrote the abstract that would become this essay, wildfires were spreading across Australia’s east coast. By the time I was invited to write the essay, back-to-back winter storms were flooding communities all around my home. The essay has been written in moments of respite between shifts during the cialis experience forum erectile dysfunction treatment cialis. Every one of these events was described as ‘unprecedented’.

Yet each is becoming increasingly likely, and that due to our interactions with our environment.Public discourse surrounding these events is dominated by questions of justice and fairness. How to balance competing imperatives of protecting individual lives cialis experience forum against risk of spreading contagion. How best to allocate scarce resources like intensive care beds or mechanical ventilators. The conceptual tools of clinical ethics are well cialis experience forum tailored to these sorts of questions.

The rights of the individual versus the community, issues of distributive justice—these are familiar to anyone with even a passing acquaintance with its canonical debates.What biomedical ethics has remained largely silent on is how we have been left to confront these decisions. How human activity has eroded Earth’s life support systems to make the ‘unprecedented’ the new normal. A medical ethic fit for the Anthropocene—our (still tentative) geological epoch defined by human influence on natural systems—must be able not just to react to the consequences of our exploitation of the natural world, but reimagine our relationship with it.Those cialis experience forum reimaginations already exist, if we know where to look for them. The ‘Land Ethic’ of the US conservationist Aldo Leopold offers one such vision.i Developed over decades of experience working in and teaching land management, the Land Ethic is most famously formulated in an essay of the same name published shortly before Leopold’s death fighting a wildfire on a neighbour’s farm.

It begins with a cialis experience forum reinterpretation of the ethical relationship between humanity and the ‘land community’, the ecosystems we live within and depend upon. Moving us from ‘conqueror’ to ‘plain member and citizen’ of that community1 (p 204). Land ceases to be a resource to be exploited for human need once we view ourselves as part of, and only existing within, the land community. Our moral evaluations shift consonantly:A thing is right when it tends cialis experience forum to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community.

It is wrong when it tends otherwise.1 (pp 224–225)The justice of the Land Ethic questions many presuppositions of biomedical ethics. By valuing the community in itself—in a way irreducible to the welfare of its members—it steps away from the individualism axiomatic in contemporary bioethics.2 Viewing ourselves as citizens of the land cialis experience forum community also extends the moral horizons of healthcare from a solely human focus, taking seriously the interests of the non-human members of that community. Taking into account the ‘stability’ of the community requires intergenerational justice—that we consider those affected by our actions now, and their implications for future generations.3 The resulting vision of justice in healthcare—one that takes climate and environmental justice seriously—could offer health workers an ethic fit for the future, demonstrating ways in which practice must change to do justice to patients, public and planet—now and in years to come.Healthcare in the AnthropoceneSeemeth it a small thing unto you to have fed upon good pasture, but ye must tread down with your feet the residue of your pasture?. And to have drunk of the clear waters, but ye must foul the residue with your feet?.

(Ezekiel 34:18, quoted in Leopold, ‘Conservation cialis experience forum in the Southwest’4, p 94)The majority of the development of human societies worldwide—including all of recorded human history—has taken place within a single geological epoch, a roughly 11 600 yearlong period of relative warmth and climatic stability known as the Holocene. That stability, however, can no longer be taken for granted. The epoch that has sustained most of human development is giving way to one shaped by the planetary consequences of that development—the Anthropocene.The Anthropocene is marked by accelerating degradation of the ecosystems that have sustained human societies. Human activity is already estimated to have raised global temperatures 1°C above preindustrial levels, and if emissions continue at current levels we are likely to reach 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052.5 The global rate of species extinction is orders of magnitude higher than the average over the past 10 million years.6 Ocean acidification, deforestation and disruption of nitrogen and phosphorus flows are likely at or beyond sustainable planetary boundaries.7Yet this period has also seen rapid (if uneven) improvements in human health, with improved life expectancy, falling child mortality cialis experience forum and falling numbers of people living in extreme poverty.

The 2015 report of the Rockefeller Foundation-Lancet Commission on planetary health explained this dissonance in stark terms. €˜we have been mortgaging the health of future cialis experience forum generations to realise economic and development gains in the present.’7In the instrumental rationality of modernity, nature has featured only as inexhaustible resource and infinite sink to fuel social and economic ends. But this disenchanted worldview can no longer hide from the implausibility of these assumptions. It cannot resist what the philosopher Isabelle Stengers has called ‘the intrusion of Gaia’.8 The present cialis—made more likely by deforestation, land use change and biodiversity loss9—is just the most immediately salient of these intrusions.

Anthropogenic environmental changes are increasing undernutrition, increasing range and transmissibility of many vectorborne and waterborne diseases like dengue fever and cholera, increasing frequency and severity of extreme weather events like heatwaves and wildfires, and driving population exposure to air pollution—which already accounts for over cialis experience forum 7 million deaths annually.10These intrusions will shape healthcare in the Anthropocene. This is because health workers will have to deal with their consequences, and because modern industrialised healthcare as practised in most high-income countries—and considered aspirational elsewhere—was borne of the same worldview that has mortgaged the health of future generations. The health sector in the USA is estimated to account for 8% of the country’s greenhouse cialis experience forum gas footprint.11 Pharmaceutical production and waste causes more local environmental degradation, accumulating in water supplies with damaging effects for local flora and fauna.12 Public health has similarly embraced short-term gains with neglect of long-term consequences. Health messaging was instrumental to the development and popularisation of many disposable and single-use products, while a 1947 report funded by the Rockefeller Foundation (who would later fund the landmark 2015 Lancet report on planetary health) popularised the high-meat, high-dairy ‘American’ diet—dependent on fossil fuel-driven intensive agricultural practices—as the healthy ideal.13Healthcare fit for the Anthropocene requires a shift in perspectives that allows us to see and work with the intrusion of Gaia.

But can dominant approaches in bioethics incorporate that shift?. A perfect moral stormWe have built a beautiful piece of social machinery cialis experience forum … which is coughing along on two cylinders because we have been too timid, and too anxious for quick success, to tell the farmer the true magnitude of his obligations. (Leopold, ‘The Ecological Conscience’4, p 341)At local, national and international scales, the lifestyles of the wealthiest pose an existential threat to the poorest and most marginalised in society. Our actions now are depriving future generations of the cialis experience forum environmental prerequisites of good health and social flourishing.

If justice means, as Ranaan Gillon parses it, ‘the moral obligation to act on the basis of fair adjudication between competing claims’,14 then this state of affairs certainly seems unjust. However, the tools available for grappling with questions of justice in bioethics seem ill equipped to deal with these sorts of injustice.To illustrate this problem, consider how Gillon further fleshes out his description of justice. In terms of fair distribution of scarce resources, respect for people’s rights, cialis experience forum and respect for morally acceptable laws. The first of these—labelled distributive justice—concerns how fairly to allot finite resources among potential beneficiaries.

Classic problems of distributive justice in healthcare concern a group of people at a particular time (usually patients), who could each benefit from a particular resource (historically, discussions have often focused on transplant organs. More recently, intensive care beds and ventilators have come cialis experience forum to the fore). But there are fewer of these resources than there are people with a need for them. Such discussions cialis experience forum are not easy, but they are at least familiar—we know where to begin with them.

We can consider each party’s need, their potential to benefit from the resource, any special rights or other claims they may have to it, and so forth. The distribution of benefits and harms in the Anthropocene, however, does not comfortably fit this formalism. It is one thing to say that there is but one intensive care bed, from which Smith has a good chance of gaining another year of life, Jones a poor cialis experience forum chance, and so offer it to Smith. Another entirely to say that production of the materials consumed in Smith’s care has contributed to the degradation of scarce water supplies on the other side of the globe, or that the unsustainable pattern of energy use will affect innumerable other future persons in poorly quantifiable ways through fuelling climate change.

The calculations of distributive justice are well suited to problems where there are a cialis experience forum set pool of potential beneficiaries, and the use of the scarce resources available affects only those within that pool. But global environmental problems do not fit this pattern—the effects of our actions are spatially and temporally dispersed, so that large numbers of present and future people are affected in different ways.Nor can this problem be readily addressed by turning to Gillon’s second category of obligations of justice, those grounded in human rights. For while it might be plausible (if not entirely uncontroversial) to say that those communities whose water supplies are degraded by pharmaceutical production have a right to clean water, it is another thing entirely to say that Smith’s healthcare is directly violating that right. It would not be true to say that, were it not for the resources used in caring for Smith, that the communities in cialis experience forum question would face no threat to water security—indeed, they would likely make no appreciable difference.

Similarly for the effects of Smith’s care on future generations facing accelerating environmental change.iiThe issue here is of fragmentation of agency. While it is not the case that Smith’s care is directly responsible for these environmental harms, the cumulative consequences of many such acts—and the ways in which these acts are cialis experience forum embedded in particular systems of energy generation, waste management, international trade, and so on—are reliably producing these harms. The injustice is structural, in Iris Marion Young’s terminology—arising from the ways in which social structures constrain individuals from pursuing certain courses of action, and enable them to follow others, with side effects that cumulatively produce devastating impacts.15Gillon describes the third component of justice as respect for morally acceptable laws. But there is little reason to believe that existing legal frameworks provide sufficient guidance to address these structural injustices.

While the intricacies of global governance are well beyond what I can hope to address here, the cialis experience forum stark fact remains that, despite the international commitment of the 2015 Paris Agreement to attempt to keep global temperature rise to 1.5°C above preindustrial levels, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that present national commitments—even if these are substantially increased in coming years—will take us well beyond that target.5 Confronted by such institutional inadequacy, respect for the rule of law is inadequate to remedy injustice.The confluence of these particular features—dispersion of causes and effects, fragmentation of agency and institutional inadequacy—makes it difficult for us to reason ethically about the choices we have to make. Stephen Gardiner calls this a ‘perfect moral storm’.16 Each of these factors individually would be difficult to address using the resources of contemporary biomedical ethics. Their convergence makes it seem insurmountable.This perfect storm was not, however, unpredictable. Van Rensselaer Potter, a professor of Oncology responsible for introducing the term ‘bioethics’ into Anglophone discourse, observed that since cialis experience forum he coined the phrase, the study of bioethics had diverged from his original usage (governing all issues at the intersection of ethics and the biological sciences) to a narrow focus on the moral dilemmas arising in interactions between individuals in biomedical contexts.

Potter predicted that the short-term, individualistic and medicalised focus of this approach would result in a neglect of population-level and ecological-level issues affecting human and planetary health, with catastrophic consequences.17 His proposed solution was a new ‘global bioethics’, grounded in a new understanding of humanity’s position within planetary systems—one articulated by the Land Ethic.The Land EthicA land ethic changes the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land-community to plain member and citizen of it. It implies respect for his fellow-members, and also respect for the community as such.iii (Leopold, ‘The Land Ethic’1, p 204)Developed throughout a career in forestry, cialis experience forum conservation and wildlife management, the Land Ethic is less an attempt to provide a set of maxims for moral action, than to shift our perspectives of the moral landscape. In his working life, Aldo Leopold witnessed how actions intended to optimise short-term economic outcomes eroded the environments on which we depend—whether soil degradation arising from intensive farming and deforestation, or disruption of freshwater ecosystems by industrial dairy farming. He also saw that contemporary morality remained silent on such actions, even when their consequences were to the collective detriment of all.Leopold argued that a series of ‘historical accidents’ left our morality particularly ill suited to handle these intrusions of Gaia—with a worldview that considered them ‘intrusions’, rather than the predictable response of our biotic community.

These ‘accidents’ were cialis experience forum. The unusual resilience of European ecological communities to anthropogenic interference (England survived an almost wholesale deforestation without consequent loss of ecosystem resilience, while similar changes elsewhere resulted in permanent environmental degradation). And the legacy of European settler colonialism, meaning that an cialis experience forum ethic arising in these particular conditions came to dominate global social arrangements4 (p 311). The first of these supported a worldview in which ‘Land … is … something to be tamed rather than something to be understood, loved, and lived with.

Resources are still regarded as separate entities, indeed, as commodities, rather than as our cohabitants in the land community’4 (p 311). The second cialis experience forum enabled the marginalisation of other views. In this genealogy, Leopold anticipated the perfect moral storm discussed above. His intent with the Land Ethic was to navigate it.There are three key components of cialis experience forum the Land Ethic that comprise the first three sections of Leopold’s final essay on the subject.

(1) the ‘community concept’ that allows communities as wholes to have intrinsic value. (2) the ‘ethical sequence’ that situates the value of such communities as extending, not replacing, values assigned to individuals. And (3) the ‘ecological conscience’ that views ethical action not in terms of following a particular code, but in developing appropriate moral perception.The community conceptThe cialis experience forum most widely quoted passage of Leopold’s opus—already cited above, and frequently (mis)taken as a summary maxim of the ethic—states that:A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.1 (pp 224–225)This passage makes the primary object of our moral responsibilities ‘the biotic community’, a term Leopold uses interchangeably with the ‘land community’.

Leopold’s community concept is notable in at least three respects. Its holism—an embrace of cialis experience forum the moral significance of communities in a way that is not simply reducible to the significance of its individual members. Its understanding of communities as temporally extended, placing importance on their ‘integrity’ and ‘stability’. And its rejection of anthropocentrism, affording humanity a place as ‘plain member and citizen’ of a broader land community.Individualism is so prevalent in biomedical ethics that it is scarcely argued for, instead cialis experience forum forming part of the ‘background constellation of values’2 tacitly assumed within the field.

We are used to evaluating the well-being of a community as a function of the well-being of its individual members—this is the rationale underlying quality-adjusted life year calculations endemic within health economics, and most discussions of distributive justice adopt some variation of this approach. Holism instead proposes that this makes no more sense than evaluating a person’s well-being as an aggregate of the well-being of their individual organs. While we can sensibly talk about people’s cialis experience forum hearts, livers or kidneys, their health is defined in terms of and constitutively dependent on the health of the person as a whole. Similarly, holism proposes, while individuals can be identified separately, it only makes sense to talk about them and their well-being in the context of the larger biotic community which supports and defines us.Holism helps us to negotiate the issues that confront individualistic accounts of collective well-being in Anthropocene health injustices.

In the previous section, we found in the environmental consequences of industrialised healthcare that it is difficult to identify which parties in particular are harmed, and how much cialis experience forum each individual action contributes to those harms. But our intuition that the overall result is unfair or unjust is itself a holistic assessment of the overall outcome, not dependent on our calculation of the welfare of every party involved. Holism respects the intuition that says—no matter the individuals involved—a world where people now exploit ecological resources in a fashion that deprives people in the future of the prerequisites of survival, is worse than one where communities now and in the future live in a sustainable relationship with their environment.The second aspect of Leopold’s community concept is that the community is something that does not exist at a single time and place—it is defined in terms of its development through time. Promoting the ‘integrity’ and ‘stability’ of the cialis experience forum community requires that we not just consider its immediate interests, but how that will affect its long-term sustainability or resilience.

We saw earlier the difficulties in trying to say just who is harmed and how when we approach harm to future generations individualistically. But from the perspective of the Land Ethic, when we exploit environmental resources in ways that will have predictable damaging results for future generations, the object of our harm is not just some purely notional future person cialis experience forum. It is a presently existing, temporally extended entity—the community of which they will be part.Lastly, Leopold’s community is quite consciously a biotic—not merely human—community. Leopold defines the land community as the open network of energy and mineral exchange that sustains all aspects of that network:Land… is not merely soil.

It is a fountain of energy flowing through a circuit of soils, plants, and animals cialis experience forum. Food chains are the living channels which conduct energy upward. Death and decay return it to the soil. The circuit is not cialis experience forum closed.

Some energy is dissipated in decay, some is added by absorption, some is stored in soils, peats, and forests, but it is a sustained circuit, like a slowly augmented revolving fund of life.4 (pp 268–269)While the components within this network may change, the land community as a whole remains stable when the overall complexity of the network is not disrupted—other components are able to adjust to these changes, or new ones arise to take their place.ivThe normative inference Leopold makes from his understanding of the land community is this. It makes no sense to single out individual entities within the community as being especially valuable or cialis experience forum useful, without taking into account the whole community upon which they mutually depend. To do so is self-defeating. By privileging the interests of a few members of the community, we ultimately undermine the prerequisites of their existence.The ethical sequenceThe Land Ethic’s holism is in fact its most frequently critiqued feature.

Its emphasis cialis experience forum on the value of the biotic community leads some to allege a subjugation of individual interests to the needs of the environment. This critique neglects how Leopold positions the Land Ethic in what he calls the ‘ethical sequence’. This is the gradual extension of scope of ethical considerations, both in terms of the complexity of social interactions they cover (from interactions between two people, to the structure of progressively larger social groups), and in the kinds of person they acknowledge as worthy of moral consideration (as we resist, for example, classist, sexist or racist exclusions cialis experience forum from personhood).This sequence serves less as a description of the history of morality, than a prescription for how we should understand the Land Ethic as adding to, rather than supplanting, our responsibilities to others. We do not argue that taking seriously health workers’ responsibilities for public health and health promotion supplants their duties to the patients they work with on a daily basis.

Similarly, the Land Ethic implies ‘respect for [our] fellow members, and also respect for the community as such’1 (p 204). At times, our responsibilities towards these different parties may cialis experience forum come into tension. But balancing these responsibilities has always been part of the work of clinical ethics.The ecological conscienceIf the community concept gives a definition of the good, and the ethical sequence situates this definition within the existing moral landscape, neither offers an explicit decision procedure to guide right action. In arguing for the ‘ecological conscience’, Leopold explains his rationale for not attempting to articulate such cialis experience forum a procedure.

In his career as conservationist, Leopold witnessed time and again laws nominally introduced in the name of environmental protection that did little to achieve their long-term goals, while exacerbating other environmental threats.v This is not surprising, given the ‘perfect moral storm’ of Anthropocene global health and environmental threats discussed above. The cumulative results of apparently innocent actions can be widespread and damaging.Leopold’s response to this problem is to advocate the cultivation of an ‘ecological conscience’. What is needed to promote a healthy human relationship with the land community is not for us to be told exactly how and how not to act in the face of environmental health threats, but rather to shift our view of the land from ‘a commodity belonging to us’ towards ‘a community to which we cialis experience forum belong’1 (p viii). To understand what the Land Ethic requires of us, therefore, we should learn more about the land community and our relationship with it, to develop our moral perception and extend its scope to embrace the non-human members of our community.Seen in this light, the Land Ethic shares much in common with virtue ethics, where right action is defined in terms of what the moral agent would do, rather than vice versa.

But rather than the Eudaimonia of individual human flourishing proposed by Aristotle, the phronimos of the Land Ethic sees their telos coming from their position within the land community. While clinical cialis experience forum virtue ethicists have traditionally taken the virtues of medical practice to be grounded in the interaction with individual patients, the realities of healthcare in the Anthropocene mean that limiting our moral perceptions in this way would ultimately be self-defeating—hurting those very patients we mean to serve (and many more besides).18 The virtuous clinician must adopt a view of the moral world that can focus on a person both as an individual, and simultaneously as member of the land community. I will close by exploring how adopting that perspective might change our practice.Justice in the AnthropoceneFailing this, it seems to me we fail in the ultimate test of our vaunted superiority—the self-control of environment. We fall back into the biological category cialis experience forum of the potato bug which exterminated the potato, and thereby exterminated itself.

(Leopold, ‘The River of the Mother of God’4, p 127)I have articulated some of the challenges healthcare faces in the Anthropocene. I have suggested that the tools presently available to clinical ethics may be inadequate to meet them. The Land Ethic invites us to reimagine our position cialis experience forum in and relationship with the land community. I want to close by suggesting how the development of an ecological conscience might support a transition to more just healthcare.

I will not endeavour to give detailed prescriptions for action, given Leopold’s warnings about cialis experience forum the limitations of such codifications. Rather, I will attempt to show how the cultivation of an ecological conscience might change our perception of what justice demands. Following the tradition of virtue ethics with which the Land Ethic holds much in common, this is best achieved by looking at models of virtuous action, and exploring what makes it virtuous.19Industrialised healthcare developed within a paradigm that saw the environment as inert resource and held that the scope of clinical ethics ranged only over the clinician’s interaction with their patients. When we begin to see clinician and patient not as standing apart from the environment, but as cialis experience forum ‘member and citizen of the land community’, their relationship with one another and with the world around them changes consonantly.

The present cialis has only begun to make commonplace the idea that health workers do not simply treat infectious diseases, but interact with them in a range of ways, including as vector—and as a result our moral obligations in confronting them may extend beyond the immediate clinical encounter, to cover all the other ways we may contract or spread disease. But we may be responsible for disease cialis experience forum outbreaks with conditions other than erectile dysfunction treatment, and in ways beyond simply becoming infected. The development of an ecological conscience would show how our practices of consumption may fuel deforestation that accelerates the emergence of novel pathogens, or support intensive animal rearing that drives antibiotic resistance.18The Land Ethic also challenges us not to abstract our work away from the places in which it takes place. General practitioner surgeries and hospitals are situated within social and land communities alike, shaping and shaped by them.

These spaces cialis experience forum can be used in ways that support or undermine those communities. Surgeries can work to empower their communities to pursue more sustainable and healthy diets by doubling as food cooperatives, or providing resources and ‘social prescriptions’ for increased walking and cycling. Hospitals can use their extensive real estate to provide publicly accessible green and wild spaces within urban environments, and use their role as major nodes in transport infrastructure to change that infrastructure to support active travel alternatives.ivThe Land Ethic reminds us that a community (human or land) is not healthy if its flourishing cannot be sustainably maintained. An essential cialis experience forum component of Anthropocene health justice is intergenerational justice.

Contemporary industrialised healthcare has an unsustainable ecological footprint. Continuing with such a model of care would serve only to mortgage the health of future generations for the sake of those living now cialis experience forum. Ecologically conscious practice must take seriously the sorts of downstream, distributed consequences of activity that produce anthropogenic global health threats, and evaluate to what extent our most intensive healthcare practices truly serve to promote public and planetary health. It is not enough for the clinician to assume that our resource usage is a necessary evil in the pursuit of best clinical outcomes, for it is already apparent that much of our environmental exploitation is of minimal or even negative long-term value.

The work of the National Health Service (NHS) Sustainable Development Unit has seen a 10% reduction in greenhouse gas cialis experience forum emissions in the NHS from 2007 to 2015 despite an 18% increase in clinical activity,20 while different models of care used in less industrialised nations manage to provide high-quality health outcomes in less resource-intensive fashion.21ConclusionOur present problem is one of attitudes and implements. We are remodelling the Alhambra with a steam-shovel. We shall hardly relinquish the steam-shovel, which after all has cialis experience forum many good points, but we are in need of gentler and more objective criteria for its successful use. (Leopold, ‘The Land Ethic’1, p 226)The moral challenges of the Anthropocene do not solely confront health workers.

But the potentially catastrophic health effects of anthropogenic global environmental change, and the contribution of healthcare activity to driving these changes provide a specific and unique imperative for action from health workers.Yet it is hard to articulate this imperative in the language of contemporary clinical ethics, ill equipped for this intrusion of Gaia. Justice in the Anthropocene requires us to be able to adopt a perspective from which cialis experience forum these changes no longer appear as unexpected intrusions, but that acknowledges the land community as part of our moral community. The Land Ethic articulates an understanding of justice that is holistic, structural, intergenerational, and rejects anthropocentrism. This understanding cialis experience forum seeks not to supplant, but to augment, our existing one.

It aims to do so by helping us to develop an ‘ecological conscience’, seeing ourselves as ‘plain member and citizen’ of the land community. The Land Ethic does not provide a step-by-step guide to just action. Nor does it definitively adjudicate on how to balance the interests of our patients, other populations now and cialis experience forum in the future, and the planet. It could, however, help us on the first step towards that change—showing how to cultivate the ‘internal change in our intellectual emphasis, loyalties, affections, and convictions’1 (pp 209–210) necessary to realise the virtues of just healthcare in the Anthropocene.AcknowledgmentsThis essay was written as a submission for the BMA Presidential Essay Prize.

I am grateful to the organisers and judging panel for the opportunity..

Justice, one of the four Beauchamp and http://thinkreelfilms.com/average-price-of-cialis-daily/ Childress buy cialis bitcoin prima facie basic principles of biomedical ethics, is explored in two excellent papers in the current issue of the journal. The papers stem from a British Medical Association (BMA) essay competition on justice and fairness in medical practice and policy. Although the competition was open to buy cialis bitcoin (almost) all comers, of the 235 entries both the winning paper by Alistair Wardrope1 and the highly commended runner-up by Zoe Fritz and Caitríona Cox2 were written by practising doctors—a welcome indication of the growing importance being accorded to philosophical reflection about medical practice and practices within medicine itself. Both papers are thoroughly thought provoking and represent two very different approaches to the topic.

