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Universal HIV test-and-treat intervention in African correctional settingsWhile people who are incarcerated have a higher burden of HIV and other STIs, delivering sexual health services in correctional settings is how to buy cheap viagra online difficult http://cz.keimfarben.de/where-to-buy-generic-viagra/. A mixed methods cohort study examined the implementation of a universal test-and-treat intervention at 10 correctional units (6 for men, 3 for women, 1 for youth) in South Africa and Zambia. Same-day anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiation, training and support, how to buy cheap viagra online ensuring ART supply, and viral load monitoring were evaluated among 975 inmates living with HIV.

Median time from enrolment to ART initiation was 0 days (IQR 0–8) and the proportion of people retained in care with viral load monitoring was high (94%, 327/346) among those still incarcerated at 6 months. This study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing comprehensive HIV interventions in selected settings.Herce ME, Hoffmann CJ, Fielding K, et al how to buy cheap viagra online. Universal test-and-treat in Zambian and South African correctional facilities.

A multisite prospective how to buy cheap viagra online cohort study (published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 4). Lancet HIV. 2020;S2352-3018(20)30188-0.

Doi:10.1016/S2352-3018(20)30188-0Therapeutic HIV treatment sheds light on HIV remission in humansART does not eliminate the HIV reservoir completely, suggesting the need for innovative therapies to achieve HIV remission. Several HIV remission studies have focused on people with acute HIV who have a smaller reservoir. A double-blind two-arm placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial of 27 people with acute HIV in Thailand gave a modified vaccinia therapeutic treatment to examine safety and duration of viraemic control after treatment interruption.

The treatment was well tolerated and created strong immune responses. However, time to viral rebound was only moderately increased in the treatment group (median 21 days, range 8–44 days) compared with the placebo group (15 days, range 10–164 days). Further research is needed to inform future study designs in HIV remission research.Colby DJ, Sarnecki M, Barouch DH, et al.

Safety and immunogenicity of Ad26 and MVA treatments in acutely treated HIV and effect on viral rebound after antiretroviral therapy interruption. Nat Med. 2020;26(4):498–501.

Doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0774-yPharyngeal gonorrhoea testing among heterosexual menAlthough pharyngeal gonorrhoea testing is no longer recommended in the UK for heterosexual men with urethral or those who are known contacts, one sexual health service continued this practice, testing 232 heterosexual men over 2 years. Of those with urethral gonorrhoea, 33% (35/106) tested positive for pharyngeal gonorrhoea, including one who retained pharyngeal positivity after treatment that cleared the urethral . Among asymptomatic contacts, 20% (17/86) had pharyngeal , the majority of whom (10/17) did not have concurrent urethral .

Had pharyngeal testing not occurred in asymptomatic contacts, more than 10% of s would not have been diagnosed or treated, potentially leading to onward transmission through kissing or orogenital/rectal contact. These results indicate that pharyngeal testing is warranted and should be considered in future guidelines.Dresser M and Hussey J. (2020).

Testing for pharyngeal gonorrhoea in heterosexual men. Should we revisit national guidelines?. International Journal of STD &.

AIDS, 31(6), 593–595.HIV risk behaviours, STI testing and PrEP uptake among Australian MSMThe HIV prevention landscape has significantly changed with the implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), treatment as prevention programmes and campaigns to increase testing. To assess the impact of these strategies and determine prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, two large cross-sectional studies among men who have sex with men (MSM) were conducted in Sydney, Australia in 2014 (n=2222) and 2018 (n=2158). Prevalence of undiagnosed HIV was low (13.8% (2014) vs 5.3% (2018), ns).

HIV and STI testing increased significantly (from 49.6% to 56.3%, and from 61.7% to 69.2%, respectively), as did PrEP uptake (from 2.1% to 23.0%). However, in 2018, MSM were more likely to report behaviours associated with HIV/STI risk and past-year STI diagnosis. Results indicate that despite increasing risk behaviour, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV remains low suggesting the combined effectiveness of treatment and prevention strategies.Keen P, Lee E, Grulich AE, Prestage G, Guy R, Stoove MA,… and Duck T (2020).

Sustained, low prevalence of undiagnosed HIV among gay and bisexual men in Sydney, Australia coincident with increased testing and pre-exposure prophylaxis use. Results from repeated, bio-behavioural studies 2014–2018. JAIDS.

Online ahead of print.Rapid gonorrhoea and chlamydia resultsRapid point-of-care (POC) tests for gonorrhoea and chlamydia could enable testing and treatment to occur in a single visit, reducing complications of untreated s, attendance burden and risk of onward transmission. In a prospective cross-sectional study, swabs from 1523 women and first catch urine from 922 men were tested by non-laboratory-trained staff using a POC assay and compared with laboratory assay results. Sensitivities and specificities for chlamydia and gonorrhoea using the POC test were greater than the target of 95% in both women and men, except for sensitivity of the chlamydia test in men (92.5%, 95% CI 86.4% to 96.0%).

Further assessment of these tests is needed in rectal and oropharyngeal samples and cost-effectiveness analyses will be helpful to understand their utility.Van Der Pol B, Taylor SN, Mena L, et al. Evaluation of the Performance of a Point-of-Care Test for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea. JAMA Netw Open.

2020;3(5):e204819. Published 2020 May 1. Doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.4819Role of syphilis partner notification in ending the HIV epidemicSyphilis partner notification is an opportunity to case find newly diagnosed syphilis and HIV in known contacts.

A retrospective record review of 984 syphilis cases found that 1457 cases and partners received HIV/STI prevention counselling, 400 partners were tested and treated for STIs (including 63 new syphilis diagnoses) and 168 PrEP referrals were made. Three hundred and fifty-two partners were tested for HIV, 22 received new HIV diagnoses, 68% were retained in care and 60% were virally suppressed. Previously undiagnosed HIV positivity was 14% and 3.5% among partners of co-occurrent HIV and syphilis cases and among partners to HIV-negative cases, respectively.

Partner notification for syphilis provides a key opportunity to deliver combination prevention with behavioural counselling for STIs and HIV, early testing and treatment.DiOrio D, Collins D, Hanley S. Ending the HIV Epidemic. Contributions Resulting From Syphilis Partner Services.

Sex Transm Dis. 2020;47(8):511–515. Doi:10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001201.

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Among the most common are vision problems, muscle weakness, numbness and difficulty with balance viagra connect amazon and coordination. In recent years, there has been debate among specialists over whether MS has a "prodromal" phase -- a period where people have various non-specific symptoms before the typical characteristics of MS begin.Hemmer said the viagra connect amazon new findings suggest something else. At least in the five years before their diagnosis, patients are usually seeing doctors for actual MS symptoms.For the study -- recently published in the journal Neurology -- Hemmer's team examined insurance records from nearly 198,000 German adults, including 10,262 newly diagnosed with MS.

The researchers looked at their medical visits and diagnoses for up to five years prior to their MS diagnosis, and compared them against the rest of the study group.That comparison group included people with certain other autoimmune diseases (Crohn's disease or psoriasis) and people with no history of autoimmune disorders.Overall, viagra connect amazon the study found, people ultimately diagnosed with MS had more medical appointments, to various specialists, than the comparison group. The biggest difference was in visits to viagra connect amazon neurologists, but they also more often saw urologists, ophthalmologists, orthopedists and psychiatrists, among other specialists. When it came to diagnoses, 43 were more common among people later diagnosed with MS, versus people with no autoimmune disease.

And, Hemmer viagra connect amazon said, they were often symptoms indicative of MS -- including urinary problems, visual disturbances, abnormal skin sensations, impaired movement and dizziness.MS can be difficult to diagnose early on, partly because there is no single test for it."MS symptoms are sometimes subtle and spontaneously remit without any treatment," Hemmer said. "Often these patients are not referred to a neurologist, or they cancel the appointment because the symptoms have disappeared."Dr. Andrew Solomon, a neurologist and associate professor at the Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, coauthored an editorial published with the study."There's no question that diagnostic delay is a problem," he said, adding that the reasons "are probably many."For one, Solomon said, "MS can look like viagra connect amazon other things, and other things can look like MS."To diagnose the disease, he explained, doctors rely on symptoms -- not only what they are, but their pattern of occurrence -- along with MRI brain scans or lab tests that can detect signs of MS-related damage to the central nervous system.