Each deserves a careful read.The competition was a component of a BMA 2019/2020 ‘Presidential project’ on fairness and justice and asked candidates to ‘use ethical reasoning and theory to tackle challenging, practical, contemporary, problems in health care and help provide a solution based on an explained and defended sense of fairness/justice’.In this guest editorial I’d like to explain why, in 2018 on becoming president-elect of the BMA, I chose the theme of justice and fairness in medical ethics for my 2019–2020 Presidential project—and why in a world of massive and ever-increasing and remediable health inequalities biomedical ethics requires greater international and interdisciplinary efforts to try to reach agreement on the need to achieve greater ‘health justice’ and to reach agreement on what that commitment actually means and on what in practice it requires.First, some background. As president I was buy cialis bitcoin offered the wonderful opportunity to pursue, with the organisation’s formidable assistance, a ‘project’ consistent with the BMA’s interests and values. As a hybrid of general medical practitioner and philosopher/medical ethicist, and as a firm defender of the Beauchamp and Childress four principles approach to medical ethics,3 I chose to try to raise the ethical profile of justice and fairness within medical ethics.My first objective was to ask the BMA to ask the World Medical Association (WMA) to add an explicit commitment ‘to strive to practise fairly and justly throughout my professional life’ to its contemporary version of the Hippocratic Oath—the Declaration of Geneva4—and to the companion document the International Code of Medical Ethics.5 The stimulus for this proposal was the WMA’s addition in 2017 of the principle of respect for patients’ autonomy. Important as that addition is, it is widely perceived (though in my own buy cialis bitcoin view mistakenly) as being too much focused on individual patients and not enough on communities, groups and populations.

The simple addition of a commitment to fairness and justice would provide a ‘balancing’ moral commitment.Adding the fourth principleIt would also explicitly add the fourth of those four prima facie moral commitments, increasingly widely accepted by doctors internationally. Two of them—benefiting our patients (beneficence) and doing so with as little harm as possible (non-maleficence)—have been an integral part of medical ethics since Hippocratic times. Respect for autonomy and justice are very much more recent additions to medical ethics buy cialis bitcoin. The WMA, having added respect for autonomy to the Declaration of Geneva, should, I proposed, complete the quartet by adding the ‘balancing’ principle of fairness and justice.Since the Declaration is unlikely to be revised for several years, it seems likely that the proposal to add to it an explicit commitment to practise fairly and justly will have to wait.

However, an explicit commitment to justice and fairness has, at the BMA’s request, been added to the draft of the International Code of Medical Ethics and it seems reasonable to hope and expect that it will remain buy cialis bitcoin in the final document.Adding a commitment to fairness and justice is the easy part!. Few doctors would on reflection deny that they ought to try to practise fairly and justly. It is far more difficult to say what is actually meant by this. Two additional components of my Presidential project—the essay competition and a conference (which with luck will have been buy cialis bitcoin held, virtually, shortly before publication of this editorial)—sought to help elucidate just what is meant by practising fairly and justly.One of the most striking features of the essay competition was the readiness of many writers to point to injustices in the context of medical practice and policy and describe ways of remedying them, but without giving a specific account of justice and fairness on the basis of which the diagnosis of injustice was made and the remedy offered.Wardrope’s winning essay comes close to such an approach by challenging the implied premise that an account of justice and fairness must provide some such formal theory.

In preference, he points to the evident injustice and unsustainability of humans’ degradation of ‘the Land’ and its atmosphere and its inhabitants and then challenges some assumptions of contemporary philosophy and ethics, especially what he sees as their anthropocentric and individualistic focus. Instead, he invokes Leopold Aldo’s ‘Land Ethic’ (as well as drawing in aid Isabelle Stenger’s focus on ‘the buy cialis bitcoin intrusion of Gaia’). In his thoughtful and challenging paper, he seeks to refocus our ethics—including our medical ethics and our sense of justice and fairness—on mankind’s exploitative threat, during this contemporary ‘anthropocene’ stage of evolution, to the continuing existence of humans and of all forms of life in our ‘biotic community’. As remedy, the author, allying his approach to those of contemporary virtue ethics, recommends the beneficial outcomes that would be brought about by a sense of fairness and justice—a developed and sensitive ‘ecological conscience’ as he calls it—that embraces the interests of the entire biotic community of which we humans are but a part.Fritz and Cox pursue a very different and philosophically more conventional approach to the essay competition’s question and offer a combination and development of two established philosophical theories, those of John Rawls and Thomas Scanlon, to provide a philosophically robust and practically beneficial methodology for justice and fairness in medical practice and policy.

Briefly summarised, they recommend a two-stage approach for healthcare buy cialis bitcoin justice. First, those faced with a problem of fairness or justice in healthcare or policy should use Thomas Scanlon’s proposed contractualist approach whereby reasonable people seek solutions that they and others could not ‘reasonably reject’. This stage would involve committees of decision-makers and representatives of relevant stakeholders looking at the immediate and longer term impact on existing stakeholders of proposed solutions. They would then check those solutions against substantive criteria of justice derived from Rawls’ theory (which, via his theoretical device of the ‘veil buy cialis bitcoin of ignorance’, Rawls and the authors argue that all reasonable people can be expected to accept!.

). The Rawlsian criteria relied on by Fritz and Cox buy cialis bitcoin are equity of access to healthcare. The ‘difference principle’ whereby avoidable inequalities of primary goods can only be justified if they benefit the most disadvantaged. The just savings principle, of particular importance for ensuring intergenerational justice and sustainability.

And a criterion of increased openness, transparency and buy cialis bitcoin accountability.It would of course be naïve to expect a single universalisable solution to the question ‘what do we mean by fairness and justice in health care?. €™ As the papers by Wardrope1 and Fritz and Cox2 demonstrate, there can be very wide differences of approach in well-defended accounts. My own hope for my project is to emphasise buy cialis bitcoin the importance first of committing ourselves within medicine to practising fairly and justly in whatever branch we practise. And then to think carefully about what we do mean by that and act accordingly.Following AristotleFor my own part, over 40 years of looking, I have not yet found a single substantive theory of justice that is plausibly universalisable and have had to content myself with Aristotle’s formal, almost content-free but probably universalisable theory, according to which equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally in proportion to the relevant inequalities—what some health economists refer to as horizontal and vertical justice or equity.6Beauchamp and Childress in their recent eighth and ‘perhaps final’ edition of their foundational ‘Principles of biomedical ethics’1 acknowledge that ‘[t]he construction of a unified theory of justice that captures our diverse conceptions and principles of justice in biomedical ethics continues to be controversial and difficult to pin down’.They still cite Aristotle’s formal principle (though with less explanation than in their first edition back in 1979) and they still believe that this formal principle requires substantive or ‘material’ content if it is to be useful in practice.

They then describe six different theories of justice—four ‘traditional’ (utilitarian, libertarian, communitarian and egalitarian) and two newer theories, which they suggest may be more helpful in the context of health justice, one based on capabilities and the other on actual well-being.They again end their discussion of justice with their reminder that ‘Policies of just access to health care, strategies of efficiencies in health care institutions, and global needs for the reduction of health-impairing conditions dwarf in social importance every other issue considered in this book’ ……. €˜every society must ration its resources but many societies buy cialis bitcoin can close gaps in fair rationing more conscientiously than they have to date’ [emphasis added]. And they go on to stress their own support for ‘recognition of global rights to health and enforceable rights to health care in nation-states’.For my own part I recommend, perhaps less ambitiously, that across the globe we extract from Aristotle’s formal theory of justice a starting point that ethically requires us to focus on equality and always to treat others as equals and treat them equally unless there are moral justifications for not doing so. Where such justifications exist we should say what they are, explain the moral assumptions that justify them and, to the extent possible, seek the agreement of those affected.IntroductionIt did not occur to the Governor that there might be more than one definition of what is good … It did not occur to him that while the courts were writing one definition of goodness in the law books, fires were writing quite another one on the face of buy cialis bitcoin the land.

(Leopold, ‘Good Oak’1, pp 10–11)As I wrote the abstract that would become this essay, wildfires were spreading across Australia’s east coast. By the time I was invited to write the essay, back-to-back winter storms were flooding communities all around my home. The essay has been written in buy cialis bitcoin moments of respite between shifts during the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis. Every one of these events was described as ‘unprecedented’.

Yet each is becoming increasingly likely, and that due to our interactions with our environment.Public discourse surrounding these events is dominated by questions of justice and fairness. How to balance buy cialis bitcoin competing imperatives of protecting individual lives against risk of spreading contagion. How best to allocate scarce resources like intensive care beds or mechanical ventilators. The conceptual buy cialis bitcoin tools of clinical ethics are well tailored to these sorts of questions.

The rights of the individual versus the community, issues of distributive justice—these are familiar to anyone with even a passing acquaintance with its canonical debates.What biomedical ethics has remained largely silent on is how we have been left to confront these decisions. How human activity has eroded Earth’s life support systems to make the ‘unprecedented’ the new normal. A medical ethic fit for the Anthropocene—our (still tentative) geological epoch defined by human influence on natural systems—must be buy cialis bitcoin able not just to react to the consequences of our exploitation of the natural world, but reimagine our relationship with it.Those reimaginations already exist, if we know where to look for them. The ‘Land Ethic’ of the US conservationist Aldo Leopold offers one such vision.i Developed over decades of experience working in and teaching land management, the Land Ethic is most famously formulated in an essay of the same name published shortly before Leopold’s death fighting a wildfire on a neighbour’s farm.

It begins with a reinterpretation of the ethical relationship between humanity and the ‘land community’, the buy cialis bitcoin ecosystems we live within and depend upon. Moving us from ‘conqueror’ to ‘plain member and citizen’ of that community1 (p 204). Land ceases to be a resource to be exploited for human need once we view ourselves as part of, and only existing within, the land community. Our moral buy cialis bitcoin evaluations shift consonantly:A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community.

It is wrong when it tends otherwise.1 (pp 224–225)The justice of the Land Ethic questions many presuppositions of biomedical ethics. By valuing the community in itself—in a way irreducible to the welfare of its members—it steps away from the individualism axiomatic in contemporary bioethics.2 Viewing ourselves as citizens of the land community also extends the moral horizons of healthcare from a solely human focus, taking seriously the interests buy cialis bitcoin of the non-human members of that community. Taking into account the ‘stability’ of the community requires intergenerational justice—that we consider those affected by our actions now, and their implications for future generations.3 The resulting vision of justice in healthcare—one that takes climate and environmental justice seriously—could offer health workers an ethic fit for the future, demonstrating ways in which practice must change to do justice to patients, public and planet—now and in years to come.Healthcare in the AnthropoceneSeemeth it a small thing unto you to have fed upon good pasture, but ye must tread down with your feet the residue of your pasture?. And to have drunk of the clear waters, but ye must foul the residue with your feet?.

(Ezekiel 34:18, quoted in Leopold, ‘Conservation in the Southwest’4, p 94)The majority of the development of human societies worldwide—including all of buy cialis bitcoin recorded human history—has taken place within a single geological epoch, a roughly 11 600 yearlong period of relative warmth and climatic stability known as the Holocene. That stability, however, can no longer be taken for granted. The epoch that has sustained most of human development is giving way to one shaped by the planetary consequences of that development—the Anthropocene.The Anthropocene is marked by accelerating degradation of the ecosystems that have sustained human societies. Human activity is already estimated to have raised global temperatures 1°C above preindustrial levels, and if buy cialis bitcoin emissions continue at current levels we are likely to reach 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052.5 The global rate of species extinction is orders of magnitude higher than the average over the past 10 million years.6 Ocean acidification, deforestation and disruption of nitrogen and phosphorus flows are likely at or beyond sustainable planetary boundaries.7Yet this period has also seen rapid (if uneven) improvements in human health, with improved life expectancy, falling child mortality and falling numbers of people living in extreme poverty.

The 2015 report of the Rockefeller Foundation-Lancet Commission on planetary health explained this dissonance in stark terms. €˜we have been mortgaging the health of future generations to buy cialis bitcoin realise economic and development gains in the present.’7In the instrumental rationality of modernity, nature has featured only as inexhaustible resource and infinite sink to fuel social and economic ends. But this disenchanted worldview can no longer hide from the implausibility of these assumptions. It cannot resist what the philosopher Isabelle Stengers has called ‘the intrusion of Gaia’.8 The present cialis—made more likely by deforestation, land use change and biodiversity loss9—is just the most immediately salient of these intrusions.

Anthropogenic environmental changes are increasing undernutrition, increasing range and transmissibility of many vectorborne and waterborne diseases like dengue fever and cholera, increasing frequency and severity buy cialis bitcoin of extreme weather events like heatwaves and wildfires, and driving population exposure to air pollution—which already accounts for over 7 million deaths annually.10These intrusions will shape healthcare in the Anthropocene. This is because health workers will have to deal with their consequences, and because modern industrialised healthcare as practised in most high-income countries—and considered aspirational elsewhere—was borne of the same worldview that has mortgaged the health of future generations. The health buy cialis bitcoin sector in the USA is estimated to account for 8% of the country’s greenhouse gas footprint.11 Pharmaceutical production and waste causes more local environmental degradation, accumulating in water supplies with damaging effects for local flora and fauna.12 Public health has similarly embraced short-term gains with neglect of long-term consequences. Health messaging was instrumental to the development and popularisation of many disposable and single-use products, while a 1947 report funded by the Rockefeller Foundation (who would later fund the landmark 2015 Lancet report on planetary health) popularised the high-meat, high-dairy ‘American’ diet—dependent on fossil fuel-driven intensive agricultural practices—as the healthy ideal.13Healthcare fit for the Anthropocene requires a shift in perspectives that allows us to see and work with the intrusion of Gaia.

But can dominant approaches in bioethics incorporate that shift?. A perfect moral stormWe have built a beautiful piece of social machinery … which is coughing along on two cylinders because we have been too timid, and too anxious for quick success, to tell the buy cialis bitcoin farmer the true magnitude of his obligations. (Leopold, ‘The Ecological Conscience’4, p 341)At local, national and international scales, the lifestyles of the wealthiest pose an existential threat to the poorest and most marginalised in society. Our actions now are depriving future generations of the environmental buy cialis bitcoin prerequisites of good health and social flourishing.

If justice means, as Ranaan Gillon parses it, ‘the moral obligation to act on the basis of fair adjudication between competing claims’,14 then this state of affairs certainly seems unjust. However, the tools available for grappling with questions of justice in bioethics seem ill equipped to deal with these sorts of injustice.To illustrate this problem, consider how Gillon further fleshes out his description of justice. In terms of fair distribution of scarce resources, respect for people’s rights, and buy cialis bitcoin respect for morally acceptable laws. The first of these—labelled distributive justice—concerns how fairly to allot finite resources among potential beneficiaries.

Classic problems of distributive justice in healthcare concern a group of people at a particular time (usually patients), who could each benefit from a particular resource (historically, discussions have often focused on transplant organs. More recently, intensive care beds and ventilators have come to buy cialis bitcoin the fore). But there are fewer of these resources than there are people with a need for them. Such discussions are not easy, but buy cialis bitcoin they are at least familiar—we know where to begin with them.

We can consider each party’s need, their potential to benefit from the resource, any special rights or other claims they may have to it, and so forth. The distribution of benefits and harms in the Anthropocene, however, does not comfortably fit this formalism. It is one thing to say that there is but one intensive care bed, from which Smith has a good chance buy cialis bitcoin of gaining another year of life, Jones a poor chance, and so offer it to Smith. Another entirely to say that production of the materials consumed in Smith’s care has contributed to the degradation of scarce water supplies on the other side of the globe, or that the unsustainable pattern of energy use will affect innumerable other future persons in poorly quantifiable ways through fuelling climate change.

The calculations of distributive justice are well suited to problems where there are a buy cialis bitcoin set pool of potential beneficiaries, and the use of the scarce resources available affects only those within that pool. But global environmental problems do not fit this pattern—the effects of our actions are spatially and temporally dispersed, so that large numbers of present and future people are affected in different ways.Nor can this problem be readily addressed by turning to Gillon’s second category of obligations of justice, those grounded in human rights. For while it might be plausible (if not entirely uncontroversial) to say that those communities whose water supplies are degraded by pharmaceutical production have a right to clean water, it is another thing entirely to say that Smith’s healthcare is directly violating that right. It would not be true to say that, were it not for the resources used in caring for Smith, that the communities in question would face no threat to water security—indeed, they would buy cialis bitcoin likely make no appreciable difference.

Similarly for the effects of Smith’s care on future generations facing accelerating environmental change.iiThe issue here is of fragmentation of agency. While it is not the case that Smith’s care is directly responsible for these environmental harms, the cumulative consequences of many such acts—and the ways in which these acts are buy cialis bitcoin embedded in particular systems of energy generation, waste management, international trade, and so on—are reliably producing these harms. The injustice is structural, in Iris Marion Young’s terminology—arising from the ways in which social structures constrain individuals from pursuing certain courses of action, and enable them to follow others, with side effects that cumulatively produce devastating impacts.15Gillon describes the third component of justice as respect for morally acceptable laws. But there is little reason to believe that existing legal frameworks provide sufficient guidance to address these structural injustices.

While the intricacies of global governance are well beyond what I can buy cialis bitcoin hope to address here, the stark fact remains that, despite the international commitment of the 2015 Paris Agreement to attempt to keep global temperature rise to 1.5°C above preindustrial levels, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that present national commitments—even if these are substantially increased in coming years—will take us well beyond that target.5 Confronted by such institutional inadequacy, respect for the rule of law is inadequate to remedy injustice.The confluence of these particular features—dispersion of causes and effects, fragmentation of agency and institutional inadequacy—makes it difficult for us to reason ethically about the choices we have to make. Stephen Gardiner calls this a ‘perfect moral storm’.16 Each of these factors individually would be difficult to address using the resources of contemporary biomedical ethics. Their convergence makes it seem insurmountable.This perfect storm was not, however, unpredictable. Van Rensselaer Potter, a professor of Oncology responsible for introducing the term ‘bioethics’ into Anglophone discourse, observed that since he buy cialis bitcoin coined the phrase, the study of bioethics had diverged from his original usage (governing all issues at the intersection of ethics and the biological sciences) to a narrow focus on the moral dilemmas arising in interactions between individuals in biomedical contexts.

Potter predicted that the short-term, individualistic and medicalised focus of this approach would result in a neglect of population-level and ecological-level issues affecting human and planetary health, with catastrophic consequences.17 His proposed solution was a new ‘global bioethics’, grounded in a new understanding of humanity’s position within planetary systems—one articulated by the Land Ethic.The Land EthicA land ethic changes the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land-community to plain member and citizen of it. It implies respect for his fellow-members, and also respect for the community as such.iii (Leopold, ‘The Land Ethic’1, p 204)Developed throughout a career in forestry, conservation buy cialis bitcoin and wildlife management, the Land Ethic is less an attempt to provide a set of maxims for moral action, than to shift our perspectives of the moral landscape. In his working life, Aldo Leopold witnessed how actions intended to optimise short-term economic outcomes eroded the environments on which we depend—whether soil degradation arising from intensive farming and deforestation, or disruption of freshwater ecosystems by industrial dairy farming. He also saw that contemporary morality remained silent on such actions, even when their consequences were to the collective detriment of all.Leopold argued that a series of ‘historical accidents’ left our morality particularly ill suited to handle these intrusions of Gaia—with a worldview that considered them ‘intrusions’, rather than the predictable response of our biotic community.

These ‘accidents’ buy cialis bitcoin were. The unusual resilience of European ecological communities to anthropogenic interference (England survived an almost wholesale deforestation without consequent loss of ecosystem resilience, while similar changes elsewhere resulted in permanent environmental degradation). And the legacy of European settler colonialism, meaning that an ethic arising in these particular conditions came to dominate global buy cialis bitcoin social arrangements4 (p 311). The first of these supported a worldview in which ‘Land … is … something to be tamed rather than something to be understood, loved, and lived with.

Resources are still regarded as separate entities, indeed, as commodities, rather than as our cohabitants in the land community’4 (p 311). The second enabled the marginalisation of other views buy cialis bitcoin. In this genealogy, Leopold anticipated the perfect moral storm discussed above. His intent with the Land Ethic was to navigate it.There are three key components of the Land Ethic buy cialis bitcoin that comprise the first three sections of Leopold’s final essay on the subject.

(1) the ‘community concept’ that allows communities as wholes to have intrinsic value. (2) the ‘ethical sequence’ that situates the value of such communities as extending, not replacing, values assigned to individuals. And (3) the ‘ecological conscience’ that views ethical action not in terms of following a particular code, but in developing appropriate moral perception.The community conceptThe most widely quoted passage of Leopold’s opus—already cited above, and frequently (mis)taken as a summary maxim of the ethic—states that:A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty buy cialis bitcoin of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.1 (pp 224–225)This passage makes the primary object of our moral responsibilities ‘the biotic community’, a term Leopold uses interchangeably with the ‘land community’.

Leopold’s community concept is notable in at least three respects. Its holism—an embrace of the moral significance of communities in a way that is not simply reducible to the significance of its individual buy cialis bitcoin members. Its understanding of communities as temporally extended, placing importance on their ‘integrity’ and ‘stability’. And its rejection of anthropocentrism, affording humanity a place as ‘plain member and citizen’ of a broader land community.Individualism is so prevalent in biomedical ethics that it is scarcely argued for, instead forming part of the ‘background constellation buy cialis bitcoin of values’2 tacitly assumed within the field.

We are used to evaluating the well-being of a community as a function of the well-being of its individual members—this is the rationale underlying quality-adjusted life year calculations endemic within health economics, and most discussions of distributive justice adopt some variation of this approach. Holism instead proposes that this makes no more sense than evaluating a person’s well-being as an aggregate of the well-being of their individual organs. While we can sensibly talk about people’s hearts, livers or kidneys, their buy cialis bitcoin health is defined in terms of and constitutively dependent on the health of the person as a whole. Similarly, holism proposes, while individuals can be identified separately, it only makes sense to talk about them and their well-being in the context of the larger biotic community which supports and defines us.Holism helps us to negotiate the issues that confront individualistic accounts of collective well-being in Anthropocene health injustices.

In the previous section, we found buy cialis bitcoin in the environmental consequences of industrialised healthcare that it is difficult to identify which parties in particular are harmed, and how much each individual action contributes to those harms. But our intuition that the overall result is unfair or unjust is itself a holistic assessment of the overall outcome, not dependent on our calculation of the welfare of every party involved. Holism respects the intuition that says—no matter the individuals involved—a world where people now exploit ecological resources in a fashion that deprives people in the future of the prerequisites of survival, is worse than one where communities now and in the future live in a sustainable relationship with their environment.The second aspect of Leopold’s community concept is that the community is something that does not exist at a single time and place—it is defined in terms of its development through time. Promoting the ‘integrity’ and ‘stability’ of the community requires that we not buy cialis bitcoin just consider its immediate interests, but how that will affect its long-term sustainability or resilience.

We saw earlier the difficulties in trying to say just who is harmed and how when we approach harm to future generations individualistically. But from the perspective of the Land Ethic, when we exploit environmental resources in ways buy cialis bitcoin that will have predictable damaging results for future generations, the object of our harm is not just some purely notional future person. It is a presently existing, temporally extended entity—the community of which they will be part.Lastly, Leopold’s community is quite consciously a biotic—not merely human—community. Leopold defines the land community as the open network of energy and mineral exchange that sustains all aspects of that network:Land… is not merely soil.

It is a fountain of energy flowing through a circuit of soils, plants, and animals buy cialis bitcoin. Food chains are the living channels which conduct energy upward. Death and decay return it to the soil. The circuit buy cialis bitcoin is not closed.

Some energy is dissipated in decay, some is added by absorption, some is stored in soils, peats, and forests, but it is a sustained circuit, like a slowly augmented revolving fund of life.4 (pp 268–269)While the components within this network may change, the land community as a whole remains stable when the overall complexity of the network is not disrupted—other components are able to adjust to these changes, or new ones arise to take their place.ivThe normative inference Leopold makes from his understanding of the land community is this. It makes no sense buy cialis bitcoin to single out individual entities within the community as being especially valuable or useful, without taking into account the whole community upon which they mutually depend. To do so is self-defeating. By privileging the interests of a few members of the community, we ultimately undermine the prerequisites of their existence.The ethical sequenceThe Land Ethic’s holism is in fact its most frequently critiqued feature.

Its emphasis on the value of the biotic community leads some to allege buy cialis bitcoin a subjugation of individual interests to the needs of the environment. This critique neglects how Leopold positions the Land Ethic in what he calls the ‘ethical sequence’. This is the gradual extension of scope of ethical considerations, both in terms of the complexity of social interactions they cover (from interactions between two people, to buy cialis bitcoin the structure of progressively larger social groups), and in the kinds of person they acknowledge as worthy of moral consideration (as we resist, for example, classist, sexist or racist exclusions from personhood).This sequence serves less as a description of the history of morality, than a prescription for how we should understand the Land Ethic as adding to, rather than supplanting, our responsibilities to others. We do not argue that taking seriously health workers’ responsibilities for public health and health promotion supplants their duties to the patients they work with on a daily basis.