Sometimes the process involves monitoring patients over time, viagra connect amazon Solomon said.But, he added, delays often start earlier on, with some patients not being referred to a specialist in a timely manner.Solomon said the new findings do not discount the notion that MS has a prodromal phase. Some study patients, for example, may have had such non-specific symptoms at some point before their initial neurological complaints.Experts want to know if there is indeed a prodromal period because understanding the earliest indicators of MS could aid in speedier diagnosis.Regardless of the existence of an MS prodrome, though, the earlier the disease is diagnosed, the better, Solomon said.A host of so-called disease-modifying drugs are available for MS that not only control symptom flares but can also slow the disease's progression. And earlier treatment, Solomon said, may have a viagra connect amazon bigger impact on the risk of disability over the long run.

More InformationThe National Multiple Sclerosis Society has more on diagnosing viagra connect amazon MS.SOURCES. Bernhard Hemmer, MD, professor and director, neurology clinic, Technical University of Munich, Germany. Andrew Solomon, MD, associate professor, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, and neurologist, University of Vermont viagra connect amazon Medical Center, Burlington.

By Amy Norton HealthDay ReporterMONDAY, June 28, 2021 (HealthDay News) -- Early symptoms of multiple sclerosis may commonly be missed for years before the right how to buy cheap viagra online diagnosis is made, a new study suggests.Researchers found that patients with MS had a higher-than-average number of medical appointments, with doctors of various specialties, for up to five years before their diagnosis.And for the most part, those visits were for neurological symptoms consistent with MS -- pointing to missed opportunities for an earlier diagnosis, the researchers say."We found that many complaints that led to patient visits were compatible with first clinical relapses that were not recognized as such," said senior researcher Dr. Bernhard Hemmer, how to buy cheap viagra online a neurologist and professor at the Technical University of Munich in Germany."Relapse" refers to the symptom flare-ups that mark MS -- a neurological disease caused by a misguided immune system attack on the body's own nerve tissue.Most often, MS follows a relapsing-remitting course, where symptoms flare for a time and then ease, according to the National MS Society. Because the central nervous system is affected, those symptoms can be wide-ranging. Among the most common are vision problems, muscle weakness, how to buy cheap viagra online numbness and difficulty with balance and coordination.

In recent years, there has been debate among specialists over how to buy cheap viagra online whether MS has a "prodromal" phase -- a period where people have various non-specific symptoms before the typical characteristics of MS begin.Hemmer said the new findings suggest something else. At least in the five years before their diagnosis, patients are usually seeing doctors for actual MS symptoms.For the study -- recently published in the journal Neurology -- Hemmer's team examined insurance records from nearly 198,000 German adults, including 10,262 newly diagnosed with MS. The researchers looked at their medical visits and diagnoses for up to five years prior to their MS diagnosis, and compared them against the rest of the study group.That comparison group included people with certain other how to buy cheap viagra online autoimmune diseases (Crohn's disease or psoriasis) and people with no history of autoimmune disorders.Overall, the study found, people ultimately diagnosed with MS had more medical appointments, to various specialists, than the comparison group. The biggest difference was in visits to neurologists, but they also more often how to buy cheap viagra online saw urologists, ophthalmologists, orthopedists and psychiatrists, among other specialists.

When it came to diagnoses, 43 were more common among people later diagnosed with MS, versus people with no autoimmune disease. And, Hemmer said, they were often symptoms indicative of MS -- including urinary problems, visual disturbances, abnormal skin sensations, impaired movement and dizziness.MS can be difficult to diagnose early on, partly because there is no how to buy cheap viagra online single test for it."MS symptoms are sometimes subtle and spontaneously remit without any treatment," Hemmer said. "Often these patients are not referred to a neurologist, or they cancel the appointment because the symptoms have disappeared."Dr. Andrew Solomon, a neurologist and associate professor at the Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, coauthored an editorial published with the study."There's no question that diagnostic delay is a problem," he said, adding that the reasons "are probably many."For one, Solomon said, "MS can look like other things, and how to buy cheap viagra online other things can look like MS."To diagnose the disease, he explained, doctors rely on symptoms -- not only what they are, but their pattern of occurrence -- along with MRI brain scans or lab tests that can detect signs of MS-related damage to the central nervous system.

Sometimes the process how to buy cheap viagra online involves monitoring patients over time, Solomon said.But, he added, delays often start earlier on, with some patients not being referred to a specialist in a timely manner.Solomon said the new findings do not discount the notion that MS has a prodromal phase. Some study patients, for example, may have had such non-specific symptoms at some point before their initial neurological complaints.Experts want to know if there is indeed a prodromal period because understanding the earliest indicators of MS could aid in speedier diagnosis.Regardless of the existence of an MS prodrome, though, the earlier the disease is diagnosed, the better, Solomon said.A host of so-called disease-modifying drugs are available for MS that not only control symptom flares but can also slow the disease's progression. And earlier treatment, Solomon said, may have a bigger impact on the risk of disability over the how to buy cheap viagra online long run. More InformationThe National Multiple Sclerosis Society has more on diagnosing how to buy cheap viagra online MS.SOURCES.

Bernhard Hemmer, MD, professor and director, neurology clinic, Technical University of Munich, Germany. Andrew Solomon, MD, associate professor, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, and neurologist, University of Vermont Medical how to buy cheap viagra online Center, Burlington. Neurology, June 15, 2021.

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Since October 2011, most people who do dosis de viagra segun edad not have Medicare obtained their drugs throug their Medicaid managed care plan. At that time, this drug benefit was "carved into" the Medicaid managed care benefit package. Before that date, people enrolled in a Medicaid managed care plan obtained all of their health care through the plan, but used their regular Medicaid card to access any drug available on the state formulary on a "fee for service" basis without needing to utilize a restricted pharmacy network or comply with managed care plan rules. COMING IN April 2021 - In the NYS Budget enacted in April 2020, the pharmacy benefit was "carved out" of "mainstream" Medicaid managed care plans dosis de viagra segun edad. That means that members of managed care plans will access their drugs outside their plan, unlike the rest of their medical care, which is accessed from in-network providers.

How Prescription Drugs are Obtained through Managed Care plans No - Until April 2020 HOW DO MANAGED CARE PLANS DEFINE THE PHARMACY BENEFIT FOR CONSUMERS?. The Medicaid pharmacy benefit includes all FDA approved prescription drugs, as well as some over-the-counter drugs and medical dosis de viagra segun edad supplies. Under Medicaid managed care. Plan formularies will be comparable to but not the same as the Medicaid formulary. Managed care plans are required to have drug formularies that dosis de viagra segun edad are “comparable” to the Medicaid fee for service formulary.

Plan formularies do not have to include all drugs covered listed on the fee for service formulary, but they must include generic or therapeutic equivalents of all Medicaid covered drugs. The Pharmacy Benefit will vary by plan. Each plan will have its own formulary and drug coverage policies like dosis de viagra segun edad prior authorization and step therapy. Pharmacy networks can also differ from plan to plan. Prescriber Prevails applies in certain drug classes.

Prescriber prevails applys to medically necessary precription drugs in dosis de viagra segun edad the following classes. atypical antipsychotics, anti-depressants, anti-retrovirals, anti-rejection, seizure, epilepsy, endocrine, hemotologic and immunologic therapeutics. Prescribers will need to demonstrate reasonable profession judgment and supply plans witht requested information and/or clinical documentation. Pharmacy Benefit Information Website -- http://mmcdruginformation.nysdoh.suny.edu/-- This website provides very helpful information on a plan by plan basis regarding pharmacy networks and dosis de viagra segun edad drug formularies. The Department of Health plans to build capacity for interactive searches allowing for comparison of coverage across plans in the near future.

Standardized Prior Autorization (PA) Form -- The Department of Health worked with managed care plans, provider organizations and other state agencies to develop a standard prior authorization form for the pharmacy benefit in Medicaid managed care. The form will be posted on the Pharmacy Information Website dosis de viagra segun edad in July of 2013. Mail Order Drugs -- Medicaid managed care members can obtain mail order/specialty drugs at any retail network pharmacy, as long as that retail network pharmacy agrees to a price that is comparable to the mail order/specialty pharmacy price. CAN CONSUMERS SWITCH PLANS IN ORDER TO GAIN ACCESS TO DRUGS?. Changing plans is often an effective strategy for consumers eligible for both Medicaid and Medicare (dual eligibles) who receive dosis de viagra segun edad their pharmacy service through Medicare Part D, because dual eligibles are allowed to switch plans at any time.

Medicaid consumers will have this option only in the limited circumstances during the first year of enrollment in managed care. Medicaid managed care enrollees can only leave and join another plan within the first 90 days of joining a health plan. After the 90 days has expired, enrollees are “locked in” to the plan for the rest of the dosis de viagra segun edad year. Consumers can switch plans during the “lock in” period only for good cause. The pharmacy benefit changes are not considered good cause.