Similarly, the Land Ethic implies ‘respect for [our] fellow members, and also respect for the community as such’1 (p 204). At times, our buy cialis bitcoin responsibilities towards these different parties may come into tension. But balancing these responsibilities has always been part of the work of clinical ethics.The ecological conscienceIf the community concept gives a definition of the good, and the ethical sequence situates this definition within the existing moral landscape, neither offers an explicit decision procedure to guide right action. In arguing for the buy cialis bitcoin ‘ecological conscience’, Leopold explains his rationale for not attempting to articulate such a procedure.

In his career as conservationist, Leopold witnessed time and again laws nominally introduced in the name of environmental protection that did little to achieve their long-term goals, while exacerbating other environmental threats.v This is not surprising, given the ‘perfect moral storm’ of Anthropocene global health and environmental threats discussed above. The cumulative results of apparently innocent actions can be widespread and damaging.Leopold’s response to this problem is to advocate the cultivation of an ‘ecological conscience’. What is needed to promote a healthy human relationship with the land community is not for us to be told exactly how and how not to act in the face of environmental health threats, buy cialis bitcoin but rather to shift our view of the land from ‘a commodity belonging to us’ towards ‘a community to which we belong’1 (p viii). To understand what the Land Ethic requires of us, therefore, we should learn more about the land community and our relationship with it, to develop our moral perception and extend its scope to embrace the non-human members of our community.Seen in this light, the Land Ethic shares much in common with virtue ethics, where right action is defined in terms of what the moral agent would do, rather than vice versa.

But rather than the Eudaimonia of individual human flourishing proposed by Aristotle, the phronimos of the Land Ethic sees their telos coming from their position within the land community. While clinical virtue ethicists have traditionally taken the virtues of medical practice to be grounded in the interaction with individual patients, the realities of healthcare in the Anthropocene mean that limiting our moral perceptions in buy cialis bitcoin this way would ultimately be self-defeating—hurting those very patients we mean to serve (and many more besides).18 The virtuous clinician must adopt a view of the moral world that can focus on a person both as an individual, and simultaneously as member of the land community. I will close by exploring how adopting that perspective might change our practice.Justice in the AnthropoceneFailing this, it seems to me we fail in the ultimate test of our vaunted superiority—the self-control of environment. We fall back into the biological category of the potato bug which exterminated the potato, and thereby exterminated itself buy cialis bitcoin.

(Leopold, ‘The River of the Mother of God’4, p 127)I have articulated some of the challenges healthcare faces in the Anthropocene. I have suggested that the tools presently available to clinical ethics may be inadequate to meet them. The Land Ethic invites us to reimagine our position in and relationship with the land buy cialis bitcoin community. I want to close by suggesting how the development of an ecological conscience might support a transition to more just healthcare.

I will not endeavour to give detailed prescriptions for action, given Leopold’s warnings about the buy cialis bitcoin limitations of such codifications. Rather, I will attempt to show how the cultivation of an ecological conscience might change our perception of what justice demands. Following the tradition of virtue ethics with which the Land Ethic holds much in common, this is best achieved by looking at models of virtuous action, and exploring what makes it virtuous.19Industrialised healthcare developed within a paradigm that saw the environment as inert resource and held that the scope of clinical ethics ranged only over the clinician’s interaction with their patients. When we begin to see clinician and buy cialis bitcoin patient not as standing apart from the environment, but as ‘member and citizen of the land community’, their relationship with one another and with the world around them changes consonantly.

The present cialis has only begun to make commonplace the idea that health workers do not simply treat infectious diseases, but interact with them in a range of ways, including as vector—and as a result our moral obligations in confronting them may extend beyond the immediate clinical encounter, to cover all the other ways we may contract or spread disease. But we may be responsible for disease outbreaks with conditions buy cialis bitcoin other than erectile dysfunction treatment, and in ways beyond simply becoming infected. The development of an ecological conscience would show how our practices of consumption may fuel deforestation that accelerates the emergence of novel pathogens, or support intensive animal rearing that drives antibiotic resistance.18The Land Ethic also challenges us not to abstract our work away from the places in which it takes place. General practitioner surgeries and hospitals are situated within social and land communities alike, shaping and shaped by them.

These spaces can buy cialis bitcoin be used in ways that support or undermine those communities. Surgeries can work to empower their communities to pursue more sustainable and healthy diets by doubling as food cooperatives, or providing resources and ‘social prescriptions’ for increased walking and cycling. Hospitals can use their extensive real estate to provide publicly accessible green and wild spaces within urban environments, and use their role as major nodes in transport infrastructure to change that infrastructure to support active travel alternatives.ivThe Land Ethic reminds us that a community (human or land) is not healthy if its flourishing cannot be sustainably maintained. An essential buy cialis bitcoin component of Anthropocene health justice is intergenerational justice.

Contemporary industrialised healthcare has an unsustainable ecological footprint. Continuing with such buy cialis bitcoin a model of care would serve only to mortgage the health of future generations for the sake of those living now. Ecologically conscious practice must take seriously the sorts of downstream, distributed consequences of activity that produce anthropogenic global health threats, and evaluate to what extent our most intensive healthcare practices truly serve to promote public and planetary health. It is not enough for the clinician to assume that our resource usage is a necessary evil in the pursuit of best clinical outcomes, for it is already apparent that much of our environmental exploitation is of minimal or even negative long-term value.

The work of the National Health Service (NHS) Sustainable Development Unit has seen a 10% reduction in greenhouse buy cialis bitcoin gas emissions in the NHS from 2007 to 2015 despite an 18% increase in clinical activity,20 while different models of care used in less industrialised nations manage to provide high-quality health outcomes in less resource-intensive fashion.21ConclusionOur present problem is one of attitudes and implements. We are remodelling the Alhambra with a steam-shovel. We shall hardly relinquish the steam-shovel, which after all has buy cialis bitcoin many good points, but we are in need of gentler and more objective criteria for its successful use. (Leopold, ‘The Land Ethic’1, p 226)The moral challenges of the Anthropocene do not solely confront health workers.

But the potentially catastrophic health effects of anthropogenic global environmental change, and the contribution of healthcare activity to driving these changes provide a specific and unique imperative for action from health workers.Yet it is hard to articulate this imperative in the language of contemporary clinical ethics, ill equipped for this intrusion of Gaia. Justice in the Anthropocene requires us to be able to adopt a perspective from which these changes no longer appear buy cialis bitcoin as unexpected intrusions, but that acknowledges the land community as part of our moral community. The Land Ethic articulates an understanding of justice that is holistic, structural, intergenerational, and rejects anthropocentrism. This understanding seeks not to supplant, but to augment, buy cialis bitcoin our existing one.

It aims to do so by helping us to develop an ‘ecological conscience’, seeing ourselves as ‘plain member and citizen’ of the land community. The Land Ethic does not provide a step-by-step guide to just action. Nor does it definitively buy cialis bitcoin adjudicate on how to balance the interests of our patients, other populations now and in the future, and the planet. It could, however, help us on the first step towards that change—showing how to cultivate the ‘internal change in our intellectual emphasis, loyalties, affections, and convictions’1 (pp 209–210) necessary to realise the virtues of just healthcare in the Anthropocene.AcknowledgmentsThis essay was written as a submission for the BMA Presidential Essay Prize.

I am grateful to the organisers and judging panel for the opportunity..

Cialis online in canada

Throughout the erectile dysfunction treatment vaccination effort, cialis online in canada public health officials and politicians have insisted that providing shots equitably across racial and ethnic groups is a top priority. But it’s been left up to states to decide how to do that and to collect racial and ethnic data on vaccinated individuals so states can track how well they’re doing reaching all groups. The gaps cialis online in canada and inconsistencies in the data have made it difficult to understand who’s actually getting shots. Just as an uneven approach to containing the erectile dysfunction led to a greater toll for Black and Latino communities, the inconsistent data guiding vaccination efforts may be leaving the same groups out on treatments, said Dr.

Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, an epidemiologist at the University of California-San Francisco. €œAt the very least, we need the same uniform standards that every state is using, cialis online in canada and every location that administers treatment is using, so that we can have some comparisons and design better strategies to reach the populations we’re trying to reach,” Bibbins-Domingo said. Now that federal, state and local governments are easing mask requirements and ending other measures to prevent the spread of the cialis, efforts to boost vaccination rates in underserved communities are even more urgent. At St.

James United Methodist Church, a cornerstone for many in the Black community in Kansas City, cialis online in canada Missouri, in-person services recently resumed after being online for more than a year. St. James has also been hosting vaccination events designed to reach people in the neighborhood. €œPeople are really grieving not only the loss of their loved ones, but the loss of a whole year, cialis online in canada a loss of being lonely, a loss being at home, not being able to come to church.

Not being able to go out into the community,” said Yvette Richards, St. James’ director of cialis online in canada community connection. Missouri’s population is 11% African American, but erectile dysfunction treatment cases among African Americans accounted for 25% of the total cases for the state, according to an analysis by KFF. Richards said St.

James has lost many congregants to the erectile dysfunction, and the empty pews where cialis online in canada they once sat on Sundays serve as stark reminders of all this community has been through during the cialis. A quartet of singers takes the place of a choir at a physically distanced service at St. James United Methodist Church in Kansas City, Missouri.(Carlos Moreno / KCUR) Missouri’s public erectile dysfunction treatment data appears to show robust data on vaccination rates broken down by race and ethnicity. But several groups are seen lagging cialis online in canada far behind on vaccinations, including African Americans, who appear to have a vaccination rate of just 17.6%, nearly half of the 33% rate for the state as a whole.

To Dr. Rex Archer, director of the Kansas City health department, one number is a giveaway that this data isn’t right. It shows a completed vaccination rate of 64% for “multiracial” cialis online in canada Missourians. Such an exceptionally high rate for one group beggars belief, according to Archer.

€œSo, there’s some huge problem with the way the state is collecting race and cialis online in canada ethnicity under erectile dysfunction treatment vaccination,” Archer said. Missouri state officials have acknowledged since February that this data is wrong, but they haven’t managed to fix it or explain exactly what’s causing it. Archer suggested the inflated multiracial rate is probably due to different racial data being reported when individuals receive first and second shots. Other problems have been detected, including missing racial and ethnic cialis online in canada data for many people who have been vaccinated, and the use of multiple categories such as “other” and “unknown.” The state also noted it used national racial percentages in the state’s vaccination data rather than actual percentages based on the state’s population.

For example, earlier in the vaccination effort, the state used national racial data, which shows nearly 6% of the population is Asian, even though Missouri’s population is 2.2% Asian. Health officials are working to target vaccination campaigns in communities where rates are low, but Archer said the state’s data provides little help. €œI mean, we have to look at it, but it’s got too many variables to cialis online in canada be something we can count on,” Archer said. Though racial and ethnic categories are clearly defined in national U.S.

Census data, the same data is not collected uniformly by states. For example, South Carolina’s vaccination data lumps together Asians, Native Americans cialis online in canada and Pacific Islanders in one category. In Utah, residents can pick more than one race. Wyoming doesn’t report racial or ethnic data for vaccinations cialis online in canada at all.

Bibbins-Domingo said the missing or inconsistent data doesn’t necessarily mean tracking equity is a lost cause. Vaccination rates for census tracts where racial and ethnic data is known can be used as a proxy to estimate treatment allocations. However, Bibbins-Domingo argued that the cialis has shined a light cialis online in canada on racial data problems that have persisted far too long in U.S. Public health.

€œWhat my hope is, is that our lessons from erectile dysfunction treatment really cause all of us to think about the infrastructure we need within our state and nationally to make sure we are prepared next time,” Bibbins-Domingo said. €œData is our friend.” The Rev cialis online in canada. Emmanuel Cleaver III welcomes congregants to St. James United Methodist Church in Kansas City, Missouri, where in-person services were paused for more than a year because of the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis.(Carlos Moreno / KCUR) Local leaders and health officials in Missouri are scrambling to boost vaccination rates, especially among vulnerable communities, after Republican Gov.

Mike Parson recently announced steps to urge residents back to working cialis online in canada in person. Parson ordered state workers back to the office in May and said he would end additional federal cialis-related benefits for unemployed workers in June, despite vaccination rates across the state being well below what Missouri health experts had hoped to achieve. Jackson County, Missouri, which includes most of Kansas City, authorized $5 million in federal CARES funding last month to increase vaccinations in six ZIP codes with large Black populations and low vaccination rates. The project will address problems of both access and hesitancy and focus on cialis online in canada reaching out to individuals and neighborhoods.

Although many of the state’s vaccination efforts have involved large mass events, St. James Pastor Jackie McCall said she’s been talking with many in cialis online in canada her church and community who need encouragement to have faith in the treatments. €œSo let’s go ahead and let’s trust,” McCall told congregants. €œLet’s trust the process.

Let’s trust God cialis online in canada. Let’s trust the science.” This story is part of a reporting partnership that includes KCUR, NPR and KHN. Alex Smith, KCUR. @AlexSmithKCUR Related Topics Contact Us Submit a Story TipThe Food and Drug Administration’s decision next week whether to approve the first treatment for Alzheimer’s disease highlights a cialis online in canada deep division over the drug’s benefits as well as criticism about the integrity of the FDA approval process.

The agency said it will decide by June 7 the fate of Biogen’s drug aducanumab, despite a near-unanimous rejection of the product by an FDA advisory committee of outside experts in November. Doubts were raised when, in 2019, Biogen halted two large clinical trials of the drug after determining it wouldn’t reach its targets for efficacy. But the drugmaker later revised that assessment, stating that one trial cialis online in canada showed the drug reduced the decline in patients’ cognitive and functional ability by 22%. Some FDA scientists in November joined with the company to present a document praising the intravenous drug.

But other FDA officials and many outside experts say the evidence for the drug is shaky at best and cialis online in canada that another large clinical trial is needed. A consumer advocacy group has called for a federal investigation into the FDA’s handling of the approval process for the product. A lot is riding on the drug for Biogen. It is projected to carry a $50,000-a-year price tag and would be worth billions of dollars in cialis online in canada revenue to the Cambridge, Massachusetts, company.

The FDA is under pressure because an estimated 6 million Americans are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s, a debilitating and ultimately fatal form of dementia, and there are no drugs on the market to treat the underlying disease. Although some drugs slightly mitigate symptoms, patients and their families are desperate for a medication that even modestly slows its progression. Aducanumab helps the body produce antibodies that remove cialis online in canada amyloid plaques from the brain, which has been associated with Alzheimer’s. It’s designed for patients with mild-to-moderate cognitive decline from Alzheimer’s, of which there are an estimated 2 million Americans.

But it’s not clear whether eliminating the plaque improves brain function in Alzheimer’s patients. So far, nearly two dozen drugs based on the so-called amyloid hypothesis have failed in cialis online in canada clinical trials. Besides questions about whether the drug works, there also are safety issues. More than cialis online in canada one-third of patients in one of the trials experienced brain swelling and nearly 20% had brain bleeding, though those symptoms generally were mild and controllable.

Because of those risks, patients receiving aducanumab have to undergo regular brain monitoring through expensive PET scans and MRI tests. Some physicians who treat Alzheimer’s patients say they won’t prescribe the drug even if it’s approved. €œThere’s a lot of hope among my patients that this is going to be a game changer,” cialis online in canada said Dr. Matthew Schrag, an assistant professor of neurology at Vanderbilt University.

€œBut the cognitive benefits of this drug are quite small, we don’t know the long-term safety risks, and there will be a lot of practical issues in deploying this therapy. We have to wait until we’re certain we’re doing the right thing for patients.” Many aspects of cialis online in canada aducanumab’s journey through the FDA approval process have been unusual. It’s “vanishingly rare” for a drug to continue on toward approval after its clinical trial was halted because unfavorable results showed that further testing was futile, said Dr. Peter Lurie, president of the Center for Science in the Public Interest and a former FDA associate commissioner.

And it’s “mind-boggling,” he added, for the FDA to collaborate with a drugmaker in cialis online in canada presenting a joint briefing document to an FDA advisory committee. €œA joint briefing document strikes me as completely inappropriate and an abdication of the FDA’s claim to being the best regulatory agency in the world,” Lurie said. Three FDA advisory committee members who voted in November against approving the drug wrote in a recent JAMA commentary that the FDA’s “unusual degree of collaboration” with Biogen led to criticism that it “potentially compromised the FDA’s objectivity.” They cast doubt on both the drug’s safety and the revised efficacy data. The FDA and Biogen cialis online in canada declined to comment for this article.

Despite the uncertainties, the Alzheimer’s Association, the nation’s largest Alzheimer’s patient advocacy group, has pushed hard for FDA approval of aducanumab, mounting a major print and online ad campaign last month. The “More Time” campaign featured personal stories from patients cialis online in canada and family members. In one ad, actor Samuel L. Jackson posted on Twitter, “If a drug could slow Alzheimer’s, giving me more time with my mom, I would have read to her more.” But the association has drawn criticism for having its representatives testify before the FDA in support of the drug without disclosing that it received $525,000 in contributions last year from Biogen and its partner company, Eisai, and hundreds of thousands of dollars more in previous years.

Other people cialis online in canada who testified stated upfront whether or not they had financial conflicts. Dr. Leslie Norins, founder of a group called Alzheimer’s Germ Quest that supports research, said the lack of disclosure hurts the Alzheimer’s Association’s credibility. €œWhen the association asks the FDA to approve a drug, shouldn’t it have to reveal that it received millions of dollars cialis online in canada from the drug company?.

€ he asked. But Joanne Pike, the Alzheimer’s Association’s chief strategy officer, who testified before the FDA advisory committee about aducanumab without disclosing the contributions, denied that the association was hiding anything or that it supported the drug’s approval because of the drugmakers’ money. Anyone can cialis online in canada search the association’s website to find all corporate contributions, she said in an interview. Pike said her association backs the drug’s approval because its potential to slow patients’ cognitive and functional decline offers substantial benefits to patients and their caregivers, its side effects are “manageable,” and it will spur the development of other, more effective Alzheimer’s treatments.

€œHistory has shown that approvals of first drugs in a cialis online in canada category benefit people because they invigorate the pipeline,” she said. €œThe first drug is a start, and the second and third and fourth treatment could do even better.” Lurie disputed that. He said lowering the FDA’s standards and approving an ineffective or marginally effective drug merely encourages other manufacturers to develop similar, “me too” drugs that also don’t work well. Anne Saint says she wouldn’t have risked putting her husband, Mike Saint, on the new Alzheimer’s drug aducanumab cialis online in canada because of safety issues.

Mike died in September at age 71. (Molly Saint) The Public Citizen Health Research Group, which opposes approval of aducanumab, has called for an investigation of the FDA’s “unprecedented and inappropriate close collaboration” with Biogen. It asked the inspector general of cialis online in canada the Department of Health and Human Services to probe the approval process, which that office said it would consider. The group also urged the acting FDA commissioner, Dr.

Janet Woodcock, to remove Dr. Billy Dunn, an aducanumab advocate who testified about it to the advisory committee, from his cialis online in canada position as director of the FDA’s Office of Neuroscience and hand over review of the drug to staffers who weren’t involved in the Biogen collaboration. Woodcock refused, saying in a letter that FDA “interactions” with drugmakers make drug development “more efficient and more effective” and “do not interfere with the FDA’s independent perspective.” Although it would be unusual for the FDA to approve a drug after rejection by an FDA advisory committee, it’s not unprecedented, Lurie said. Alternatively, the agency could approve it on a restricted basis, limiting it cialis online in canada to a segment of the Alzheimer’s patient population and/or requiring Biogen to monitor patients.

€œThat will be tempting but shouldn’t be the way the problem is solved,” he said. €œIf the product doesn’t work, it doesn’t work. Once it’s on the market, it’s very difficult to get it off.” If the drug is cialis online in canada approved, Alzheimer’s patients and their families will have to make a difficult calculation, balancing the limited potential benefits with proven safety issues. Anne Saint, whose husband, Mike, had Alzheimer’s for a decade and died in September at age 71, said that based on what she’s read about aducanumab, she wouldn’t have put him on the drug.

€œMike was having brain bleeds anyway, and I wouldn’t have risked him having any more side effects, with no sure positive outcome,” said Saint, who lives in Franklin, Tennessee. €œIt sounds cialis online in canada like maybe that drug’s not going to work, for a lot of money.” Their adult daughter, Sarah Riley Saint, feels differently. €œIf this is the only hope, why not try it and see if it helps?. € she said.

Mike Saint walks daughter Molly down the aisle at her October 2019 wedding in Nashville, Tennessee. (Wandering Woo Photography) Harris Meyer. @Meyer_HM Related Topics Contact Us Submit a Story Tip.

Throughout the erectile dysfunction treatment vaccination effort, what do you need to buy cialis public health officials and politicians have insisted that providing shots equitably across racial and ethnic groups is a top buy cialis bitcoin priority. But it’s been left up to states to decide how to do that and to collect racial and ethnic data on vaccinated individuals so states can track how well they’re doing reaching all groups. The gaps buy cialis bitcoin and inconsistencies in the data have made it difficult to understand who’s actually getting shots.

Just as an uneven approach to containing the erectile dysfunction led to a greater toll for Black and Latino communities, the inconsistent data guiding vaccination efforts may be leaving the same groups out on treatments, said Dr. Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, an epidemiologist at the University of California-San Francisco. €œAt the very least, we need the same uniform standards that every state is using, and every location that administers treatment is using, so that we can have some comparisons and design better strategies to reach buy cialis bitcoin the populations we’re trying to reach,” Bibbins-Domingo said.

Now that federal, state and local governments are easing mask requirements and ending other measures to prevent the spread of the cialis, efforts to boost vaccination rates in underserved communities are even more urgent. At St. James United Methodist Church, buy cialis bitcoin a cornerstone for many in the Black community in Kansas City, Missouri, in-person services recently resumed after being online for more than a year.

St. James has also been hosting vaccination events designed to reach people in the neighborhood. €œPeople are really grieving buy cialis bitcoin not only the loss of their loved ones, but the loss of a whole year, a loss of being lonely, a loss being at home, not being able to come to church.

Not being able to go out into the community,” said Yvette Richards, St. James’ director buy cialis bitcoin of community connection. Missouri’s population is 11% African American, but erectile dysfunction treatment cases among African Americans accounted for 25% of the total cases for the state, according to an analysis by KFF.

Richards said St. James has lost many congregants to the erectile dysfunction, and the empty pews where they once sat on Sundays serve as stark reminders of all this community has been through buy cialis bitcoin during the cialis. A quartet of singers takes the place of a choir at a physically distanced service at St.

James United Methodist Church in Kansas City, Missouri.(Carlos Moreno / KCUR) Missouri’s public erectile dysfunction treatment data appears to show robust data on vaccination rates broken down by race and ethnicity. But several groups are seen lagging far behind on vaccinations, including African Americans, who appear to have a vaccination buy cialis bitcoin rate of just 17.6%, nearly half of the 33% rate for the state as a whole. To Dr.

Rex Archer, director of the Kansas City health department, one number is a giveaway that this data isn’t right. It shows a completed vaccination rate of 64% for “multiracial” buy cialis bitcoin Missourians. Such an exceptionally high rate for one group beggars belief, according to Archer.

€œSo, there’s some buy cialis bitcoin huge problem with the way the state is collecting race and ethnicity under erectile dysfunction treatment vaccination,” Archer said. Missouri state officials have acknowledged since February that this data is wrong, but they haven’t managed to fix it or explain exactly what’s causing it. Archer suggested the inflated multiracial rate is probably due to different racial data being reported when individuals receive first and second shots.

Other problems have been detected, including missing racial and ethnic data for many people who have been vaccinated, and the use of multiple categories such as “other” and buy cialis bitcoin “unknown.” The state also noted it used national racial percentages in the state’s vaccination data rather than actual percentages based on the state’s population. For example, earlier in the vaccination effort, the state used national racial data, which shows nearly 6% of the population is Asian, even though Missouri’s population is 2.2% Asian. Health officials are working to target vaccination campaigns in communities where rates are low, but Archer said the state’s data provides little help.

€œI mean, we have to look at it, but it’s got too many variables to be buy cialis bitcoin something we can count on,” Archer said. Though racial and ethnic categories are clearly defined in national U.S. Census data, the same data is not collected uniformly by states.

For example, South Carolina’s vaccination data lumps buy cialis bitcoin together Asians, Native Americans and Pacific Islanders in one category. In Utah, residents can pick more than one race. Wyoming doesn’t report racial or ethnic data for vaccinations at buy cialis bitcoin all.

Bibbins-Domingo said the missing or inconsistent data doesn’t necessarily mean tracking equity is a lost cause. Vaccination rates for census tracts where racial and ethnic data is known can be used as a proxy to estimate treatment allocations. However, Bibbins-Domingo argued that the cialis buy cialis bitcoin has shined a light on racial data problems that have persisted far too long in U.S.

Public health. €œWhat my hope is, is that our lessons from erectile dysfunction treatment really cause all of us to think about the infrastructure we need within our state and nationally to make sure we are prepared next time,” Bibbins-Domingo said. €œData is buy cialis bitcoin our friend.” The Rev.

Emmanuel Cleaver III welcomes congregants to St. James United Methodist Church in Kansas City, Missouri, where in-person services were paused for more than a year because of the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis.(Carlos Moreno / KCUR) Local leaders and health officials in Missouri are scrambling to boost vaccination rates, especially among vulnerable communities, after Republican Gov. Mike Parson recently announced steps to buy cialis bitcoin urge residents back to working in person.

Parson ordered state workers back to the office in May and said he would end additional federal cialis-related benefits for unemployed workers in June, despite vaccination rates across the state being well below what Missouri health experts had hoped to achieve. Jackson County, Missouri, which includes most of Kansas City, authorized $5 million in federal CARES funding last month to increase vaccinations in six ZIP codes with large Black populations and low vaccination rates. The project will address problems of both access and hesitancy and buy cialis bitcoin focus on reaching out to individuals and neighborhoods.

Although many of the state’s vaccination efforts have involved large mass events, St. James Pastor Jackie McCall said she’s been talking with many in her church and community who need encouragement to have faith in buy cialis bitcoin the treatments. €œSo let’s go ahead and let’s trust,” McCall told congregants.

€œLet’s trust the process. Let’s trust buy cialis bitcoin God. Let’s trust the science.” This story is part of a reporting partnership that includes KCUR, NPR and KHN.

Alex Smith, KCUR. @AlexSmithKCUR Related Topics Contact Us Submit a Story TipThe Food and Drug Administration’s decision next week whether to approve the first treatment for Alzheimer’s disease highlights a deep division over the drug’s buy cialis bitcoin benefits as well as criticism about the integrity of the FDA approval process. The agency said it will decide by June 7 the fate of Biogen’s drug aducanumab, despite a near-unanimous rejection of the product by an FDA advisory committee of outside experts in November.

Doubts were raised when, in 2019, Biogen halted two large clinical trials of the drug after determining it wouldn’t reach its targets for efficacy. But the drugmaker later revised that assessment, stating that one trial showed the drug reduced the decline in patients’ cognitive buy cialis bitcoin and functional ability by 22%. Some FDA scientists in November joined with you can check here the company to present a document praising the intravenous drug.

But other FDA officials and many outside experts say the evidence for the drug is shaky at best and that another buy cialis bitcoin large clinical trial is needed. A consumer advocacy group has called for a federal investigation into the FDA’s handling of the approval process for the product. A lot is riding on the drug for Biogen.

It is projected to carry a $50,000-a-year price tag and would be worth billions of dollars in revenue to the Cambridge, Massachusetts, buy cialis bitcoin company. The FDA is under pressure because an estimated 6 million Americans are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s, a debilitating and ultimately fatal form of dementia, and there are no drugs on the market to treat the underlying disease. Although some drugs slightly mitigate symptoms, patients and their families are desperate for a medication that even modestly slows its progression.

Aducanumab helps the body produce antibodies that remove amyloid plaques from the buy cialis bitcoin brain, which has been associated with Alzheimer’s. It’s designed for patients with mild-to-moderate cognitive decline from Alzheimer’s, of which there are an estimated 2 million Americans. But it’s not clear whether eliminating the plaque improves brain function in Alzheimer’s patients.

So far, nearly two dozen drugs based on the so-called amyloid buy cialis bitcoin hypothesis have failed in clinical trials. Besides questions about whether the drug works, there also are safety issues. More than buy cialis bitcoin one-third of patients in one of the trials experienced brain swelling and nearly 20% had brain bleeding, though those symptoms generally were mild and controllable.

Because of those risks, patients receiving aducanumab have to undergo regular brain monitoring through expensive PET scans and MRI tests. Some physicians who treat Alzheimer’s patients say they won’t prescribe the drug even if it’s approved. €œThere’s a lot of hope among my patients that buy cialis bitcoin this is going to be a game changer,” said Dr.

Matthew Schrag, an assistant professor of neurology at Vanderbilt University. €œBut the cognitive benefits of this drug are quite small, we don’t know the long-term safety risks, and there will be a lot of practical issues in deploying this therapy. We have to wait until we’re certain we’re doing the right thing for patients.” Many aspects of aducanumab’s buy cialis bitcoin journey through the FDA approval process have been unusual.

It’s “vanishingly rare” for a drug to continue on toward approval after its clinical trial was halted because unfavorable results showed that further testing was futile, said Dr. Peter Lurie, president of the Center for Science in the Public Interest and a former FDA associate commissioner. And it’s “mind-boggling,” he added, for the FDA to collaborate with a drugmaker in presenting buy cialis bitcoin a joint briefing document to an FDA advisory committee.

€œA joint briefing document strikes me as completely inappropriate and an abdication of the FDA’s claim to being the best regulatory agency in the world,” Lurie said. Three FDA advisory committee members who voted in November against approving the drug wrote in a recent JAMA commentary that the FDA’s “unusual degree of collaboration” with Biogen led to criticism that it “potentially compromised the FDA’s objectivity.” They cast doubt on both the drug’s safety and the revised efficacy data. The FDA and Biogen declined to buy cialis bitcoin comment for this article.

Despite the uncertainties, the Alzheimer’s Association, the nation’s largest Alzheimer’s patient advocacy group, has pushed hard for FDA approval of aducanumab, mounting a major print and online ad campaign last month. The “More Time” campaign featured personal stories from buy cialis bitcoin patients and family members. In one ad, actor Samuel L.

Jackson posted on Twitter, “If a drug could slow Alzheimer’s, giving me more time with my mom, I would have read to her more.” But the association has drawn criticism for having its representatives testify before the FDA in support of the drug without disclosing that it received $525,000 in contributions last year from Biogen and its partner company, Eisai, and hundreds of thousands of dollars more in previous years. Other people who testified buy cialis bitcoin stated upfront whether or not they had financial conflicts. Dr.

Leslie Norins, founder of a group called Alzheimer’s Germ Quest that supports research, said the lack of disclosure hurts the Alzheimer’s Association’s credibility. €œWhen the association asks the FDA to approve a drug, shouldn’t it have to reveal that it received millions of dollars from the drug buy cialis bitcoin company?. € he asked.

But Joanne Pike, the Alzheimer’s Association’s chief strategy officer, who testified before the FDA advisory committee about aducanumab without disclosing the contributions, denied that the association was hiding anything or that it supported the drug’s approval because of the drugmakers’ money. Anyone can buy cialis bitcoin search the association’s website to find all corporate contributions, she said in an interview. Pike said her association backs the drug’s approval because its potential to slow patients’ cognitive and functional decline offers substantial benefits to patients and their caregivers, its side effects are “manageable,” and it will spur the development of other, more effective Alzheimer’s treatments.

€œHistory has shown that approvals of first drugs in a category benefit people because they invigorate the pipeline,” she buy cialis bitcoin said. €œThe first drug is a start, and the second and third and fourth treatment could do even better.” Lurie disputed that. He said lowering the FDA’s standards and approving an ineffective or marginally effective drug merely encourages other manufacturers to develop similar, “me too” drugs that also don’t work well.

Anne Saint says she wouldn’t have risked putting her husband, Mike Saint, on the new Alzheimer’s drug aducanumab buy cialis bitcoin because of safety issues. Mike died in September at age 71. (Molly Saint) The Public Citizen Health Research Group, which opposes approval of aducanumab, has called for an investigation of the FDA’s “unprecedented and inappropriate close collaboration” with Biogen.

It asked the inspector general of the Department buy cialis bitcoin of Health and Human Services to probe the approval process, which that office said it would consider. The group also urged the acting FDA commissioner, Dr. Janet Woodcock, to remove Dr.

Billy Dunn, an aducanumab advocate who testified about it to the advisory committee, from his position as director of buy cialis bitcoin the FDA’s Office of Neuroscience and hand over review of the drug to staffers who weren’t involved in the Biogen collaboration. Woodcock refused, saying in a letter that FDA “interactions” with drugmakers make drug development “more efficient and more effective” and “do not interfere with the FDA’s independent perspective.” Although it would be unusual for the FDA to approve a drug after rejection by an FDA advisory committee, it’s not unprecedented, Lurie said. Alternatively, the agency could approve it on a restricted basis, limiting it to a segment of the buy cialis bitcoin Alzheimer’s patient population and/or requiring Biogen to monitor patients.

€œThat will be tempting but shouldn’t be the way the problem is solved,” he said. €œIf the product doesn’t work, it doesn’t work. Once it’s on the market, it’s very difficult to get it off.” If the drug is approved, Alzheimer’s buy cialis bitcoin patients and their families will have to make a difficult calculation, balancing the limited potential benefits with proven safety issues.

Anne Saint, whose husband, Mike, had Alzheimer’s for a decade and died in September at age 71, said that based on what she’s read about aducanumab, she wouldn’t have put him on the drug. €œMike was having brain bleeds anyway, and I wouldn’t have risked him having any more side effects, with no sure positive outcome,” said Saint, who lives in Franklin, Tennessee. €œIt sounds buy cialis bitcoin like maybe that drug’s not going to work, for a lot of money.” Their adult daughter, Sarah Riley Saint, feels differently.

€œIf this is the only hope, why not try it and see if it helps?. € she said. Mike Saint walks daughter Molly buy cialis bitcoin down the aisle at her October 2019 wedding in Nashville, Tennessee.

(Wandering Woo Photography) Harris Meyer. @Meyer_HM Related Topics Contact Us Submit a Story Tip.

Does cialis lower blood pressure

SOBRE NOTICIAS EN ESPAÑOLNoticias en español es does cialis lower blood pressure una sección de Kaiser Health News que contiene traducciones de http://www.ec-schluthfeld-strasbourg.ac-strasbourg.fr/wp/?p=816 artículos de gran interés para la comunidad hispanohablante, y contenido original enfocado en la población hispana que vive en los Estados Unidos. Use Nuestro Contenido Este contenido does cialis lower blood pressure puede usarse de manera gratuita (detalles). La temporada de influenza se verá diferente este año, ya que los Estados Unidos se enfrentan a una pandemia de erectile dysfunction que ya ha matado a más de 176.000 personas.Muchos estadounidenses son reacios a ir al médico y los funcionarios de salud pública temen que las personas eviten vacunarse. Aunque a veces se considera incorrectamente como un resfriado, la gripe también mata a does cialis lower blood pressure decenas de miles de personas en el país cada año.

Los más vulnerables son los niños pequeños, los adultos mayores y las personas con enfermedades subyacentes. Cuando se combina con los efectos de erectile dysfunction treatment, los expertos en salud pública dicen que es más importante que nunca vacunarse contra does cialis lower blood pressure la gripe.Si una cantidad suficiente de la población se vacuna, más del 45% lo hizo la temporada de gripe pasada, podría ayudar a evitar un escenario de pesadilla este invierno, con hospitales llenos de pacientes con erectile dysfunction treatment y los que sufren los efectos graves de la influenza.Además de la posible carga para los hospitales, existe la posibilidad de que las personas contraigan ambos cialis y “nadie sabe qué sucede si se contrae influenza y erectile dysfunction treatment simultáneamente porque nunca sucedió antes”, dijo la doctora Rachel Levine, secretaria de Salud de Pennsylvania, a reporteros.En respuesta, este año los fabricantes están produciendo más suministros de vacunas, entre 194 y 198 millones de dosis, unas 20 millones más de las que se distribuyeron la temporada pasada, según los Centros para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC).Mientras se acerca la temporada de gripe, aquí hay algunas respuestas a preguntas frecuentes:P. ¿Cuándo debo vacunarme contra la gripe?. La publicidad ya ha comenzado y algunas farmacias y clínicas ya tienen sus suministros does cialis lower blood pressure.

Pero, debido a que la efectividad de la vacuna puede disminuir con el tiempo, los CDC recomiendan no recibir la dosis en agosto.Muchas farmacias y clínicas comenzarán las inmunizaciones a principios de septiembre. Generalmente, los cialis de la influenza comienzan a circular a mediados o fines de octubre, pero se expanden masivamente más does cialis lower blood pressure tarde, en el invierno. Se necesitan aproximadamente dos semanas después de recibir la inyección para que los anticuerpos, que circulan en la sangre y frustran las infecciones, se acumulen.“Las personas jóvenes y sanas pueden comenzar a vacunarse contra la gripe en septiembre, y las personas mayores y otras poblaciones vulnerables pueden hacerlo en octubre”, dijo el doctor Steve Miller, director clínico de la aseguradora Cigna.Los CDC recomiendan que las personas “se vacunen contra la influenza a fines de octubre”, pero señalaron que se puede recibir la vacuna más tarde porque “aún puede ser beneficiosas y la vacunación debe ofrecerse a lo largo de toda la temporada de influenza”.Aun así, algunos expertos recomiendan no esperar demasiado este año, no solo por erectile dysfunction treatment, sino también en caso de que haya escasez debido a la abrumadora demanda.P. ¿Cuáles son las razones por las que las does cialis lower blood pressure que debería ofrecer mi brazo para vacunarme?.

Hay que vacunarse porque brinda protección contra la gripe y, por lo tanto, contra la propagación a otras personas, lo que puede ayudar a disminuir la carga para los hospitales y el personal médico.Y hay otro mensaje que puede resonar en estos tiempos extraños.“Le da a la gente la sensación de que hay algunas cosas que pueden controlar”, dijo Eduardo Sánchez, director médico de prevención de la American Heart Association.Si bien una vacuna contra la gripe no evitará erectile dysfunction treatment, recibirla podría ayudar al médico a diferenciar entre las dos enfermedades si se desarrolla algún síntoma (fiebre, tos, dolor de garganta) que ambas infecciones comparten, explicó Sánchez.Y aunque las vacunas contra la gripe no evitarán todos los casos de gripe, vacunarse puede reducir la gravedad si la persona se enferma, dijo.Todas las personas elegibles, especialmente los trabajadores esenciales, los que sufren de afecciones subyacentes y aquellos en mayor riesgo, incluidos los niños muy pequeños y las mujeres embarazadas, deben buscar protección, dijeron los CDC. La entidad does cialis lower blood pressure recomienda la vacunación a partir de los 6 meses.P. ¿Qué sabemos sobre la efectividad de la vacuna de este año?. Se deben producir nuevas vacunas contra la gripe cada año, porque el cialis muta y la efectividad de la vacuna varía, dependiendo de qué tan bien coincida con does cialis lower blood pressure el cialis circulante.Se calculó que la formulación del año pasado tuvo una eficacia de aproximadamente un 45% para prevenir la gripe en general, con una efectividad de aproximadamente un 55% en los niños.

Las vacunas disponibles en el país este año tienen como objetivo prevenir al menos tres cepas diferentes del cialis, y la mayoría cubre cuatro.Todavía no se sabe qué tan bien coincidirá el suministro de este año con las cepas que circularán en los Estados Unidos. Las primeras indicaciones del hemisferio sur, que atraviesa su temporada does cialis lower blood pressure de gripe durante nuestro verano, son alentadoras. Allí, las personas practicaron el distanciamiento social, usaron máscaras y se vacunaron en mayor número este año, y los niveles mundiales de gripe son más bajos de lo esperado. Sin embargo, expertos advierten que no se debe contar con una temporada igual de suave en los Estados Unidos, en parte porque los esfuerzos por usar mascara facial y de does cialis lower blood pressure distanciamiento social varían ampliamente.P.

¿Qué están haciendo diferente los seguros y sistemas de salud este año?. Las aseguradoras y los sistemas de salud contactados por KHN dicen que seguirán las pautas de los CDC, que exigen limitar y espaciar la cantidad de personas que esperan does cialis lower blood pressure en las filas y las áreas de vacunación. Algunos están programando citas para vacunas contra la gripe para ayudar a controlar el flujo.Health Fitness Concepts, una compañía que trabaja con UnitedHealth Group y otras empresas para establecer clínicas de vacunación contra la gripe en el noreste del país, dijo que está “fomentando eventos más pequeños y frecuentes para apoyar el distanciamiento social” y “exigiendo que se completen todos los formularios y arremangarse las camisas antes de entrar al área de vacunación contra la influenza”.Se requerirá que todos usen máscaras.Además, a nivel nacional, algunos grupos médicos contratados por UnitedHealth instalarán carpas, para que las inyecciones se puedan administrar al aire libre, dijo un vocero.Kaiser Permanente planifica las vacunas directamente en autos en algunos de sus centros médicos y está probando los procedimientos de detección y registro sin contacto en algunos lugares.Geisinger Health, un proveedor de salud regional en Pennsylvania y Nueva Jersey, dijo que también tendría programas de vacunación contra la influenza al aire libre en sus instalaciones.Además, “Geisinger exige que todos los empleados reciban la vacuna contra la influenza este año”, dijo Mark Shelly, director de prevención y control de infecciones del sistema. €œAl dar este paso, esperamos transmitir a nuestros vecinos la importancia de la vacuna contra la influenza does cialis lower blood pressure para todos”.P.

Por lo general, me vacunan contra la gripe en el trabajo. ¿Seguirá siendo does cialis lower blood pressure una opción este año?. Con el objetivo de evitar riesgosas reuniones en interiores, muchos empleadores se muestran reacios a patrocinar las clínicas de gripe en oficinas como han ofrecido en años anteriores. Y con tanta gente que sigue trabajando desde casa, hay menos necesidad de llevar does cialis lower blood pressure las vacunas contra la gripe al lugar de trabajo.

En cambio, muchos empleadores están alentando a los trabajadores a que reciban vacunas de sus médicos de atención primaria, en farmacias u otros entornos comunitarios. El seguro generalmente cubrirá el costo de la vacuna.Algunos empleadores están considerando ofrecer cupones para vacunas contra la gripe a sus trabajadores sin seguro o a aquellos que no participan en el plan médico de la compañía, dijo Julie Stone, directora general de salud y beneficios de Willis Towers Watson, una firma consultora.Estos cupones podrían, por ejemplo, permitir a los trabajadores obtener la vacuna en un laboratorio en particular sin costo.Algunos empleadores están comenzando a pensar en cómo podrían usar sus estacionamientos para administrar vacunas contra la gripe enlos autos, dijo el doctor David Zieg, líder de servicios clínicos para el consultor de beneficios Mercer.Aunque la ley federal permite a los empleadores exigir a los empleados que se vacunen contra la gripe, ese paso generalmente lo toman solo los centros de atención médica does cialis lower blood pressure y algunas universidades donde las personas viven y trabajan en estrecha colaboración, dijo Zieg.Pero sucede. El mes pasado, el sistema de la Universidad de does cialis lower blood pressure California emitió una orden ejecutiva que requiere que todos los estudiantes, profesores y personal se vacunen contra la gripe antes del 1 de noviembre, con limitadas excepciones.P. ¿Qué están haciendo las farmacias para alentar a las personas a vacunarse contra la gripe?.

Algunas farmacias están haciendo un esfuerzo adicional para salir a la comunidad y ofrecer vacunas contra la gripe.Walgreens, que tiene casi 9,100 farmacias en todo el país, continúa una asociación iniciada en 2015 con organizaciones comunitarias, iglesias y does cialis lower blood pressure empleadores que ha ofrecido alrededor de 150,000 clínicas de gripe móviles hasta la fecha.El programa pone especial énfasis en trabajar con poblaciones vulnerables y en áreas desatendidas, dijo el doctor Kevin Ban, director médico de la cadena de farmacias.Walgreens comenzó a ofrecer vacunas contra la gripe a mediados de agosto y está animando a las personas a no demorar en vacunarse.Tanto Walgreens como CVS están estimulando a las personas a programar citas y hacer trámites en línea este año para minimizar el tiempo que pasan en los locales.En los CVS MinuteClinic, una vez que los pacientes se han registrado para recibir la vacuna contra la gripe, deben esperar afuera o en su automóvil, ya que las áreas de espera interiores ahora están cerradas.“No tenemos un arsenal contra erectile dysfunction treatment”, dijo Ban, de Walgreens. €œPero quitar la presión del sistema de atención médica proporcionando vacunas por adelantado es algo que sí podemos hacer”. Julie Appleby does cialis lower blood pressure. jappleby@kff.org, @Julie_Appleby Michelle Andrews.

andrews.khn@gmail.com, @mandrews110 Related Topics Insurance Noticias does cialis lower blood pressure En Español Public Health erectile dysfunction treatment Insurers treatmentsThis story was produced in partnership with PolitiFact. This story can be republished for free (details). President Donald Trump accepted the Republican Party’s nomination for president in a 70-minute speech from the South Lawn of the White House on Thursday night.Speaking to a friendly crowd that didn’t appear to be observing social distancing conventions, and with few participants wearing masks, he touched on a range of topics, including many related to the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis and health care in general.Throughout, the partisan crowd applauded and chanted “Four more years!. € And, does cialis lower blood pressure even as the nation’s erectile dysfunction treatment death toll exceeded 180,000, Trump was upbeat. €œIn recent months, our nation and the entire planet has been struck by a new and powerful invisible enemy,” he said.

€œLike those brave Americans before us, we are meeting this challenge.”At the end of the event, there were does cialis lower blood pressure fireworks.Our partners at PolitiFact did an in-depth fact check on Trump’s entire acceptance speech. Here are the highlights related to the administration’s erectile dysfunction treatment response and other health policy issues:“We developed, from scratch, the largest and most advanced testing system in the world.” This is partially right, but it needs context.It’s accurate that the U.S. Developed its erectile dysfunction treatment testing system from scratch, because the government didn’t accept the World Health Organization’s testing does cialis lower blood pressure recipe. But whether the system is the “largest” or “most advanced” is subject to debate.The U.S.

Has tested more individuals than any other country does cialis lower blood pressure. But experts told us a more meaningful metric would be the percentage of positive tests out of all tests, indicating that not only sick people were getting tested. Another useful metric would be does cialis lower blood pressure the percentage of the population that has been tested. The U.S.

Is one of the most populous countries but has tested does cialis lower blood pressure a lower percentage of its population than other countries. Don't Miss A Story Subscribe to KHN’s free Weekly Edition newsletter. The U.S does cialis lower blood pressure. Was also slower than other countries in rolling out tests and amping up testing capacity.

Even now, many states are experiencing delays in reporting test results to positive individuals.As for “the most advanced,” Trump may be referring to new testing investments and systems, like Abbott’s recently announced $5, 15-minute rapid antigen test, which the company says will be about the size of a credit card, needs no instrumentation and comes with a phone app does cialis lower blood pressure through which people can view their results. But Trump’s comment makes it sound as if these testing systems are already in place when they haven’t been distributed to the public.“The United States has among the lowest [erectile dysfunction treatment] case fatality rates of any major country in the world. The European Union’s case fatality rate is nearly three times higher than ours.”The case fatality does cialis lower blood pressure rate measures the known number of cases against the known number of deaths. The European Union has a rate that’s about 2½ times greater than the United States.But the source of that data, Oxford University’s Our World in Data project, reports that “during an outbreak of a cialis, the case fatality rate is a poor measure of the mortality risk of the disease.”A better way to measure the threat of the cialis, experts say, is to look at the number of deaths per 100,000 residents.

Viewed that way, does cialis lower blood pressure the U.S. Has the 10th-highest death rate in the world.“We will produce a treatment before the end of the year, or maybe even sooner.”It’s far from guaranteed that a erectile dysfunction treatment will be ready before the end of the year.While researchers are making rapid strides, it’s not yet known precisely when the treatment will be available to the public, which is what’s most important. Six treatments are in the third phase of testing, which involves thousands does cialis lower blood pressure of patients. Like earlier phases, this one looks at the safety of a treatment but also examines does cialis lower blood pressure its effectiveness and collects more data on side effects.

Results of the third phase will be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration for approval.The government website Operation Warp Speed seems less optimistic than Trump, announcing it “aims to deliver 300 million doses of a safe, effective treatment for erectile dysfunction treatment by January 2021.”And federal health officials and other experts have generally predicted a treatment will be available in early 2021. Federal committees are working on recommendations for treatment distribution, including which groups should get does cialis lower blood pressure it first. €œFrom everything we’ve seen now — in the animal data, as well as the human data — we feel cautiously optimistic that we will have a treatment by the end of this year and as we go into 2021,” said Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation’s top infectious diseases expert does cialis lower blood pressure.

€œI don’t think it’s dreaming.”“Last month, I took on Big Pharma. You think does cialis lower blood pressure that is easy?. I signed orders that would massively lower the cost of your prescription drugs.”Quite misleading. Trump signed four executive orders on July 24 aimed at lowering does cialis lower blood pressure prescription drug prices.