After the first 12 months of enrollment, Medicaid managed care enrollees can switch plans at any time dosis de viagra segun edad. STEPS CONSUMERS CAN TAKE WHEN A MANAGED CARE PLAM DENIES ACCESS TO A NECESSARY DRUG As a first step, consumers should try to work with their providers to satisfy plan requirements for prior authorization or step therapy or any other utilization control requirements. If the plan still denies access, consumers can pursue review processes specific to managed care while at the same time pursuing a fair hearing. All plans are required to maintain an internal and external review process for complaints and appeals dosis de viagra segun edad of service denials. Some plans may develop special procedures for drug denials.

Information on these procedures should be provided in member handbooks. Beginning April 1, 2018, Medicaid managed care enrollees whose plan denies prior approval of a prescription drug, or discontinues a drug that had been approved, will receive an Initial dosis de viagra segun edad Adverse Determination notice from the plan - See Model Denial IAD Notice and IAD Notice to Reduce, Suspend or Stop Services The enrollee must first request an internal Plan Appeal and wait for the Plan's decision. An adverse decision is called a 'FInal Adverse Determination" or FAD. See model Denial FAD Notice and FAD Notice to Reduce, Suspend or Stop Services. The dosis de viagra segun edad enroll has the right to request a fair hearing to appeal an FAD.

The enrollee may only request a fair hearing BEFORE receiving the FAD if the plan fails to send the FAD in the required time limit, which is 30 calendar days in standard appeals, and 72 hours in expedited appeals. The plan may extend the time to decide both standard and expedited appeals by up to 14 days if more information is needed and it is in the enrollee's interest. AID CONTINUING -- If an enrollee requests a Plan Appeal and then a fair hearing because access to a drug has been reduced or terminated, the enrollee has the right to aid continuing (continued access to the drug in question) while waiting for the dosis de viagra segun edad Plan Appeal and then the fair hearing. The enrollee must request the Plan Appeal and then the Fair Hearing before the effective date of the IAD and FAD notices, which is a very short time - only 10 days including mailing time. See more about the changes in Managed Care appeals here.

Even though that article is focused on Managed Long Term dosis de viagra segun edad Care, the new appeals requirements also apply to Mainstream Medicaid managed care. Enrollees who are in the first 90 days of enrollment, or past the first 12 months of enrollment also have the option of switching plans to improve access to their medications. Consumers who experience problems with access to prescription drugs should always file a complaint with the State Department of Health’s Managed Care Hotline, number listed below. ACCESSING MEDICAID'S PHARMACY BENEFIT IN FEE FOR SERVICE MEDICAID For those Medicaid recipients who are not yet in a Medicaid Managed Care program, and who do not have Medicare dosis de viagra segun edad Part D, the Medicaid Pharmacy program covers most of their prescription drugs and select non-prescription drugs and medical supplies for Family Health Plus enrollees. Certain drugs/drug categories require the prescribers to obtain prior authorization.

These include brand name drugs that have a generic alternative under New York's mandatory generic drug program or prescribed drugs that are not on New York's preferred drug list. The full Medicaid formulary can dosis de viagra segun edad be searched on the eMedNY website. Even in fee for service Medicaid, prescribers must obtain prior authorization before prescribing non-preferred drugs unless otherwise indicated. Prior authorization is required for original prescriptions, not refills. A prior authorization is effective for the original dispensing dosis de viagra segun edad and up to five refills of that prescription within the next six months.

Click here for more information on NY's prior authorization process. The New York State Board of Pharmacy publishes an annual list of the 150 most frequently prescribed drugs, in the most common quantities. The State Department of Health collects retail price information on these dosis de viagra segun edad drugs from pharmacies that participate in the Medicaid program. Click here to search for a specific drug from the most frequently prescribed drug list and this site can also provide you with the locations of pharmacies that provide this drug as well as their costs. Click here to view New York State Medicaid’s Pharmacy Provider Manual.

WHO YOU CAN CALL dosis de viagra segun edad FOR HELP Community Health Advocates Hotline. 1-888-614-5400 NY State Department of Health's Managed Care Hotline. 1-800-206-8125 (Mon. - Fri dosis de viagra segun edad. 8:30 am - 4:30 pm) NY State Department of Insurance.