But those orders haven’t taken effect yet — the text of one hasn’t even been made publicly available — and experts told us that, if implemented, the measures would be unlikely to result in significant drug price reductions for the majority of Americans.“We will always and very strongly protect patients with preexisting conditions, and that is a pledge from the entire Republican Party.”Trump’s pledge is undermined by his efforts to overturn the Affordable Care Act, the only law that guarantees people with preexisting conditions both receive health coverage and do not have to pay more for it than others do. In 2017, does cialis lower blood pressure Trump supported congressional efforts to repeal the ACA. The Trump administration is now backing GOP-led efforts to overturn the ACA through a court case. And Trump has also expanded short-term health plans that don’t have to comply with the ACA.“Joe Biden recently raised his hand on the debate stage and promised he was going to give it away, your health care dollars to illegal does cialis lower blood pressure immigrants, which is going to bring a massive number of immigrants into our country.”This is misleading.

During a June 2019 Democratic primary debate, candidates were asked. €œRaise your hand if your government plan would provide coverage for undocumented immigrants.” All candidates on stage, including Biden, raised their hands does cialis lower blood pressure. They were not asked if that coverage would be free or subsidized.Biden supports extending health care access to all immigrants, regardless of immigration status. A task force recommended that he allow immigrants who are in the country illegally to buy health insurance, without federal subsidies.“Joe Biden claims he has empathy for the does cialis lower blood pressure vulnerable, yet the party he leads supports the extreme late-term abortion of defenseless babies right up to the moment of birth.”This mischaracterizes the Democratic Party’s stance on abortion and Biden’s position.Biden has said he would codify the Supreme Court’s ruling in Roe v.

Wade and related precedents. This would generally limit abortions does cialis lower blood pressure to the first 20 to 24 weeks of gestation. States are allowed under court rulings to ban abortion after the point at which a fetus can sustain life, usually considered to be between 24 and 28 weeks from the mother’s last menstrual period — and 43 states do. But the rulings require states to make exceptions “to preserve the life or health of the mother.” Late-term abortions are very rare, about 1%.The Democratic Party platform holds that “every woman should have access to quality reproductive health care services, including safe and legal abortion — regardless of where she lives, how much money she makes, or how she is insured.” It does cialis lower blood pressure does not address late-term abortion.PolitiFact’s Daniel Funke, Jon Greenberg, Louis Jacobson, Noah Y.

Kim, Bill McCarthy, Samantha Putterman, Amy Sherman, Miriam Valverde and KHN reporter Victoria Knight contributed to this report. Related Topics Elections Health Industry Pharmaceuticals Public does cialis lower blood pressure Health The Health Law Abortion erectile dysfunction treatment Immigrants KHN &. PolitiFact HealthCheck Preexisting Conditions Trump Administration treatmentsThis story also ran on CNN. This story can be republished for free (details). Flu season will look different this year, as the country grapples with a erectile dysfunction cialis that has killed more than 172,000 people. Many Americans are reluctant to visit a doctor’s office and public health officials worry people will shy away from does cialis lower blood pressure being immunized.Although sometimes incorrectly regarded as just another bad cold, flu also kills tens of thousands of people in the U.S.

Each year, with the very young, the elderly and those with underlying conditions the most vulnerable. When coupled with the effects of erectile dysfunction treatment, public health experts say it’s more important than ever to get a flu shot.If does cialis lower blood pressure enough of the U.S. Population gets vaccinated — more than the 45% who did last flu season — it could help head off a nightmare scenario in the coming winter of hospitals stuffed with both erectile dysfunction treatment patients and those suffering from severe effects of influenza.Aside from the potential burden on hospitals, there’s the possibility people could get both cialises — and “no one knows what happens if you get influenza and erectile dysfunction treatment [simultaneously] because it’s never happened before,” Dr. Rachel Levine, Pennsylvania’s secretary of health, told reporters this month.In response, manufacturers are producing more treatment supply this year, between 194 million and 198 million doses, or about 20 million more than does cialis lower blood pressure they distributed last season, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Email Sign-Up Subscribe to does cialis lower blood pressure KHN’s free Morning Briefing. As flu season approaches, here are some answers to a few common questions:Q. When should does cialis lower blood pressure I get my flu shot?. Advertising has already begun, and some pharmacies and clinics have their supplies now.

But, because the effectiveness of the treatment can wane over time, the CDC recommends does cialis lower blood pressure against a shot in August.Many pharmacies and clinics will start immunizations in early September. Generally, influenza cialises start circulating in mid- to late October but become more widespread later, in the winter. It takes does cialis lower blood pressure about two weeks after getting a shot for antibodies — which circulate in the blood and thwart s — to build up. €œYoung, healthy people can begin getting their flu shots in September, and elderly people and other vulnerable populations can begin in October,” said Dr.

Steve Miller, chief clinical officer for insurer Cigna.The CDC has recommended that people “get a flu treatment by the end of October,” does cialis lower blood pressure but noted it’s not too late to get one after that because shots “can still be beneficial and vaccination should be offered throughout the flu season.”Even so, some experts say not to wait too long this year — not only because of erectile dysfunction treatment, but also in case a shortage develops because of overwhelming demand.Q. What are the reasons I should roll up my sleeve for this?. Get a shot does cialis lower blood pressure because it protects you from catching the flu and spreading it to others, which may help lessen the burden on hospitals and medical staffs.And there’s another message that may resonate in this strange time.“It gives people a sense that there are some things you can control,” said Eduardo Sanchez, chief medical officer for prevention at the American Heart Association.While a flu shot won’t prevent erectile dysfunction treatment, he said, getting one could help your doctors differentiate between the diseases if you develop any symptoms — fever, cough, sore throat — they share.And even though flu shots won’t prevent all cases of the flu, getting vaccinated can lessen the severity if you do fall ill, he said.You cannot get influenza from having a flu treatment.All eligible people, especially essential workers, those with underlying conditions and those at higher risk — including very young children and pregnant women — should seek protection, the CDC said. It recommends that children over 6 months old get vaccinated.Q.

What do we know about the effectiveness of this year’s treatment? does cialis lower blood pressure. Flu treatments — which must be developed anew each year because influenza cialises mutate — range in effectiveness annually, depending on how well they match the circulating cialis. Last year’s formulation was does cialis lower blood pressure estimated to be about 45% effective in preventing the flu overall, with about a 55% effectiveness in children. The treatments available in the U.S.

This year are aimed at preventing at least three strains of the cialis, does cialis lower blood pressure and most cover four.It isn’t yet known how well this year’s supply will match the strains that will circulate in the U.S. Early indications from the Southern Hemisphere, which goes through its flu season during our summer, are encouraging. There, people practiced social distancing, wore masks and got vaccinated in does cialis lower blood pressure greater numbers this year — and global flu levels are lower than expected. Experts caution, however, not to count on a similarly mild season in the U.S., in part because masking and social distancing efforts vary widely.Q.

What are insurance plans and health systems doing differently this does cialis lower blood pressure year?. Insurers and health systems contacted by KHN say they will follow CDC guidelines, which call for limiting and spacing out the number of people waiting in lines and vaccination areas. Some are setting appointments for flu shots to help manage the flow.Health Fitness Concepts, a company that works with UnitedHealth Group and other businesses to set up does cialis lower blood pressure flu shot clinics in the Northeast, said it is “encouraging smaller, more frequent events to support social distancing” and “requiring all forms to be completed and shirtsleeves rolled up before entering the flu shot area.” Everyone will be required to wear masks.Also, nationally, some physician groups contracted with UnitedHealth will set up tent areas so shots can be given outdoors, a spokesperson said.Kaiser Permanente plans drive-thru vaccinations at some of its medical facilities and is testing touch-free screening and check-in procedures at some locations. (KHN is not affiliated with Kaiser Permanente.)Geisinger Health, a regional health provider in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, said it, too, would have outdoor flu vaccination programs at its facilities.Additionally, “Geisinger is making it mandatory for all employees to receive the flu treatment this year,” said Mark Shelly, the system’s director of prevention and control.

€œBy taking this step, we hope to does cialis lower blood pressure convey to our neighbors the importance of the flu treatment for everyone.”Q. Usually I get a flu shot at work. Will that be does cialis lower blood pressure an option this year?. Aiming to avoid risky indoor gatherings, many employers are reluctant to sponsor the on-site flu clinics they’ve offered in years past.

And with so many people continuing to work from home, there’s less need to bring flu shots to does cialis lower blood pressure employees on the job. Instead, many employers are encouraging does cialis lower blood pressure workers to buy cialis online canada get shots from their primary care doctors, at pharmacies or in other community settings. Insurance will generally cover the cost of the treatment.Some employers are considering offering vouchers for flu shots to their uninsured workers or those who don’t participate in the company plan, said Julie Stone, managing director for health and benefits at Willis Towers Watson, a consulting firm. The vouchers could allow workers to get the shot at a particular lab at no cost, for example.Some employers are starting to think about how they might use their parking lots for administering drive-thru flu shots, said does cialis lower blood pressure Dr.

David Zieg, clinical services leader for benefits consultant Mercer.Although federal law allows employers to require employees to get flu shots, that step is typically taken only by health care facilities and some universities where people live and work closely together, Zieg said.Q. What are pharmacies doing to encourage people to does cialis lower blood pressure get flu shots?. Some pharmacies are making an extra push to get out into the community to offer flu shots.Walgreens, which has nearly 9,100 pharmacies nationwide, is continuing a partnership begun in 2015 with community organizations, churches and employers that has offered about 150,000 off-site and mobile flu clinics to date.The program places a special emphasis on working with vulnerable populations and in underserved areas, said Dr. Kevin Ban, chief medical officer for the drugstore chain.Walgreens began offering flu shots does cialis lower blood pressure in mid-August and is encouraging people not to delay getting vaccinated.Both Walgreens and CVS are encouraging people to schedule appointments and do paperwork online this year to minimize time spent in the stores.At CVS MinuteClinic locations, once patients have checked in for their flu shot, they must wait outside or in their car, since the indoor waiting areas are now closed.“We don’t have tons of arrows in our quiver against erectile dysfunction treatment,” Walgreens’ Ban said.

€œTaking pressure off the health care system by providing treatments in advance is one thing we can do.” Julie Appleby. jappleby@kff.org, does cialis lower blood pressure @Julie_Appleby Michelle Andrews. andrews.khn@gmail.com, @mandrews110 Related Topics Insurance Public Health erectile dysfunction treatment Insurers treatmentsUse Our Content This story can be republished for free (details). As the smoke thickened near her home in Santa Cruz, California, last week, Amanda Smith kept asking herself the same questions. Should we does cialis lower blood pressure leave?.

And where would we go?. The wildfire evacuation zone, at does cialis lower blood pressure the time, ended a few blocks from her house. But she worried about what the air quality — which had reached the second-highest warning level, purple for “very unhealthy” — would do to her children’s lungs. Her 4-year-old twins had spent time in the neonatal intensive care does cialis lower blood pressure unit.

One was later diagnosed with asthma, and last year was hospitalized with pneumonia.By Tuesday, said Smith, “we all had headaches, the kids were coughing a little bit, and it was raining ash.” The family had been conscientiously isolating at home because of the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis, and leaving meant potential exposures. But on Wednesday, Smith said, “I looked at my partner and said, maybe does cialis lower blood pressure we should leave.”She called a friend in Orange County, about 380 miles south, who offered her parents’ empty condo. But the next day, the friend’s child spiked a fever — a possible case of erectile dysfunction treatment — and the plan fell through amid the distraction.Amanda Smith takes a selfie of herself and her twin children in Santa Cruz, California, in April. (Amanda Smith)So Smith looked on Airbnb, careful to seek out hosts who detailed their erectile dysfunction treatment precautions, and found an apartment does cialis lower blood pressure in San Bruno, about an hour’s drive north.

She stuffed photos and documents into a suitcase, grabbed the go-bags, and her family headed out.“It’s coming out of our savings to stay here,” Smith said from the safety of her apartment rental, which runs about $1,150 a week. €œIt was a really fraught decision to leave, but as soon as we got over the does cialis lower blood pressure hill and the sky was blue, I took a big sigh of relief and knew that it had been a good decision.”As the twin disasters of erectile dysfunction treatment and fire season sweep through California, thousands of residents like Smith are weighing difficult options, pitting risk against risk as they decide where to evacuate, whether from imminent flames or the toxic air. Amid a virulent cialis, which is safest?. Doubling does cialis lower blood pressure up at a friend’s home?.

A hotel?. An evacuation does cialis lower blood pressure center?. And when do the risks of smoke inhalation outweigh the risk of a deadly ?. €œObviously the most does cialis lower blood pressure important thing is for people to do what they can to protect their lives, not only from the fire, but also from erectile dysfunction treatment,” said Detective Rosemerry Blankswade, public information officer for the San Mateo County Sheriff’s Office, which is helping coordinate response to the massive CZU Lightning Complex fires.“You have to evaluate the big picture here.

If fire is your most imminent danger, maybe take the erectile dysfunction treatment risk. But if you can avoid both of them, that’s obviously going to be the does cialis lower blood pressure best option. It’s kind of a little bit of triage that we’re asking for does cialis lower blood pressure people to do in their own lives right now.” Email Sign-Up Subscribe to KHN’s free Morning Briefing. In San Mateo, one of two counties where the CZU Lightning Complex fires are blazing, officials are advising people to head to an evacuation center, where county workers will assist them in finding a hotel room.

Meanwhile, in neighboring Santa Cruz, where tens of thousands of residents have evacuated and does cialis lower blood pressure shelters have limited space, officials are asking those under orders to leave to stay with family and friends whenever possible.What’s the right choice when all options pose additional risks?. We spoke with several experts to help guide your thought process.You have to evacuate. Where should does cialis lower blood pressure you go?. If your region is under an evacuation order, do not hesitate.

Leave immediately does cialis lower blood pressure. If you can afford it, booking a room at a hotel or motel outside the evacuation zones may be the best option, said Dr. Michael Wilkes, a professor at the University of does cialis lower blood pressure California-Davis School of Medicine. They almost always have air-conditioning units, which help filter the air from both smoke and cialis.

Many hotels are does cialis lower blood pressure implementing new cleaning processes. Ask staffers to detail what they’re doing to sanitize rooms, and consider skipping the daily cleaning service during your stay. You might also check review does cialis lower blood pressure sites such as TripAdvisor to see what other guests report. When possible, avoid the lobby and other shared spaces, and opt for contactless check-in.Amanda Smith at home in Santa Cruz, California, with her twin children.

Smith and her family decided to voluntarily evacuate their home does cialis lower blood pressure on Aug. 20, due to heavy smoke in the area from the CZU Lightning Complex fires in the nearby Santa Cruz Mountains. (Anna Maria Barry-Jester/KHN)With so many people in Northern California fleeing the fires, many hotels are does cialis lower blood pressure already full, especially in more remote areas. So what about staying with family or friends?.

After months of being shut in and avoiding close contact beyond immediate family, moving into someone else’s home means does cialis lower blood pressure a host of potential exposures. Consider whether you or anyone else in the home is at high risk from erectile dysfunction treatment because of age or a preexisting condition.“If so, that’s a reason to think twice before going to someone’s home,” said Dr. Gina Solomon, a program director at the Oakland-based Public Health Institute.Consider, too, what does cialis lower blood pressure precautions your friends or family have been taking. Sheltering with someone whose job brings them into frequent contact with other people may not be as safe as sheltering with people who largely have been staying home.

Another question is how crowded the home is does cialis lower blood pressure. If you have your own room and, preferably, your own bathroom, that makes staying with friends a better option. If a separate bedroom is not available does cialis lower blood pressure and smoky skies are not a problem, you might consider pitching a tent in their backyard.For those with an RV or tent, camping can present another good option — although, with hundreds of wildfires burning across California, it may be challenging to drive far enough away to avoid fire and smoke. If you do camp, try to find a site away from wooded areas.

And think twice before using group bathrooms.Is an evacuation center safe? does cialis lower blood pressure. Many counties have implemented new precautions at emergency shelters to prevent the spread of the erectile dysfunction. In Santa Cruz, for example, officials are scaling back the capacity in each shelter to allow for social distancing, providing tents for people to use as shielding inside and allowing camping in the does cialis lower blood pressure parking lots.Still, staying in a shelter should probably not be your first choice. In terms of erectile dysfunction treatment risk, deciding between does cialis lower blood pressure a hotel and a friend’s house is “nipping at the edges,” said Dr.

John Swartzberg, a clinical professor emeritus at the UC-Berkeley School of Public Health, while “being in a congregate setting is only better than being completely exposed to the elements.”If an evacuation shelter is your best immediate option, again, do not hesitate. €œYou have these standards you want to practice for yourselves,” Swartzberg said, “but when something worse comes along, it trumps how careful we can be with erectile dysfunction treatment because the need for shelter is greater.” You can lower your risk of by wearing a mask, washing hands frequently and sanitizing surfaces.Smith’s partner, Grant Whipple, walks with their children in does cialis lower blood pressure Big Sur on March 7. That was their last camping trip before the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis hit, Smith says. That area is does cialis lower blood pressure now under threat from wildfire.

(Amanda Smith)If you aren’t in a fire zone, should you invite friends and family to stay with you?. Deciding whether to open your home to friends who are evacuating is an intensely personal decision and may depend on whether does cialis lower blood pressure anyone in your family has a preexisting condition.“I guess it depends on how good a friend they are and how desperate they are,” said Swartzberg. It may also depend on how much space you have. If your guests does cialis lower blood pressure can have their own bedroom and bathroom, it might be safer.If you do offer your home, experts advise against simply considering yourself a new pod with your guests.

Instead, take steps to lower your chances of .“It might not be pleasant, but wearing a mask anytime you’re not in your own bedroom is the safest way to go,” said Solomon. Stay outside as much as possible, she added, and consider eating meals outdoors or eating in shifts to avoid being maskless does cialis lower blood pressure with those outside your family unit. Sanitize surfaces and wash hands frequently. If air quality permits, keep the windows open to improve airflow.If you’re in a region with hazardous does cialis lower blood pressure smoke conditions, should you leave?.

If your area has dense smoke but no imminent fire risk, the thought of heading somewhere else may be appealing, especially if you have respiratory issues. But in most cases, Wilkes said, it would be safer not to leave your erectile dysfunction treatment bubble does cialis lower blood pressure. And given the expanse of California’s fires, anywhere you flee could end up having lousy air quality by the time you arrive.“The better part of rationality,” Wilkes said, “would be to stay at home, not exercise [outdoors], stay inside as much as you can, turn on the air conditioning.”California Healthline senior correspondent Anna Maria Barry-Jester contributed to this report. Jenny does cialis lower blood pressure Gold.

jgold@kff.org, @JennyAGold Related Topics California Public Health States erectile dysfunction treatment Environmental Health Natural DisastersIn the 2014 elections, Republicans rode a wave of anti-Affordable Care Act sentiment to pick up nine Senate seats, the largest gain for either party since 1980. Newly elected Republicans such as Cory Gardner in Colorado and Steve Daines in Montana had hammered their Democratic opponents over the health care law during the campaign and promised to repeal it.Six years does cialis lower blood pressure later, those senators are up for reelection. Not only is the law still around, but it’s gaining in popularity. What was once a winning strategy has become a political liability.Public sentiment about the ACA, also does cialis lower blood pressure known as Obamacare, has shifted considerably during the Trump administration after Republicans tried but failed to repeal it.

Now, in the midst of the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis and the ensuing economic crisis, which has led to the loss of jobs and health insurance for millions of people, health care again looks poised to be a key issue for voters this election. Don't Miss A does cialis lower blood pressure Story Subscribe to KHN’s free Weekly Edition newsletter. With competitive races in Colorado, Montana, Arizona, North Carolina and Iowa pitting Republican incumbents who voted to repeal the ACA against Democratic challengers promising to protect it, attitudes surrounding the health law could help determine control of the Senate. Republicans hold a does cialis lower blood pressure slim three-vote majority in the Senate but are defending 23 seats in the Nov.

3 election. Only one Democratic Senate seat — in Alabama, where incumbent Doug Jones is up against former Auburn University football coach Tommy Tuberville — is considered in play for Republicans.“The fall election will significantly revolve around people’s belief does cialis lower blood pressure about what [candidates] will do for their health coverage,” said Dr. Daniel Derksen, a professor of public health at the University of Arizona.The Affordable Care Act has been a wedge issue since it was signed into law in 2010. Because it then took four years to enact, its opponents talked for years about how bad the not-yet-created marketplace for insurance would be, said Joe Hanel, spokesperson for the Colorado does cialis lower blood pressure Health Institute, a nonpartisan nonprofit focused on health policy analysis.

And they continued to attack the law as it took full effect in 2014.Gardner, for example, ran numerous campaign ads that year criticizing the ACA and, in particular, President Barack Obama’s assertion that “if you like your health does cialis lower blood pressure care plan, you’ll be able to keep your health care plan.”But now, Hanel said, the ACA’s policies have become much more popular in Colorado as the costs of health exchange plans have dropped. Thus, political messaging has changed, too.“This time it’s the opposite,” Hanel said. €œThe people bringing up the Affordable Care Act are the Democrats.”Despite does cialis lower blood pressure Gardner’s multiple votes to repeal the ACA, he has largely avoided talking about the measure during the 2020 campaign. He even removed his pro-repeal position from his campaign website.Democratic attack ads in July blasted Gardner for repeatedly dodging questions in an interview with Colorado Public Radio about his stance on a lawsuit challenging the ACA.His opponent, Democrat John Hickenlooper, fully embraced the law when he was Colorado governor, using the measure to expand Medicaid eligibility to more low-income people and to create a state health insurance exchange.

Now, he’s does cialis lower blood pressure campaigning on that record, with promises to expand health care access even further.Polling DataPolling conducted by KFF for the past 10 years shows a shift in public opinion has occurred nationwide. (KHN is an editorially independent program of KFF, the Kaiser Family Foundation.)“Since Trump won the election in 2016, we now have consistently found that a larger share of the public holds favorable views” of the health law, said Ashley Kirzinger, associate director of public opinion and survey research for the foundation. €œThis really solidified in 2017 after the failed repeal in the Senate.”The foundation’s polling found that, in July 2014, 55% of voters opposed the law, while 36% favored it. By July 2020, that had flipped, with 51% favoring the law and 38% opposing it.

A shift was seen across all political groups, though 74% of Republicans still viewed it unfavorably in the latest poll.Public support for individual provisions of the ACA — such as protections for people with preexisting conditions or allowing young adults to stay on their parents’ health plans until age 26 — have proved even more popular than the law as a whole. And the provision that consistently polled unfavorably — the mandate that those without insurance must pay a fine — was eliminated in 2017.“We’re 10 years along and the sky hasn’t caved in,” said Sabrina Corlette, a health policy professor at Georgetown University.Political MessagingFollowing the passage of the ACA, Democrats didn’t reference the law in their campaigns, said Erika Franklin Fowler, a government professor at Wesleyan University and the director of the Wesleyan Media Project, which tracks political advertising.“They ran on any other issue they could find,” Fowler said.Republicans, she said, kept promising to “repeal and replace” but weren’t able to do so.Then, in the 2018 election, Democrats seized on the shift in public opinion, touting the effects of the law and criticizing Republicans for their attempts to overturn it.“In the decade I have been tracking political advertising, there wasn’t a single-issue topic that was as prominent as health care was in 2018,” she said.As the global health crisis rages, health care concerns again dominate political ads in the 2020 races, Fowler said, although most ads haven’t explicitly focused on the ACA. Many highlight Republicans’ support for the lawsuit challenging preexisting condition protections or specific provisions of the ACA that their votes would have overturned. Republicans say they, too, will protect people with preexisting conditions but otherwise have largely avoided talking about the ACA.“Cory Gardner has been running a lot on his environmental bills and conservation funding,” Fowler said.

€œIt’s not difficult to figure out why he’s doing that. It’s easier for him to tout that in a state like Colorado than it is to talk about health care.”Similar dynamics are playing out in other key Senate races. In Arizona, Republican Sen. Martha McSally was one of the more vocal advocates of repealing the ACA while she served in the House of Representatives.

She publicly acknowledged those votes may have hurt her 2018 Senate bid.“I did vote to repeal and replace Obamacare,” McSally said on conservative pundit Sean Hannity’s radio show during the 2018 campaign. €œI’m getting my ass kicked for it right now.”She indeed lost but was appointed to fill the seat of Sen. Jon Kyl after he resigned at the end of 2018. Now McSally is in a tight race with Democratic challenger Mark Kelly, an astronaut and the husband of former Rep.

Gabby Giffords.“Kelly doesn’t have a track record of voting one way or another, but certainly in his campaign this is one of his top speaking points. What he would do to expand coverage and reassure people that coverage won’t be taken away,” said Derksen, the University of Arizona professor.The ACA has proved a stumbling block for Republican Sens. Thom Tillis of North Carolina and Joni Ernst of Iowa. In Maine, GOP Sen.

Susan Collins cast a key vote that prevented the repeal of the law but cast other votes that weakened it. She now also appears vulnerable — but more for her vote to confirm Brett Kavanaugh’s nomination to the Supreme Court and for not doing more to oppose President Donald Trump.In Montana, Daines, who voted to repeal the ACA, is trying to hold on to his seat against Democratic Gov. Steve Bullock, who used the law to expand the state’s Medicaid enrollment in 2015. At its peak, nearly 1 in 10 Montanans were covered through the expansion.As more Montanans now face the high cost of paying for health care on their own amid cialis-related job losses, Montana State University political science professor David Parker said he expects Democrats to talk about Daines’ votes to repeal cost-saving provisions of the ACA.“People are losing jobs, and their jobs bring health care with them,” Parker said.

€œI don’t think it’s a good space for Daines to be right now.” Markian Hawryluk. MarkianH@kff.org, @MarkianHawryluk Related Topics Elections Health Care Costs Health Care Reform Insurance States Arizona Colorado Montana North Carolina Obamacare Plans.

SOBRE NOTICIAS EN ESPAÑOLNoticias en español es una sección de Kaiser Health News que contiene traducciones de artículos de gran interés para la http://www.em-leonard-vinci-strasbourg.ac-strasbourg.fr/archives/nos-projets/salle-2/gouter-collectif-salle-2/ comunidad hispanohablante, y contenido original enfocado en la población buy cialis bitcoin hispana que vive en los Estados Unidos. Use buy cialis bitcoin Nuestro Contenido Este contenido puede usarse de manera gratuita (detalles). La temporada de influenza se verá diferente este año, ya que los Estados Unidos se enfrentan a una pandemia de erectile dysfunction que ya ha matado a más de 176.000 personas.Muchos estadounidenses son reacios a ir al médico y los funcionarios de salud pública temen que las personas eviten vacunarse.

Aunque a veces se considera incorrectamente como un resfriado, la gripe también mata a decenas de miles de personas en el país cada buy cialis bitcoin año. Los más vulnerables son los niños pequeños, los adultos mayores y las personas con enfermedades subyacentes. Cuando se combina buy cialis bitcoin con los efectos de erectile dysfunction treatment, los expertos en salud pública dicen que es más importante que nunca vacunarse contra la gripe.Si una cantidad suficiente de la población se vacuna, más del 45% lo hizo la temporada de gripe pasada, podría ayudar a evitar un escenario de pesadilla este invierno, con hospitales llenos de pacientes con erectile dysfunction treatment y los que sufren los efectos graves de la influenza.Además de la posible carga para los hospitales, existe la posibilidad de que las personas contraigan ambos cialis y “nadie sabe qué sucede si se contrae influenza y erectile dysfunction treatment simultáneamente porque nunca sucedió antes”, dijo la doctora Rachel Levine, secretaria de Salud de Pennsylvania, a reporteros.En respuesta, este año los fabricantes están produciendo más suministros de vacunas, entre 194 y 198 millones de dosis, unas 20 millones más de las que se distribuyeron la temporada pasada, según los Centros para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC).Mientras se acerca la temporada de gripe, aquí hay algunas respuestas a preguntas frecuentes:P.

¿Cuándo debo vacunarme contra la gripe?. La publicidad ya buy cialis bitcoin ha comenzado y algunas farmacias y clínicas ya tienen sus suministros. Pero, debido a que la efectividad de la vacuna puede disminuir con el tiempo, los CDC recomiendan no recibir la dosis en agosto.Muchas farmacias y clínicas comenzarán las inmunizaciones a principios de septiembre.

Generalmente, los cialis de la influenza buy cialis bitcoin comienzan a circular a mediados o fines de octubre, pero se expanden masivamente más tarde, en el invierno. Se necesitan aproximadamente dos semanas después de recibir la inyección para que los anticuerpos, que circulan en la sangre y frustran las infecciones, se acumulen.“Las personas jóvenes y sanas pueden comenzar a vacunarse contra la gripe en septiembre, y las personas mayores y otras poblaciones vulnerables pueden hacerlo en octubre”, dijo el doctor Steve Miller, director clínico de la aseguradora Cigna.Los CDC recomiendan que las personas “se vacunen contra la influenza a fines de octubre”, pero señalaron que se puede recibir la vacuna más tarde porque “aún puede ser beneficiosas y la vacunación debe ofrecerse a lo largo de toda la temporada de influenza”.Aun así, algunos expertos recomiendan no esperar demasiado este año, no solo por erectile dysfunction treatment, sino también en caso de que haya escasez debido a la abrumadora demanda.P. ¿Cuáles son las razones por las que las que debería ofrecer mi brazo para buy cialis bitcoin vacunarme?.

Hay que vacunarse porque brinda protección contra la gripe y, por lo tanto, contra la propagación a otras personas, lo que puede ayudar a disminuir la carga para los hospitales y el personal médico.Y hay otro mensaje que puede resonar en estos tiempos extraños.“Le da a la gente la sensación de que hay algunas cosas que pueden controlar”, dijo Eduardo Sánchez, director médico de prevención de la American Heart Association.Si bien una vacuna contra la gripe no evitará erectile dysfunction treatment, recibirla podría ayudar al médico a diferenciar entre las dos enfermedades si se desarrolla algún síntoma (fiebre, tos, dolor de garganta) que ambas infecciones comparten, explicó Sánchez.Y aunque las vacunas contra la gripe no evitarán todos los casos de gripe, vacunarse puede reducir la gravedad si la persona se enferma, dijo.Todas las personas elegibles, especialmente los trabajadores esenciales, los que sufren de afecciones subyacentes y aquellos en mayor riesgo, incluidos los niños muy pequeños y las mujeres embarazadas, deben buscar protección, dijeron los CDC. La entidad recomienda la vacunación a partir de buy cialis bitcoin los 6 meses.P. ¿Qué sabemos sobre la efectividad de la vacuna de este año?.

Se deben producir nuevas vacunas contra la buy cialis bitcoin gripe cada año, porque el cialis muta y la efectividad de la vacuna varía, dependiendo de qué tan bien coincida con el cialis circulante.Se calculó que la formulación del año pasado tuvo una eficacia de aproximadamente un 45% para prevenir la gripe en general, con una efectividad de aproximadamente un 55% en los niños. Las vacunas disponibles en el país este año tienen como objetivo prevenir al menos tres cepas diferentes del cialis, y la mayoría cubre cuatro.Todavía no se sabe qué tan bien coincidirá el suministro de este año con las cepas que circularán en los Estados Unidos. Las primeras indicaciones del hemisferio sur, que atraviesa su temporada de gripe durante nuestro verano, buy cialis bitcoin son alentadoras.

Allí, las personas practicaron el distanciamiento social, usaron máscaras y se vacunaron en mayor número este año, y los niveles mundiales de gripe son más bajos de lo esperado. Sin embargo, expertos advierten que no se debe contar con buy cialis bitcoin una temporada igual de suave en los Estados Unidos, en parte porque los esfuerzos por usar mascara facial y de distanciamiento social varían ampliamente.P. ¿Qué están haciendo diferente los seguros y sistemas de salud este año?.

Las aseguradoras y los sistemas de salud contactados por KHN dicen que seguirán las pautas de los CDC, que exigen limitar y espaciar la cantidad de personas que esperan en las filas buy cialis bitcoin y las áreas de vacunación. Algunos están programando citas para vacunas contra la gripe para ayudar a controlar el flujo.Health Fitness Concepts, una compañía que trabaja con UnitedHealth Group y otras empresas para establecer clínicas de vacunación contra la gripe en el noreste del país, dijo que está “fomentando eventos más pequeños y frecuentes para apoyar el distanciamiento social” y “exigiendo que se completen todos los formularios y arremangarse las camisas antes de entrar al área de vacunación contra la influenza”.Se requerirá que todos usen máscaras.Además, a nivel nacional, algunos grupos médicos contratados por UnitedHealth instalarán carpas, para que las inyecciones se puedan administrar al aire libre, dijo un vocero.Kaiser Permanente planifica las vacunas directamente en autos en algunos de sus centros médicos y está probando los procedimientos de detección y registro sin contacto en algunos lugares.Geisinger Health, un proveedor de salud regional en Pennsylvania y Nueva Jersey, dijo que también tendría programas de vacunación contra la influenza al aire libre en sus instalaciones.Además, “Geisinger exige que todos los empleados reciban la vacuna contra la influenza este año”, dijo Mark Shelly, director de prevención y control de infecciones del sistema. €œAl dar este paso, esperamos transmitir a nuestros vecinos la importancia de la vacuna contra la influenza buy cialis bitcoin para todos”.P.

Por lo general, me vacunan contra la gripe en el trabajo. ¿Seguirá siendo una opción este buy cialis bitcoin año?. Con el objetivo de evitar riesgosas reuniones en interiores, muchos empleadores se muestran reacios a patrocinar las clínicas de gripe en oficinas como han ofrecido en años anteriores.

Y con tanta gente que sigue trabajando desde casa, hay menos necesidad buy cialis bitcoin de llevar las vacunas contra la gripe al lugar de trabajo. En cambio, muchos empleadores están alentando a los trabajadores a que reciban vacunas de sus médicos de atención primaria, en farmacias u otros entornos comunitarios. El seguro generalmente cubrirá el costo de la vacuna.Algunos empleadores están considerando ofrecer cupones para vacunas contra la gripe a sus trabajadores sin seguro o a aquellos que no participan en el plan médico de la compañía, dijo Julie Stone, directora general de salud y beneficios de Willis Towers Watson, una firma consultora.Estos cupones podrían, por ejemplo, permitir a los trabajadores obtener la vacuna buy cialis bitcoin en un laboratorio en particular sin costo.Algunos empleadores están comenzando a pensar en cómo podrían usar sus estacionamientos para administrar vacunas contra la gripe enlos autos, dijo el doctor David Zieg, líder de servicios clínicos para el consultor de beneficios Mercer.Aunque la ley federal permite a los empleadores exigir a los empleados que se vacunen contra la gripe, ese paso generalmente lo toman solo los centros de atención médica y algunas universidades donde las personas viven y trabajan en estrecha colaboración, dijo Zieg.Pero sucede.

El mes pasado, el sistema de la Universidad de California buy cialis bitcoin emitió una orden ejecutiva que requiere que todos los estudiantes, profesores y personal se vacunen contra la gripe antes del 1 de noviembre, con limitadas excepciones.P. ¿Qué están haciendo las farmacias para alentar a las personas a vacunarse contra la gripe?. Algunas farmacias están haciendo un esfuerzo adicional para salir a la comunidad y ofrecer vacunas contra la gripe.Walgreens, que tiene casi 9,100 farmacias en todo el país, continúa una asociación iniciada en 2015 con organizaciones comunitarias, iglesias y empleadores que ha ofrecido alrededor de 150,000 clínicas de gripe móviles hasta la fecha.El programa pone especial énfasis en trabajar con poblaciones vulnerables y en áreas desatendidas, dijo el doctor Kevin Ban, director médico de la cadena de farmacias.Walgreens comenzó a ofrecer vacunas buy cialis bitcoin contra la gripe a mediados de agosto y está animando a las personas a no demorar en vacunarse.Tanto Walgreens como CVS están estimulando a las personas a programar citas y hacer trámites en línea este año para minimizar el tiempo que pasan en los locales.En los CVS MinuteClinic, una vez que los pacientes se han registrado para recibir la vacuna contra la gripe, deben esperar afuera o en su automóvil, ya que las áreas de espera interiores ahora están cerradas.“No tenemos un arsenal contra erectile dysfunction treatment”, dijo Ban, de Walgreens.

€œPero quitar la presión del sistema de atención médica proporcionando vacunas por adelantado es algo que sí podemos hacer”. Julie buy cialis bitcoin Appleby. jappleby@kff.org, @Julie_Appleby Michelle Andrews.

andrews.khn@gmail.com, @mandrews110 Related Topics Insurance Noticias En Español Public Health CDC buy cialis bitcoin erectile dysfunction treatment Insurers treatmentsThis story was produced in partnership with PolitiFact. This story can be republished for free (details). President Donald Trump accepted the Republican Party’s nomination for president in a 70-minute speech from the South Lawn of the White House on Thursday night.Speaking to a friendly crowd that didn’t appear to be observing social distancing conventions, and with few participants wearing masks, he touched on a range of topics, including many related to the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis and health care in general.Throughout, the partisan crowd applauded and chanted “Four more years!. € And, buy cialis bitcoin even as the nation’s erectile dysfunction treatment death toll exceeded 180,000, Trump was upbeat.

€œIn recent months, our nation and the entire planet has been struck by a new and powerful invisible enemy,” he said. €œLike those brave Americans before us, we are meeting this challenge.”At the end of the event, there were fireworks.Our partners at PolitiFact did an in-depth fact check on Trump’s entire acceptance buy cialis bitcoin speech. Here are the highlights related to the administration’s erectile dysfunction treatment response and other health policy issues:“We developed, from scratch, the largest and most advanced testing system in the world.” This is partially right, but it needs context.It’s accurate that the U.S.

Developed its erectile dysfunction treatment testing system from scratch, because the government didn’t accept the World Health Organization’s testing buy cialis bitcoin recipe. But whether the system is the “largest” or “most advanced” is subject to debate.The U.S. Has tested more individuals than buy cialis bitcoin any other country.

But experts told us a more meaningful metric would be the percentage of positive tests out of all tests, indicating that not only sick people were getting tested. Another useful buy cialis bitcoin metric would be the percentage of the population that has been tested. The U.S.

Is one of the most populous buy cialis bitcoin countries but has tested a lower percentage of its population than other countries. Don't Miss A Story Subscribe to KHN’s free Weekly Edition newsletter. The buy cialis bitcoin U.S.

Was also slower than other countries in rolling out tests and amping up testing capacity. Even now, many states are experiencing delays in reporting test results to positive individuals.As for “the most advanced,” Trump may be referring to new testing investments and systems, like Abbott’s recently announced $5, 15-minute rapid antigen test, which the company says will be about the size of a buy cialis bitcoin credit card, needs no instrumentation and comes with a phone app through which people can view their results. But Trump’s comment makes it sound as if these testing systems are already in place when they haven’t been distributed to the public.“The United States has among the lowest [erectile dysfunction treatment] case fatality rates of any major country in the world.

The European Union’s case fatality rate is nearly three times higher than ours.”The case fatality rate measures the known number of cases against the known number of deaths buy cialis bitcoin. The European Union has a rate that’s about 2½ times greater than the United States.But the source of that data, Oxford University’s Our World in Data project, reports that “during an outbreak of a cialis, the case fatality rate is a poor measure of the mortality risk of the disease.”A better way to measure the threat of the cialis, experts say, is to look at the number of deaths per 100,000 residents. Viewed that buy cialis bitcoin way, the U.S.

Has the 10th-highest death rate in the world.“We will produce a treatment before the end of the year, or maybe even sooner.”It’s far from guaranteed that a erectile dysfunction treatment will be ready before the end of the year.While researchers are making rapid strides, it’s not yet known precisely when the treatment will be available to the public, which is what’s most important. Six treatments are in the third phase of testing, which involves buy cialis bitcoin thousands of patients. Like earlier phases, this one looks at the buy cialis bitcoin safety of a treatment but also examines its effectiveness and collects more data on side effects.

Results of the third phase will be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration for approval.The government website Operation Warp Speed seems less optimistic than Trump, announcing it “aims to deliver 300 million doses of a safe, effective treatment for erectile dysfunction treatment by January 2021.”And federal health officials and other experts have generally predicted a treatment will be available in early 2021. Federal committees buy cialis bitcoin are working on recommendations for treatment distribution, including which groups should get it first. €œFrom everything we’ve seen now — in the animal data, as well as the human data — we feel cautiously optimistic that we will have a treatment by the end of this year and as we go into 2021,” said Dr.

Anthony Fauci, the nation’s buy cialis bitcoin top infectious diseases expert. €œI don’t think it’s dreaming.”“Last month, I took on Big Pharma. You think that is buy cialis bitcoin easy?.

I signed orders that would massively lower the cost of your prescription drugs.”Quite misleading. Trump signed four executive orders on July 24 aimed at lowering prescription drug prices buy cialis bitcoin. But those orders haven’t taken effect yet — the text of one hasn’t even been made publicly available — and experts told us that, if implemented, the measures would be unlikely to result in significant drug price reductions for the majority of Americans.“We will always and very strongly protect patients with preexisting conditions, and that is a pledge from the entire Republican Party.”Trump’s pledge is undermined by his efforts to overturn the Affordable Care Act, the only law that guarantees people with preexisting conditions both receive health coverage and do not have to pay more for it than others do.

In 2017, Trump supported congressional buy cialis bitcoin efforts to repeal the ACA. The Trump administration is now backing GOP-led efforts to overturn the ACA through a court case. And Trump has also expanded short-term health plans that don’t have to comply with the ACA.“Joe Biden recently raised his hand on the debate stage and promised he was going to give it away, your health care dollars to illegal immigrants, which is going to bring a massive number of buy cialis bitcoin immigrants into our country.”This is misleading.

During a June 2019 Democratic primary debate, candidates were asked. €œRaise your hand if your government plan would provide coverage for buy cialis bitcoin undocumented immigrants.” All candidates on stage, including Biden, raised their hands. They were not asked if that coverage would be free or subsidized.Biden supports extending health care access to all immigrants, regardless of immigration status.

A task force recommended that he allow immigrants who are in the country illegally to buy health insurance, without federal subsidies.“Joe Biden claims he has empathy for the vulnerable, yet the party he leads supports buy cialis bitcoin the extreme late-term abortion of defenseless babies right up to the moment of birth.”This mischaracterizes the Democratic Party’s stance on abortion and Biden’s position.Biden has said he would codify the Supreme Court’s ruling in Roe v. Wade and related precedents. This would generally limit abortions to buy cialis bitcoin the first 20 to 24 weeks of gestation.

States are allowed under court rulings to ban abortion after the point at which a fetus can sustain life, usually considered to be between 24 and 28 weeks from the mother’s last menstrual period — and 43 states do. But the rulings require states to make exceptions “to preserve the life or health buy cialis bitcoin of the mother.” Late-term abortions are very rare, about 1%.The Democratic Party platform holds that “every woman should have access to quality reproductive health care services, including safe and legal abortion — regardless of where she lives, how much money she makes, or how she is insured.” It does not address late-term abortion.PolitiFact’s Daniel Funke, Jon Greenberg, Louis Jacobson, Noah Y. Kim, Bill McCarthy, Samantha Putterman, Amy Sherman, Miriam Valverde and KHN reporter Victoria Knight contributed to this report.

Related Topics Elections Health Industry Pharmaceuticals Public Health The Health Law Abortion erectile dysfunction treatment buy cialis bitcoin Immigrants KHN &. PolitiFact HealthCheck Preexisting Conditions Trump Administration treatmentsThis story also ran on CNN. This story can be republished for free (details). Flu season will look different this year, as the country grapples with a erectile dysfunction cialis that has killed more than 172,000 people. Many Americans are reluctant to visit a doctor’s office and public health officials worry people will shy away from being immunized.Although sometimes incorrectly regarded as just another bad cold, flu buy cialis bitcoin also kills tens of thousands of people in the U.S.

Each year, with the very young, the elderly and those with underlying conditions the most vulnerable. When coupled with the effects of erectile dysfunction treatment, public health experts say it’s more important than ever to get a buy cialis bitcoin flu shot.If enough of the U.S. Population gets vaccinated — more than the 45% who did last flu season — it could help head off a nightmare scenario in the coming winter of hospitals stuffed with both erectile dysfunction treatment patients and those suffering from severe effects of influenza.Aside from the potential burden on hospitals, there’s the possibility people could get both cialises — and “no one knows what happens if you get influenza and erectile dysfunction treatment [simultaneously] because it’s never happened before,” Dr.

Rachel Levine, Pennsylvania’s secretary of health, told buy cialis bitcoin reporters this month.In response, manufacturers are producing more treatment supply this year, between 194 million and 198 million doses, or about 20 million more than they distributed last season, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Email Sign-Up Subscribe to KHN’s free Morning Briefing buy cialis bitcoin. As flu season approaches, here are some answers to a few common questions:Q.

When should I buy cialis bitcoin get my flu shot?. Advertising has already begun, and some pharmacies and clinics have their supplies now. But, because the effectiveness of the treatment can buy cialis bitcoin wane over time, the CDC recommends against a shot in August.Many pharmacies and clinics will start immunizations in early September.

Generally, influenza cialises start circulating in mid- to late October but become more widespread later, in the winter. It takes about two weeks after getting a shot for antibodies — which circulate in the blood and thwart s — to build buy cialis bitcoin up. €œYoung, healthy people can begin getting their flu shots in September, and elderly people and other vulnerable populations can begin in October,” said Dr.

Steve Miller, chief clinical officer for insurer Cigna.The CDC buy cialis bitcoin has recommended that people “get a flu treatment by the end of October,” but noted it’s not too late to get one after that because shots “can still be beneficial and vaccination should be offered throughout the flu season.”Even so, some experts say not to wait too long this year — not only because of erectile dysfunction treatment, but also in case a shortage develops because of overwhelming demand.Q. What are the reasons I should roll up my sleeve for this?. Get a shot because it protects you from catching the flu and spreading it to others, which may help lessen the burden on hospitals and medical staffs.And there’s another message that may resonate in this strange time.“It gives people a sense that there are some things you can control,” said Eduardo Sanchez, chief medical officer for prevention at the American Heart Association.While a flu shot won’t prevent erectile dysfunction treatment, he said, getting one could help your doctors differentiate between the diseases if you develop any symptoms — fever, cough, sore throat — they share.And even though flu shots won’t prevent all cases of the flu, getting vaccinated can lessen the severity if you do fall ill, he said.You cannot get influenza from having a flu treatment.All eligible people, especially essential workers, those with underlying conditions and those at higher risk — including very young children and pregnant women — should seek protection, the CDC said buy cialis bitcoin.

It recommends that children over 6 months old get vaccinated.Q. What do we know buy cialis bitcoin about the effectiveness of this year’s treatment?. Flu treatments — which must be developed anew each year because influenza cialises mutate — range in effectiveness annually, depending on how well they match the circulating cialis.

Last year’s formulation was estimated to be about 45% effective in preventing the flu buy cialis bitcoin overall, with about a 55% effectiveness in children. The treatments available in the U.S. This year are aimed at preventing at least three strains of the cialis, and most cover four.It isn’t yet known how well this year’s supply will match the strains that will circulate in the buy cialis bitcoin U.S.

Early indications from the Southern Hemisphere, which goes through its flu season during our summer, are encouraging. There, people practiced social distancing, wore masks and got vaccinated in greater buy cialis bitcoin numbers this year — and global flu levels are lower than expected. Experts caution, however, not to count on a similarly mild season in the U.S., in part because masking and social distancing efforts vary widely.Q.

What are insurance plans and health systems doing buy cialis bitcoin differently this year?. Insurers and health systems contacted by KHN say they will follow CDC guidelines, which call for limiting and spacing out the number of people waiting in lines and vaccination areas. Some are buy cialis bitcoin setting appointments for flu shots to help manage the flow.Health Fitness Concepts, a company that works with UnitedHealth Group and other businesses to set up flu shot clinics in the Northeast, said it is “encouraging smaller, more frequent events to support social distancing” and “requiring all forms to be completed and shirtsleeves rolled up before entering the flu shot area.” Everyone will be required to wear masks.Also, nationally, some physician groups contracted with UnitedHealth will set up tent areas so shots can be given outdoors, a spokesperson said.Kaiser Permanente plans drive-thru vaccinations at some of its medical facilities and is testing touch-free screening and check-in procedures at some locations.

(KHN is not affiliated with Kaiser Permanente.)Geisinger Health, a regional health provider in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, said it, too, would have outdoor flu vaccination programs at its facilities.Additionally, “Geisinger is making it mandatory for all employees to receive the flu treatment this year,” said Mark Shelly, the system’s director of prevention and control. €œBy taking this step, buy cialis bitcoin we hope to convey to our neighbors the importance of the flu treatment for everyone.”Q. Usually I get a flu shot at work.

Will that be an option this year? buy cialis bitcoin. Aiming to avoid risky indoor gatherings, many employers are reluctant to sponsor the on-site flu clinics they’ve offered in years past. And with buy cialis bitcoin so many people continuing to work from home, there’s less need to bring flu shots to employees on the job.

Instead, many employers are encouraging workers to get shots from their primary care buy cialis bitcoin doctors, at pharmacies or in other community settings. Insurance will generally cover the cost of the treatment.Some employers are considering offering vouchers for flu shots to their uninsured workers or those who don’t participate in the company plan, said Julie Stone, managing director for health and benefits at Willis Towers Watson, a consulting firm. The vouchers could allow workers to get the shot at a particular lab at no cost, for example.Some employers are starting to think about buy cialis bitcoin how they might use their parking lots for administering drive-thru flu shots, said Dr.

David Zieg, clinical services leader for benefits consultant Mercer.Although federal law allows employers to require employees to get flu shots, that step is typically taken only by health care facilities and some universities where people live and work closely together, Zieg said.Q. What are pharmacies doing to encourage people to get flu shots? buy cialis bitcoin. Some pharmacies are making an extra push to get out into the community to offer flu shots.Walgreens, which has nearly 9,100 pharmacies nationwide, is continuing a partnership begun in 2015 with community organizations, churches and employers that has offered about 150,000 off-site and mobile flu clinics to date.The program places a special emphasis on working with vulnerable populations and in underserved areas, said Dr.

Kevin Ban, chief buy cialis bitcoin medical officer for the drugstore chain.Walgreens began offering flu shots in mid-August and is encouraging people not to delay getting vaccinated.Both Walgreens and CVS are encouraging people to schedule appointments and do paperwork online this year to minimize time spent in the stores.At CVS MinuteClinic locations, once patients have checked in for their flu shot, they must wait outside or in their car, since the indoor waiting areas are now closed.“We don’t have tons of arrows in our quiver against erectile dysfunction treatment,” Walgreens’ Ban said. €œTaking pressure off the health care system by providing treatments in advance is one thing we can do.” Julie Appleby. jappleby@kff.org, @Julie_Appleby Michelle Andrews buy cialis bitcoin.

andrews.khn@gmail.com, @mandrews110 Related Topics Insurance Public Health erectile dysfunction treatment Insurers treatmentsUse Our Content This story can be republished for free (details). As the smoke thickened near her home in Santa Cruz, California, last week, Amanda Smith kept asking herself the same questions. Should we buy cialis bitcoin leave?. And where would we go?.

The wildfire evacuation zone, at buy cialis bitcoin the time, ended a few blocks from her house. But she worried about what the air quality — which had reached the second-highest warning level, purple for “very unhealthy” — would do to her children’s lungs. Her 4-year-old twins had spent time in the buy cialis bitcoin neonatal intensive care unit.

One was later diagnosed with asthma, and last year was hospitalized with pneumonia.By Tuesday, said Smith, “we all had headaches, the kids were coughing a little bit, and it was raining ash.” The family had been conscientiously isolating at home because of the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis, and leaving meant potential exposures. But on Wednesday, Smith said, “I looked at my partner and said, buy cialis bitcoin maybe we should leave.”She called a friend in Orange County, about 380 miles south, who offered her parents’ empty condo. But the next day, the friend’s child spiked a fever — a possible case of erectile dysfunction treatment — and the plan fell through amid the distraction.Amanda Smith takes a selfie of herself and her twin children in Santa Cruz, California, in April.

(Amanda Smith)So Smith looked on Airbnb, careful to seek out hosts who detailed buy cialis bitcoin their erectile dysfunction treatment precautions, and found an apartment in San Bruno, about an hour’s drive north. She stuffed photos and documents into a suitcase, grabbed the go-bags, and her family headed out.“It’s coming out of our savings to stay here,” Smith said from the safety of her apartment rental, which runs about $1,150 a week. €œIt was a really fraught decision to leave, but as soon as we got over the hill and the sky was blue, I took a big sigh of relief and knew that it had been a good decision.”As the twin disasters of erectile dysfunction treatment and fire season sweep through California, thousands of residents like Smith are weighing difficult options, pitting risk against risk as they decide where to evacuate, whether from imminent buy cialis bitcoin flames or the toxic air.

Amid a virulent cialis, which is safest?. Doubling up buy cialis bitcoin at a friend’s home?. A hotel?.

An buy cialis bitcoin evacuation center?. And when do the risks of smoke inhalation outweigh the risk of a deadly ?. €œObviously the most important thing is for people to do what they can to protect their lives, not only from the fire, but also from erectile dysfunction treatment,” said Detective Rosemerry Blankswade, public information officer for the San Mateo County Sheriff’s Office, which is helping coordinate response to the massive CZU Lightning Complex fires.“You have to evaluate buy cialis bitcoin the big picture here.

If fire is your most imminent danger, maybe take the erectile dysfunction treatment risk. But if you can avoid both of them, that’s obviously going to buy cialis bitcoin be the best option. It’s kind of a little bit of triage that we’re asking for people to do in their own lives right now.” Email Sign-Up Subscribe to buy cialis bitcoin KHN’s free Morning Briefing.

In San Mateo, one of two counties where the CZU Lightning Complex fires are blazing, officials are advising people to head to an evacuation center, where county workers will assist them in finding a hotel room. Meanwhile, in neighboring Santa Cruz, where tens of thousands of residents have evacuated and shelters have limited space, officials are asking those under orders to leave to stay with family and friends whenever possible.What’s the right buy cialis bitcoin choice when all options pose additional risks?. We spoke with several experts to help guide your thought process.You have to evacuate.

Where should you buy cialis bitcoin go?. If your region is under an evacuation order, do not hesitate. Leave immediately buy cialis bitcoin.

If you can afford it, booking a room at a hotel or motel outside the evacuation zones may be the best option, said Dr. Michael Wilkes, a professor at the buy cialis bitcoin University of California-Davis School of Medicine. They almost always have air-conditioning units, which help filter the air from both smoke and cialis.

Many hotels are implementing new buy cialis bitcoin cleaning processes. Ask staffers to detail what they’re doing to sanitize rooms, and consider skipping the daily cleaning service during your stay. You might also check review sites such as TripAdvisor to see buy cialis bitcoin what other guests report.

When possible, avoid the lobby and other shared spaces, and opt for contactless check-in.Amanda Smith at home in Santa Cruz, California, with her twin children. Smith and buy cialis bitcoin her family decided to voluntarily evacuate their home on Aug. 20, due to heavy smoke in the area from the CZU Lightning Complex fires in the nearby Santa Cruz Mountains.

(Anna Maria Barry-Jester/KHN)With so many people in Northern California fleeing the fires, many hotels are already buy cialis bitcoin full, especially in more remote areas. So what about staying with family or friends?. After months of being shut in and avoiding close contact beyond immediate family, moving into someone else’s home means a host buy cialis bitcoin of potential exposures.

Consider whether you or anyone else in the home is at high risk from erectile dysfunction treatment because of age or a preexisting condition.“If so, that’s a reason to think twice before going to someone’s home,” said Dr. Gina Solomon, buy cialis bitcoin a program director at the Oakland-based Public Health Institute.Consider, too, what precautions your friends or family have been taking. Sheltering with someone whose job brings them into frequent contact with other people may not be as safe as sheltering with people who largely have been staying home.

Another question is how crowded the buy cialis bitcoin home is. If you have your own room and, preferably, your own bathroom, that makes staying with friends a better option. If a separate bedroom is not available and smoky skies are not a problem, you might consider pitching a tent in their backyard.For those with an RV buy cialis bitcoin or tent, camping can present another good option — although, with hundreds of wildfires burning across California, it may be challenging to drive far enough away to avoid fire and smoke.

If you do camp, try to find a site away from wooded areas. And think twice before using group bathrooms.Is an buy cialis bitcoin evacuation center safe?. Many counties have implemented new precautions at emergency shelters to prevent the spread of the erectile dysfunction.

In Santa Cruz, for example, officials are scaling back the capacity in each shelter to allow for social distancing, providing tents for people to use as shielding inside and allowing camping in buy cialis bitcoin the parking lots.Still, staying in a shelter should probably not be your first choice. In terms of erectile dysfunction treatment risk, deciding between a hotel and buy cialis bitcoin a friend’s house is “nipping at the edges,” said Dr. John Swartzberg, a clinical professor emeritus at the UC-Berkeley School of Public Health, while “being in a congregate setting is only better than being completely exposed to the elements.”If an evacuation shelter is your best immediate option, again, do not hesitate.

€œYou have these standards you want to practice for yourselves,” Swartzberg buy cialis bitcoin said, “but when something worse comes along, it trumps how careful we can be with erectile dysfunction treatment because the need for shelter is greater.” You can lower your risk of by wearing a mask, washing hands frequently and sanitizing surfaces.Smith’s partner, Grant Whipple, walks with their children in Big Sur on March 7. That was their last camping trip before the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis hit, Smith says. That area buy cialis bitcoin is now under threat from wildfire.

(Amanda Smith)If you aren’t in a fire zone, should you invite friends and family to stay with you?. Deciding whether buy cialis bitcoin to open your home to friends who are evacuating is an intensely personal decision and may depend on whether anyone in your family has a preexisting condition.“I guess it depends on how good a friend they are and how desperate they are,” said Swartzberg. It may also depend on how much space you have.

If your guests can have their own bedroom and bathroom, it might be safer.If you do offer your home, experts advise against simply buy cialis bitcoin considering yourself a new pod with your guests. Instead, take steps to lower your chances of .“It might not be pleasant, but wearing a mask anytime you’re not in your own bedroom is the safest way to go,” said Solomon. Stay outside as much as possible, she added, and buy cialis bitcoin consider eating meals outdoors or eating in shifts to avoid being maskless with those outside your family unit.

Sanitize surfaces and wash hands frequently. If air quality permits, keep the windows open to improve airflow.If you’re in a region buy cialis bitcoin with hazardous smoke conditions, should you leave?. If your area has dense smoke but no imminent fire risk, the thought of heading somewhere else may be appealing, especially if you have respiratory issues.

But in buy cialis bitcoin most cases, Wilkes said, it would be safer not to leave your erectile dysfunction treatment bubble. And given the expanse of California’s fires, anywhere you flee could end up having lousy air quality by the time you arrive.“The better part of rationality,” Wilkes said, “would be to stay at home, not exercise [outdoors], stay inside as much as you can, turn on the air conditioning.”California Healthline senior correspondent Anna Maria Barry-Jester contributed to this report. Jenny Gold buy cialis bitcoin.

jgold@kff.org, @JennyAGold Related Topics California Public Health States erectile dysfunction treatment Environmental Health Natural DisastersIn the 2014 elections, Republicans rode a wave of anti-Affordable Care Act sentiment to pick up nine Senate seats, the largest gain for either party since 1980. Newly elected Republicans such as Cory Gardner in Colorado and Steve Daines in Montana had hammered their Democratic opponents over the health care law during buy cialis bitcoin the campaign and promised to repeal it.Six years later, those senators are up for reelection. Not only is the law still around, but it’s gaining in popularity.

What was once a winning strategy has become a political liability.Public sentiment about the ACA, also known as buy cialis bitcoin Obamacare, has shifted considerably during the Trump administration after Republicans tried but failed to repeal it. Now, in the midst of the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis and the ensuing economic crisis, which has led to the loss of jobs and health insurance for millions of people, health care again looks poised to be a key issue for voters this election. Don't Miss A Story buy cialis bitcoin Subscribe to KHN’s free Weekly Edition newsletter.

With competitive races in Colorado, Montana, Arizona, North Carolina and Iowa pitting Republican incumbents who voted to repeal the ACA against Democratic challengers promising to protect it, attitudes surrounding the health law could help determine control of the Senate. Republicans hold a slim buy cialis bitcoin three-vote majority in the Senate but are defending 23 seats in the Nov. 3 election.

Only one Democratic Senate seat — in Alabama, where incumbent Doug Jones is up against former Auburn University football coach Tommy Tuberville — is considered in play for Republicans.“The fall election will significantly revolve around people’s belief about what [candidates] will do for their health coverage,” said buy cialis bitcoin Dr. Daniel Derksen, a professor of public health at the University of Arizona.The Affordable Care Act has been a wedge issue since it was signed into law in 2010. Because it then took four years to enact, its opponents talked for years about how bad buy cialis bitcoin the not-yet-created marketplace for insurance would be, said Joe Hanel, spokesperson for the Colorado Health Institute, a nonpartisan nonprofit focused on health policy analysis.

And they continued to attack buy cialis bitcoin the law as it took full effect in 2014.Gardner, for example, ran numerous campaign ads that year criticizing the ACA and, in particular, President Barack Obama’s assertion that “if you like your health care plan, you’ll be able to keep your health care plan.”But now, Hanel said, the ACA’s policies have become much more popular in Colorado as the costs of health exchange plans have dropped. Thus, political messaging has changed, too.“This time it’s the opposite,” Hanel said. €œThe people bringing up the Affordable Care Act are the Democrats.”Despite Gardner’s multiple votes to repeal the ACA, he has largely buy cialis bitcoin avoided talking about the measure during the 2020 campaign.

He even removed his pro-repeal position from his campaign website.Democratic attack ads in July blasted Gardner for repeatedly dodging questions in an interview with Colorado Public Radio about his stance on a lawsuit challenging the ACA.His opponent, Democrat John Hickenlooper, fully embraced the law when he was Colorado governor, using the measure to expand Medicaid eligibility to more low-income people and to create a state health insurance exchange. Now, he’s campaigning on that record, with promises to expand health care access even further.Polling DataPolling conducted by KFF for the past 10 years shows a shift in public opinion has occurred nationwide. (KHN is an editorially independent program of KFF, the Kaiser Family Foundation.)“Since Trump won the election in 2016, we now have consistently found that a larger share of the public holds favorable views” of the health law, said Ashley Kirzinger, associate director of public opinion and survey research for the foundation.

€œThis really solidified in 2017 after the failed repeal in the Senate.”The foundation’s polling found that, in July 2014, 55% of voters opposed the law, while 36% favored it. By July 2020, that had flipped, with 51% favoring the law and 38% opposing it. A shift was seen across all political groups, though 74% of Republicans still viewed it unfavorably in the latest poll.Public support for individual provisions of the ACA — such as protections for people with preexisting conditions or allowing young adults to stay on their parents’ health plans until age 26 — have proved even more popular than the law as a whole.

And the provision that consistently polled unfavorably — the mandate that those without insurance must pay a fine — was eliminated in 2017.“We’re 10 years along and the sky hasn’t caved in,” said Sabrina Corlette, a health policy professor at Georgetown University.Political MessagingFollowing the passage of the ACA, Democrats didn’t reference the law in their campaigns, said Erika Franklin Fowler, a government professor at Wesleyan University and the director of the Wesleyan Media Project, which tracks political advertising.“They ran on any other issue they could find,” Fowler said.Republicans, she said, kept promising to “repeal and replace” but weren’t able to do so.Then, in the 2018 election, Democrats seized on the shift in public opinion, touting the effects of the law and criticizing Republicans for their attempts to overturn it.“In the decade I have been tracking political advertising, there wasn’t a single-issue topic that was as prominent as health care was in 2018,” she said.As the global health crisis rages, health care concerns again dominate political ads in the 2020 races, Fowler said, although most ads haven’t explicitly focused on the ACA. Many highlight Republicans’ support for the lawsuit challenging preexisting condition protections or specific provisions of the ACA that their votes would have overturned. Republicans say they, too, will protect people with preexisting conditions but otherwise have largely avoided talking about the ACA.“Cory Gardner has been running a lot on his environmental bills and conservation funding,” Fowler said.

€œIt’s not difficult to figure out why he’s doing that. It’s easier for him to tout that in a state like Colorado than it is to talk about health care.”Similar dynamics are playing out in other key Senate races. In Arizona, Republican Sen.

Martha McSally was one of the more vocal advocates of repealing the ACA while she served in the House of Representatives. She publicly acknowledged those votes may have hurt her 2018 Senate bid.“I did vote to repeal and replace Obamacare,” McSally said on conservative pundit Sean Hannity’s radio show during the 2018 campaign. €œI’m getting my ass kicked for it right now.”She indeed lost but was appointed to fill the seat of Sen.

Jon Kyl after he resigned at the end of 2018. Now McSally is in a tight race with Democratic challenger Mark Kelly, an astronaut and the husband of former Rep. Gabby Giffords.“Kelly doesn’t have a track record of voting one way or another, but certainly in his campaign this is one of his top speaking points.

What he would do to expand coverage and reassure people that coverage won’t be taken away,” said Derksen, the University of Arizona professor.The ACA has proved a stumbling block for Republican Sens. Thom Tillis of North Carolina and Joni Ernst of Iowa. In Maine, GOP Sen.

Susan Collins cast a key vote that prevented the repeal of the law but cast other votes that weakened it. She now also appears vulnerable — but more for her vote to confirm Brett Kavanaugh’s nomination to the Supreme Court and for not doing more to oppose President Donald Trump.In Montana, Daines, who voted to repeal the ACA, is trying to hold on to his seat against Democratic Gov. Steve Bullock, who used the law to expand the state’s Medicaid enrollment in 2015.

At its peak, nearly 1 in 10 Montanans were covered through the expansion.As more Montanans now face the high cost of paying for health care on their own amid cialis-related job losses, Montana State University political science professor David Parker said he expects Democrats to talk about Daines’ votes to repeal cost-saving provisions of the ACA.“People are losing jobs, and their jobs bring health care with them,” Parker said. €œI don’t think it’s a good space for Daines to be right now.” Markian Hawryluk. MarkianH@kff.org, @MarkianHawryluk Related Topics Elections Health Care Costs Health Care Reform Insurance States Arizona Colorado Montana North Carolina Obamacare Plans.

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ET click here now cialis pas cher. A webcast link will be available at https://ir.healthcatalyst.com/investor-relations. About Health Catalyst Health Catalyst is a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations committed to being the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. Its customers leverage the cloud-based data platform—powered by data from more than 100 million patient records and encompassing trillions of facts—as well as its analytics software cialis pas cher and professional services expertise to make data-informed decisions and realize measurable clinical, financial, and operational improvements.

Health Catalyst envisions a future in which all healthcare decisions are data informed. Health Catalyst Investor Relations Contact. Adam BrownSenior cialis pas cher Vice President, Investor Relations and FP&A+1 (855)-309-6800ir@healthcatalyst.com Health Catalyst Media Contact. Amanda Hundtamanda.hundt@healthcatalyst.com+1 (575) 491-0974SALT LAKE CITY, May 06, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Health Catalyst, Inc.

("Health Catalyst," Nasdaq. HCAT), a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, cialis pas cher today reported financial results for the quarter ended March 31, 2021. €œIn the first quarter of 2021, I am pleased to share that we achieved strong performance across our business, including exceeding the mid-point of our quarterly guidance for both revenue and Adjusted EBITDA,” said Dan Burton, CEO of Health Catalyst. €œI am also happy to report that in the most recent team member engagement and satisfaction survey, independently administered by the Gallup organization, team member satisfaction scores at Health Catalyst measured in the 96th percentile.

This latest cialis pas cher engagement level continues a pattern that has been in place for many years, of industry-leading engagement, consistently ranked between the 95th and 99th percentile in overall team member satisfaction scores. This latest result is of particular significance given that it comes during a period where we were required to adapt to global cialis necessitating a remote-only work environment, as well as having welcomed nearly two hundred new teammates who came to us primarily through multiple recent acquisitions.” Financial Highlights for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2021 Key Financial Metrics Three Months Ended March 31, Year over Year Change 2021 2020 GAAP Financial Data:(in thousands, except percentages, unaudited)Technology revenue$33,839 $24,699 37%Professional services revenue$22,007 $20,417 8%Total revenue$55,846 $45,116 24%Loss from operations$(24,317) $(18,105) (34)%Net loss$(28,370) $(17,490) (62)%Other Non-GAAP Financial Data:(1) Adjusted Technology Gross Profit$23,388 $16,969 38%Adjusted Technology Gross Margin69% 69% Adjusted Professional Services Gross Profit$6,929 $5,071 37%Adjusted Professional Services Gross Margin31% 25% Total Adjusted Gross Profit$30,317 $22,040 38%Total Adjusted Gross Margin54% 49% Adjusted EBITDA$(837) $(5,971) 86%________________________(1) These measures are not calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (GAAP). See the accompanying "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" section below for more information about these financial measures, including the limitations of such measures, and for a reconciliation of each measure to the most directly comparable measure calculated in accordance with GAAP. Financial Outlook Health Catalyst provides forward-looking guidance on cialis pas cher total revenue, a GAAP measure, and Adjusted EBITDA, a non-GAAP measure.

For the second quarter of 2021, we expect. Total revenue between $55.1 million and $58.1 million, andAdjusted EBITDA between $(4.8) million and $(2.8) millionFor the full year of 2021, we expect. Total revenue between $228.1 million and $231.1 million, andAdjusted EBITDA between $(15.0) million and $(13.0) millionWe have cialis pas cher not reconciled guidance for Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most directly comparable GAAP measure, and have not provided forward-looking guidance for net loss, because there are items that may impact net loss, including stock-based compensation, that are not within our control or cannot be reasonably predicted. Chair of the Board Transition On April 29, 2021, our board of directors (the board) accepted Dr.

Tim Ferris's resignation from the board and all board committees, effective May 1, 2021. Dr. Ferris's resignation is not the result of any disagreement with Health Catalyst, but rather as a result of his new role as the National Director of Transformation for England's National Health Service (NHS). NHS required Dr.

Ferris to resign from our board in connection with his NHS appointment. €œDr. Ferris provided a unique perspective that will continue to impact our company for years to come. We are grateful for the opportunity to have benefited from his wisdom and experience, and we congratulate him on his new role as National Director of Transformation at NHS,” said Dan Burton, CEO.

Health Catalyst is thrilled to announce that John A. (Jack) Kane has accepted the invitation to serve as chair of the board effective May 1, 2021. Mr. Kane has been a director of the Company and has been the chair of the audit committee of the board since February 2016.

Mr. Kane has more than 30 years’ experience in healthcare technology, including as a director and chairperson of the audit committee of Merchants Bancshares, Inc. (MBVT) from 2005 until 2014 and athenahealth, Inc. From 2007 until February 2019.

He previously occupied the position of CFO, Treasurer &. Senior VP-Administration at IDX Systems Corp. €œJack has served on our board for many years. His valuable guidance and feedback often challenges us to think deeply about our solutions.

I am grateful for Jack’s dedication to our mission and his depth of financial leadership experience in healthcare and technology, which make him uniquely qualified to serve as our chair,” said Burton. Quarterly Conference Call Details The company will host a conference call to review the results today, Thursday, May 6, 2021, at 5:00 p.m. E.T. The conference call can be accessed by dialing 1-877-295-1104 for U.S.

Participants, or 1-470-495-9486 for international participants, and referencing participant code 9183315. A live audio webcast will be available online at https://ir.healthcatalyst.com/. A replay of the call will be available via webcast for on-demand listening shortly after the completion of the call, at the same web link, and will remain available for approximately 90 days. About Health Catalyst Health Catalyst is a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations committed to being the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement.

Its customers leverage the cloud-based data platform—powered by data from more than 100 million patient records and encompassing trillions of facts—as well as its analytics software and professional services expertise to make data-informed decisions and realize measurable clinical, financial, and operational improvements. Health Catalyst envisions a future in which all healthcare decisions are data informed. Available Information Health Catalyst intends to use its Investor Relations website as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with its disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Forward-Looking Statements This release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended.

These forward-looking statements include statements regarding our future growth and our financial outlook for Q2 and fiscal year 2021. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties and are based on potentially inaccurate assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expected or implied by the forward-looking statements. Actual results may differ materially from the results predicted, and reported results should not be considered as an indication of future performance. Important risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results and financial condition to differ materially from those indicated in the forward-looking statements include, among others, the following.

(i) changes in laws and regulations applicable to our business model. (ii) changes in market or industry conditions, regulatory environment and receptivity to our technology and services. (iii) results of litigation or a security incident. (iv) the loss of one or more key customers or partners.

(v) the impact of erectile dysfunction treatment on our business and results of operations. And (vi) changes to our abilities to recruit and retain qualified team members. For a detailed discussion of the risk factors that could affect our actual results, please refer to the risk factors identified in our SEC reports, including, but not limited to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on or about February 25, 2021 and the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2021 expected to be filed with the SEC on or about May 7, 2021. All information provided in this release and in the attachments is as of the date hereof, and we undertake no duty to update or revise this information unless required by law.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets(in thousands, except share and per share data, unaudited) As ofMarch 31, As ofDecember 31, 2021 2020Assets Current assets. Cash and cash equivalents$132,627 $91,954 Short-term investments133,807 178,917 Accounts receivable, net45,905 48,296 Prepaid expenses and other assets12,404 10,632 Total current assets324,743 329,799 Property and equipment, net18,653 12,863 Intangible assets, net91,840 98,921 Operating lease right-of-use assets24,093 24,729 Goodwill107,822 107,822 Other assets4,068 3,606 Total assets$571,219 $577,740 Liabilities and stockholders’ equity Current liabilities. Accounts payable$4,626 $5,332 Accrued liabilities12,946 16,510 Acquisition-related consideration payable— 2,000 Deferred revenue51,634 47,145 Operating lease liabilities2,454 2,622 Contingent consideration liabilities15,902 14,427 Convertible senior notes, net171,864 — Total current liabilities259,426 88,036 Convertible senior notes, net of current portion— 168,994 Deferred revenue, net of current portion1,135 1,878 Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion23,083 23,669 Contingent consideration liabilities, net of current portion16,509 16837 Other liabilities2,230 2227 Total liabilities302,383 301,641 Commitments and contingencies Stockholders’ equity. Common stock, $0.001 par value.

44,340,036 and 43,376,848 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively44 43 Additional paid-in capital1,022,781 1,001,645 Accumulated deficit(754,020) (725,650)Accumulated other comprehensive income31 61 Total stockholders' equity268,836 276,099 Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$571,219 $577,740 Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations(in thousands, except per share data, unaudited) Three Months EndedMarch 31, 2021 2020Revenue. Technology$33,839 $24,699 Professional services22,007 20,417 Total revenue55,846 45,116 Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization. Technology(1)10,825 7,906 Professional services(1)16,513 16,162 Total cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization27,338 24,068 Operating expenses. Sales and marketing(1)15,651 13,487 Research and development(1)14,345 13,088 General and administrative(1)(2)(3)15,015 9,701 Depreciation and amortization7,814 2,877 Total operating expenses52,825 39,153 Loss from operations(24,317) (18,105)Interest and other expense, net(3,952) (621)Loss before income taxes(28,269) (18,726)Income tax provision (benefit)101 (1,236)Net loss$(28,370) $(17,490)Net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.65) $(0.47)Weighted-average shares outstanding used in calculating net loss per share, basic and diluted43,870 37,109 Adjusted net loss(4)$(2,753) $(6,083)Adjusted net loss per share, basic and diluted(4)$(0.06) $(0.16) _______________(1) Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows.

Three Months EndedMarch 31, 2021 2020 Stock-Based Compensation Expense:(in thousands)Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization. Technology$374 $176 Professional services1,435 816 Sales and marketing4,818 3,182 Research and development2,257 1,882 General and administrative4,626 2,685 Total$13,510 $8,741 (2) Includes acquisition transaction costs as follows. Three Months EndedMarch 31, 2021 2020 Acquisition transaction costs:(in thousands)General and administrative$— $875 (3) Includes the change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities, as follows. Three Months EndedMarch 31, 2021 2020 Change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities:(in thousands)General and administrative$2,156 $(359)(4) Includes non-GAAP adjustments to net loss.

Refer to the "Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Adjusted Net Loss Per Share" section below for further details. Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows(in thousands, unaudited) Three Months Ended March 31,Cash flows from operating activities2021 2020Net loss$(28,370) $(17,490)Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities. Depreciation and amortization7,814 2,877 Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs2,870 285 Non-cash operating lease expense965 741 Investment discount and premium amortization417 (6)Provision for expected credit losses300 51 Stock-based compensation expense13,510 8,741 Deferred tax (benefit) provision2 (1,280)Change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities2,156 (359)Other(34) (4)Change in operating assets and liabilities. Accounts receivable, net2,090 (7,335)Deferred costs— 444 Prepaid expenses and other assets(2,173) (2,244)Accounts payable, accrued liabilities, and other liabilities(5,352) (4,283)Deferred revenue3,745 3,936 Operating lease liabilities(1,083) (843)Net cash used in operating activities(3,143) (16,769) Cash flows from investing activities Purchase of short-term investments(8,621) — Proceeds from the sale and maturity of short-term investments53,240 66,653 Acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired— (15,249)Purchase of property and equipment(5,882) (428)Capitalization of internal use software(887) (78)Purchase of intangible assets(480) (758)Proceeds from sale of property and equipment6 6 Net cash provided by investing activities37,376 50,146 Cash flows from financing activities Proceeds from exercise of stock options6,488 9,046 Proceeds from employee stock purchase plan1,349 1,289 Payments of acquisition-related consideration(1,391) (748)Net cash provided by financing activities6,446 9,587 Effect of exchange rate on cash and cash equivalents(6) (31)Net increase in cash and cash equivalents40,673 42,933 Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period91,954 18,032 Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$132,627 $60,965 Non-GAAP Financial Measures To supplement our financial information presented in accordance with GAAP, we believe certain non-GAAP measures, including Adjusted Gross Profit, Adjusted Gross Margin, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Loss, and Adjusted Net Loss per share, basic and diluted, are useful in evaluating our operating performance.

For example, we exclude stock-based compensation expense because it is non-cash in nature and excluding this expense provides meaningful supplemental information regarding our operational performance and allows investors the ability to make more meaningful comparisons between our operating results and those of other companies. We use this non-GAAP financial information to evaluate our ongoing operations, as a component in determining employee bonus compensation, and for internal planning and forecasting purposes. We believe that non-GAAP financial information, when taken collectively, may be helpful to investors because it provides consistency and comparability with past financial performance. However, non-GAAP financial information is presented for supplemental informational purposes only, has limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for financial information presented in accordance with GAAP.

In addition, other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate similarly-titled non-GAAP measures differently or may use other measures to evaluate their performance. A reconciliation is provided below for each non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with GAAP. Investors are encouraged to review the related GAAP financial measures and the reconciliation of these non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures, and not to rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business. Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted Gross Margin Adjusted Gross Profit is a non-GAAP financial measure that we define as revenue less cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization and excluding stock-based compensation.

We define Adjusted Gross Margin as our Adjusted Gross Profit divided by our revenue. We believe Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted Gross Margin are useful to investors as they eliminate the impact of certain non-cash expenses and allow a direct comparison of these measures between periods without the impact of non-cash expenses and certain other non-recurring operating expenses. The following is a reconciliation of revenue, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, to Adjusted Gross Profit, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020. Three Months Ended March 31, 2021 (in thousands, except percentages) Technology Professional Services TotalRevenue$33,839 $22,007 $55,846 Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization(10,825) (16,513) (27,338)Gross profit, excluding depreciation and amortization23,014 5,494 28,508 Add.

Stock-based compensation374 1,435 1,809 Adjusted Gross Profit$23,388 $6,929 $30,317 Gross margin, excluding depreciation and amortization68% 25% 51%Adjusted Gross Margin69% 31% 54% Three Months Ended March 31, 2020 (in thousands, except percentages) Technology Professional Services TotalRevenue$24,699 $20,417 $45,116 Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization(7,906) (16,162) (24,068)Gross profit, excluding depreciation and amortization16,793 4,255 21,048 Add. Stock-based compensation176 816 992 Adjusted Gross Profit$16,969 $5,071 $22,040 Gross margin, excluding depreciation and amortization68% 21% 47%Adjusted Gross Margin69% 25% 49% Adjusted EBITDA Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure that we define as net loss adjusted for (i) interest and other expense, net, (ii) income tax (benefit) provision, (iii) depreciation and amortization, (iv) stock-based compensation, (v) acquisition transaction costs, and (vi) change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities when they are incurred. We view acquisition-related expenses when applicable, such as transaction costs and changes in the fair value of contingent consideration liabilities that are directly related to business combinations as events that are not necessarily reflective of operational performance during a period. We believe Adjusted EBITDA provides investors with useful information on period-to-period performance as evaluated by management and comparison with our past financial performance and is useful in evaluating our operating performance compared to that of other companies in our industry, as this metric generally eliminates the effects of certain items that may vary from company to company for reasons unrelated to overall operating performance.

The following is a reconciliation of our net loss, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, to Adjusted EBITDA, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020. Three Months EndedMarch 31, 2021 2020 (in thousands)Net loss$(28,370) $(17,490)Add. Interest and other expense, net3,952 621 Income tax (benefit) provision101 (1,236)Depreciation and amortization7,814 2,877 Stock-based compensation13,510 8,741 Acquisition transaction costs— 875 Change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities2,156 (359)Adjusted EBITDA$(837) $(5,971) Adjusted Net Loss Per Share Adjusted Net Loss is a non-GAAP financial measure that we define as net loss attributable to common stockholders adjusted for (i) stock-based compensation, (ii) amortization of acquired intangibles, (iii) acquisition transaction costs, (iv) change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities, and (v) non-cash interest expense related to our convertible senior notes. We believe Adjusted Net Loss provides investors with useful information on period-to-period performance as evaluated by management and comparison with our past financial performance and is useful in evaluating our operating performance compared to that of other companies in our industry, as this metric generally eliminates the effects of certain items that may vary from company to company for reasons unrelated to overall operating performance.

Three Months Ended March 31, 2021 2020 Numerator:(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(28,370) $(17,490)Add. Stock-based compensation13,510 8,741 Amortization of acquired intangibles7,081 2,150 Acquisition transaction costs— 875 Change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities2,156 (359)Non-cash interest expense related to convertible senior notes2,870 — Adjusted Net Loss$(2,753) $(6,083)Denominator. Weighted-average number of shares used in calculating net loss, basic and diluted43,870,288 37,108,998 Adjusted net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.06) $(0.16) Health Catalyst Investor Relations Contact:Adam BrownSenior Vice President, Investor Relations and FP&A+1 (855)-309-6800ir@healthcatalyst.com Health Catalyst Media Contact:Amanda HundtVice President, Corporate Communicationsamanda.hundt@healthcatalyst.com+1 (575) 491-0974.

SALT LAKE buy cialis bitcoin CITY, May 28, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Health Catalyst, Inc. ("Health Catalyst", Nasdaq. HCAT), a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, today announced that Dan Burton, CEO, and Adam Brown, SVP of Investor Relations and FP&A, will participate in the 41st Annual William Blair Growth Stock Conference including a fireside chat on Wednesday, June 2, 2021 at 5:40 p.m. ET.

A webcast link will be available at https://ir.healthcatalyst.com/investor-relations. About Health Catalyst Health Catalyst is a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations committed to being the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. Its customers leverage the cloud-based data platform—powered by data from more than 100 million patient records and encompassing trillions of facts—as well as its analytics software and professional services expertise to make data-informed decisions and realize measurable clinical, financial, and operational improvements. Health Catalyst envisions a future in which all healthcare decisions are data informed.

Health Catalyst Investor Relations Contact. Adam BrownSenior Vice President, Investor Relations and FP&A+1 (855)-309-6800ir@healthcatalyst.com Health Catalyst Media Contact. Amanda Hundtamanda.hundt@healthcatalyst.com+1 (575) 491-0974SALT LAKE CITY, May 06, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Health Catalyst, Inc. ("Health Catalyst," Nasdaq.

HCAT), a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, today reported financial results for the quarter ended March 31, 2021. €œIn the first quarter of 2021, I am pleased to share that we achieved strong performance across our business, including exceeding the mid-point of our quarterly guidance for both revenue and Adjusted EBITDA,” said Dan Burton, CEO of Health Catalyst. €œI am also happy to report that in the most recent team member engagement and satisfaction survey, independently administered by the Gallup organization, team member satisfaction scores at Health Catalyst measured in the 96th percentile. This latest engagement level continues a pattern that has been in place for many years, of industry-leading engagement, consistently ranked between the 95th and 99th percentile in overall team member satisfaction scores.

This latest result is of particular significance given that it comes during a period where we were required to adapt to global cialis necessitating a remote-only work environment, as well as having welcomed nearly two hundred new teammates who came to us primarily through multiple recent acquisitions.” Financial Highlights for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2021 Key Financial Metrics Three Months Ended March 31, Year over Year Change 2021 2020 GAAP Financial Data:(in thousands, except percentages, unaudited)Technology revenue$33,839 $24,699 37%Professional services revenue$22,007 $20,417 8%Total revenue$55,846 $45,116 24%Loss from operations$(24,317) $(18,105) (34)%Net loss$(28,370) $(17,490) (62)%Other Non-GAAP Financial Data:(1) Adjusted Technology Gross Profit$23,388 $16,969 38%Adjusted Technology Gross Margin69% 69% Adjusted Professional Services Gross Profit$6,929 $5,071 37%Adjusted Professional Services Gross Margin31% 25% Total Adjusted Gross Profit$30,317 $22,040 38%Total Adjusted Gross Margin54% 49% Adjusted EBITDA$(837) $(5,971) 86%________________________(1) These measures are not calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (GAAP). See the accompanying "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" section below for more information about these financial measures, including the limitations of such measures, and for a reconciliation of each measure to the most directly comparable measure calculated in accordance with GAAP. Financial Outlook Health Catalyst provides forward-looking guidance on total revenue, a GAAP measure, and Adjusted EBITDA, a non-GAAP measure. For the second quarter of 2021, we expect.

Total revenue between $55.1 million and $58.1 million, andAdjusted EBITDA between $(4.8) million and $(2.8) millionFor the full year of 2021, we expect. Total revenue between $228.1 million and $231.1 million, andAdjusted EBITDA between $(15.0) million and $(13.0) millionWe have not reconciled guidance for Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most directly comparable GAAP measure, and have not provided forward-looking guidance for net loss, because there are items that may impact net loss, including stock-based compensation, that are not within our control or cannot be reasonably predicted. Chair of the Board Transition On April 29, 2021, our board of directors (the board) accepted Dr. Tim Ferris's resignation from the board and all board committees, effective May 1, 2021.

Dr. Ferris's resignation is not the result of any disagreement with Health Catalyst, but rather as a result of his new role as the National Director of Transformation for England's National Health Service (NHS). NHS required Dr. Ferris to resign from our board in connection with his NHS appointment.

€œDr. Ferris provided a unique perspective that will continue to impact our company for years to come. We are grateful for the opportunity to have benefited from his wisdom and experience, and we congratulate him on his new role as National Director of Transformation at NHS,” said Dan Burton, CEO. Health Catalyst is thrilled to announce that John A.

(Jack) Kane has accepted the invitation to serve as chair of the board effective May 1, 2021. Mr. Kane has been a director of the Company and has been the chair of the audit committee of the board since February 2016. Mr.

Kane has more than 30 years’ experience in healthcare technology, including as a director and chairperson of the audit committee of Merchants Bancshares, Inc. (MBVT) from 2005 until 2014 and athenahealth, Inc. From 2007 until February 2019. He previously occupied the position of CFO, Treasurer &.

Senior VP-Administration at IDX Systems Corp. €œJack has served on our board for many years. His valuable guidance and feedback often challenges us to think deeply about our solutions. I am grateful for Jack’s dedication to our mission and his depth of financial leadership experience in healthcare and technology, which make him uniquely qualified to serve as our chair,” said Burton.

Quarterly Conference Call Details The company will host a conference call to review the results today, Thursday, May 6, 2021, at 5:00 p.m. E.T. The conference call can be accessed by dialing 1-877-295-1104 for U.S. Participants, or 1-470-495-9486 for international participants, and referencing participant code 9183315.

A live audio webcast will be available online at https://ir.healthcatalyst.com/. A replay of the call will be available via webcast for on-demand listening shortly after the completion of the call, at the same web link, and will remain available for approximately 90 days. About Health Catalyst Health Catalyst is a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations committed to being the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. Its customers leverage the cloud-based data platform—powered by data from more than 100 million patient records and encompassing trillions of facts—as well as its analytics software and professional services expertise to make data-informed decisions and realize measurable clinical, financial, and operational improvements.

Health Catalyst envisions a future in which all healthcare decisions are data informed. Available Information Health Catalyst intends to use its Investor Relations website as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with its disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Forward-Looking Statements This release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended. These forward-looking statements include statements regarding our future growth and our financial outlook for Q2 and fiscal year 2021.

Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties and are based on potentially inaccurate assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expected or implied by the forward-looking statements. Actual results may differ materially from the results predicted, and reported results should not be considered as an indication of future performance. Important risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results and financial condition to differ materially from those indicated in the forward-looking statements include, among others, the following. (i) changes in laws and regulations applicable to our business model.

(ii) changes in market or industry conditions, regulatory environment and receptivity to our technology and services. (iii) results of litigation or a security incident. (iv) the loss of one or more key customers or partners. (v) the impact of erectile dysfunction treatment on our business and results of operations.

And (vi) changes to our abilities to recruit and retain qualified team members. For a detailed discussion of the risk factors that could affect our actual results, please refer to the risk factors identified in our SEC reports, including, but not limited to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on or about February 25, 2021 and the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2021 expected to be filed with the SEC on or about May 7, 2021. All information provided in this release and in the attachments is as of the date hereof, and we undertake no duty to update or revise this information unless required by law. Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets(in thousands, except share and per share data, unaudited) As ofMarch 31, As ofDecember 31, 2021 2020Assets Current assets.

Cash and cash equivalents$132,627 $91,954 Short-term investments133,807 178,917 Accounts receivable, net45,905 48,296 Prepaid expenses and other assets12,404 10,632 Total current assets324,743 329,799 Property and equipment, net18,653 12,863 Intangible assets, net91,840 98,921 Operating lease right-of-use assets24,093 24,729 Goodwill107,822 107,822 Other assets4,068 3,606 Total assets$571,219 $577,740 Liabilities and stockholders’ equity Current liabilities. Accounts payable$4,626 $5,332 Accrued liabilities12,946 16,510 Acquisition-related consideration payable— 2,000 Deferred revenue51,634 47,145 Operating lease liabilities2,454 2,622 Contingent consideration liabilities15,902 14,427 Convertible senior notes, net171,864 — Total current liabilities259,426 88,036 Convertible senior notes, net of current portion— 168,994 Deferred revenue, net of current portion1,135 1,878 Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion23,083 23,669 Contingent consideration liabilities, net of current portion16,509 16837 Other liabilities2,230 2227 Total liabilities302,383 301,641 Commitments and contingencies Stockholders’ equity. Common stock, $0.001 par value. 44,340,036 and 43,376,848 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively44 43 Additional paid-in capital1,022,781 1,001,645 Accumulated deficit(754,020) (725,650)Accumulated other comprehensive income31 61 Total stockholders' equity268,836 276,099 Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$571,219 $577,740 Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations(in thousands, except per share data, unaudited) Three Months EndedMarch 31, 2021 2020Revenue.

Technology$33,839 $24,699 Professional services22,007 20,417 Total revenue55,846 45,116 Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization. Technology(1)10,825 7,906 Professional services(1)16,513 16,162 Total cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization27,338 24,068 Operating expenses. Sales and marketing(1)15,651 13,487 Research and development(1)14,345 13,088 General and administrative(1)(2)(3)15,015 9,701 Depreciation and amortization7,814 2,877 Total operating expenses52,825 39,153 Loss from operations(24,317) (18,105)Interest and other expense, net(3,952) (621)Loss before income taxes(28,269) (18,726)Income tax provision (benefit)101 (1,236)Net loss$(28,370) $(17,490)Net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.65) $(0.47)Weighted-average shares outstanding used in calculating net loss per share, basic and diluted43,870 37,109 Adjusted net loss(4)$(2,753) $(6,083)Adjusted net loss per share, basic and diluted(4)$(0.06) $(0.16) _______________(1) Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows. Three Months EndedMarch 31, 2021 2020 Stock-Based Compensation Expense:(in thousands)Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization.

Technology$374 $176 Professional services1,435 816 Sales and marketing4,818 3,182 Research and development2,257 1,882 General and administrative4,626 2,685 Total$13,510 $8,741 (2) Includes acquisition transaction costs as follows. Three Months EndedMarch 31, 2021 2020 Acquisition transaction costs:(in thousands)General and administrative$— $875 (3) Includes the change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities, as follows. Three Months EndedMarch 31, 2021 2020 Change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities:(in thousands)General and administrative$2,156 $(359)(4) Includes non-GAAP adjustments to net loss. Refer to the "Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Adjusted Net Loss Per Share" section below for further details.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows(in thousands, unaudited) Three Months Ended March 31,Cash flows from operating activities2021 2020Net loss$(28,370) $(17,490)Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities. Depreciation and amortization7,814 2,877 Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs2,870 285 Non-cash operating lease expense965 741 Investment discount and premium amortization417 (6)Provision for expected credit losses300 51 Stock-based compensation expense13,510 8,741 Deferred tax (benefit) provision2 (1,280)Change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities2,156 (359)Other(34) (4)Change in operating assets and liabilities. Accounts receivable, net2,090 (7,335)Deferred costs— 444 Prepaid expenses and other assets(2,173) (2,244)Accounts payable, accrued liabilities, and other liabilities(5,352) (4,283)Deferred revenue3,745 3,936 Operating lease liabilities(1,083) (843)Net cash used in operating activities(3,143) (16,769) Cash flows from investing activities Purchase of short-term investments(8,621) — Proceeds from the sale and maturity of short-term investments53,240 66,653 Acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired— (15,249)Purchase of property and equipment(5,882) (428)Capitalization of internal use software(887) (78)Purchase of intangible assets(480) (758)Proceeds from sale of property and equipment6 6 Net cash provided by investing activities37,376 50,146 Cash flows from financing activities Proceeds from exercise of stock options6,488 9,046 Proceeds from employee stock purchase plan1,349 1,289 Payments of acquisition-related consideration(1,391) (748)Net cash provided by financing activities6,446 9,587 Effect of exchange rate on cash and cash equivalents(6) (31)Net increase in cash and cash equivalents40,673 42,933 Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period91,954 18,032 Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$132,627 $60,965 Non-GAAP Financial Measures To supplement our financial information presented in accordance with GAAP, we believe certain non-GAAP measures, including Adjusted Gross Profit, Adjusted Gross Margin, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Loss, and Adjusted Net Loss per share, basic and diluted, are useful in evaluating our operating performance. For example, we exclude stock-based compensation expense because it is non-cash in nature and excluding this expense provides meaningful supplemental information regarding our operational performance and allows investors the ability to make more meaningful comparisons between our operating results and those of other companies.

We use this non-GAAP financial information to evaluate our ongoing operations, as a component in determining employee bonus compensation, and for internal planning and forecasting purposes. We believe that non-GAAP financial information, when taken collectively, may be helpful to investors because it provides consistency and comparability with past financial performance. However, non-GAAP financial information is presented for supplemental informational purposes only, has limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for financial information presented in accordance with GAAP. In addition, other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate similarly-titled non-GAAP measures differently or may use other measures to evaluate their performance.

A reconciliation is provided below for each non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with GAAP. Investors are encouraged to review the related GAAP financial measures and the reconciliation of these non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures, and not to rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business. Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted Gross Margin Adjusted Gross Profit is a non-GAAP financial measure that we define as revenue less cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization and excluding stock-based compensation. We define Adjusted Gross Margin as our Adjusted Gross Profit divided by our revenue.

We believe Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted Gross Margin are useful to investors as they eliminate the impact of certain non-cash expenses and allow a direct comparison of these measures between periods without the impact of non-cash expenses and certain other non-recurring operating expenses. The following is a reconciliation of revenue, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, to Adjusted Gross Profit, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020. Three Months Ended March 31, 2021 (in thousands, except percentages) Technology Professional Services TotalRevenue$33,839 $22,007 $55,846 Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization(10,825) (16,513) (27,338)Gross profit, excluding depreciation and amortization23,014 5,494 28,508 Add. Stock-based compensation374 1,435 1,809 Adjusted Gross Profit$23,388 $6,929 $30,317 Gross margin, excluding depreciation and amortization68% 25% 51%Adjusted Gross Margin69% 31% 54% Three Months Ended March 31, 2020 (in thousands, except percentages) Technology Professional Services TotalRevenue$24,699 $20,417 $45,116 Cost of revenue, excluding depreciation and amortization(7,906) (16,162) (24,068)Gross profit, excluding depreciation and amortization16,793 4,255 21,048 Add.

Stock-based compensation176 816 992 Adjusted Gross Profit$16,969 $5,071 $22,040 Gross margin, excluding depreciation and amortization68% 21% 47%Adjusted Gross Margin69% 25% 49% Adjusted EBITDA Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure that we define as net loss adjusted for (i) interest and other expense, net, (ii) income tax (benefit) provision, (iii) depreciation and amortization, (iv) stock-based compensation, (v) acquisition transaction costs, and (vi) change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities when they are incurred. We view acquisition-related expenses when applicable, such as transaction costs and changes in the fair value of contingent consideration liabilities that are directly related to business combinations as events that are not necessarily reflective of operational performance during a period. We believe Adjusted EBITDA provides investors with useful information on period-to-period performance as evaluated by management and comparison with our past financial performance and is useful in evaluating our operating performance compared to that of other companies in our industry, as this metric generally eliminates the effects of certain items that may vary from company to company for reasons unrelated to overall operating performance. The following is a reconciliation of our net loss, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, to Adjusted EBITDA, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.

Three Months EndedMarch 31, 2021 2020 (in thousands)Net loss$(28,370) $(17,490)Add. Interest and other expense, net3,952 621 Income tax (benefit) provision101 (1,236)Depreciation and amortization7,814 2,877 Stock-based compensation13,510 8,741 Acquisition transaction costs— 875 Change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities2,156 (359)Adjusted EBITDA$(837) $(5,971) Adjusted Net Loss Per Share Adjusted Net Loss is a non-GAAP financial measure that we define as net loss attributable to common stockholders adjusted for (i) stock-based compensation, (ii) amortization of acquired intangibles, (iii) acquisition transaction costs, (iv) change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities, and (v) non-cash interest expense related to our convertible senior notes. We believe Adjusted Net Loss provides investors with useful information on period-to-period performance as evaluated by management and comparison with our past financial performance and is useful in evaluating our operating performance compared to that of other companies in our industry, as this metric generally eliminates the effects of certain items that may vary from company to company for reasons unrelated to overall operating performance.