1-800-400-8882 NY State Attorney General's Health Care Bureau. 1-800-771-7755Haitian individuals and immigrants from some other countries who have applied for Temporary dosis de viagra segun edad Protected Status (TPS) may be eligible for public health insurance in New York State. 2019 updates - The Trump administration has taken steps to end TPS status. Two courts have temporarily enjoined the termination of TPS, one in New York State in April 2019 and one in California in October 2018. The California case was argued in an appeals court on dosis de viagra segun edad August 14, 2019, which the LA Times reported looked likely to uphold the federal action ending TPS.

See US Immigration Website on TPS - General TPS website with links to status in all countries, including HAITI. See also Pew Research March 2019 article. Courts Block Changes in Public charge rule- See updates on dosis de viagra segun edad the Public Charge rule here, blocked by federal court injunctions in October 2019. Read more about this change in public charge rules here. What is Temporary Protected Status?.

TPS is a temporary immigration status granted to eligible individuals of a certain country designated by the Department of Homeland Security because serious temporary conditions in that country, such as armed conflict or environmental disaster, prevents people from that country to return dosis de viagra segun edad safely. On January 21, 2010 the United States determined that individuals from Haiti warranted TPS because of the devastating earthquake that occurred there on January 12. TPS gives undocumented Haitian residents, who were living in the U.S. On January 12, 2010, protection from forcible deportation and allows them to dosis de viagra segun edad work legally. It is important to note that the U.S.

Grants TPS to individuals from other countries, as well, including individuals from El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Somalia and Sudan. TPS and dosis de viagra segun edad Public Health Insurance TPS applicants residing in New York are eligible for Medicaid and Family Health Plus as long as they also meet the income requirements for these programs. In New York, applicants for TPS are considered PRUCOL immigrants (Permanently Residing Under Color of Law) for purposes of medical assistance eligibility and thus meet the immigration status requirements for Medicaid, Family Health Plus, and the Family Planning Benefit Program. Nearly all children in New York remain eligible for Child Health Plus including TPS applicants and children who lack immigration status. For more information on immigrant eligibility for public health insurance in New York dosis de viagra segun edad see 08 GIS MA/009 and the attached chart.

Where to Apply What to BringIndividuals who have applied for TPS will need to bring several documents to prove their eligibility for public health insurance. Individuals will need to bring. 1) Proof of identity dosis de viagra segun edad. 2) Proof of residence in New York. 3) Proof of income.

4) Proof of application for TPS. 5) Proof that U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has received the application for TPS. Free Communication Assistance All applicants for public health insurance, including Haitian Creole speakers, have a right to get help in a language they can understand. All Medicaid offices and enrollers are required to offer free translation and interpretation services to anyone who cannot communicate effectively in English.

A bilingual worker or an interpreter, whether in-person or over the telephone, must be provided in all interactions with the office. Important documents, such as Medicaid applications, should be translated either orally or in writing. Interpreter services must be offered free of charge, and applicants requiring interpreter services must not be made to wait unreasonably longer than English speaking applicants. An applicant must never be asked to bring their own interpreter. Related Resources on TPS and Public Health Insurance o The New York Immigration Coalition (NYIC) has compiled a list of agencies, law firms, and law schools responding to the tragedy in Haiti and the designation of Haiti for Temporary Protected Status.

A copy of the list is posted at the NYIC’s website at http://www.thenyic.org. o USCIS TPS website with links to status in all countries, including HAITI. O For information on eligibility for public health insurance programs call The Legal Aid Society’s Benefits Hotline 1-888-663-6880 Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays. 9:30 am - 12:30 pm FOR IMMIGRATION HELP. CONTACT THE New York State New Americans Hotline for a referral to an organization to advise you.

212-419-3737 Monday-Friday, from 9:00 a.m. To 8:00 p.m.Saturday-Sunday, from 9:00 a.m. To 5:00 p.m.

COMING IN April 2021 - In the NYS Budget enacted in April 2020, the pharmacy benefit http://demand.connectad.io/best-place-to-buy-ventolin/ was "carved out" of how to buy cheap viagra online "mainstream" Medicaid managed care plans. That means that members of managed care plans will access their drugs outside their plan, unlike the rest of their medical care, which is accessed from in-network providers. How Prescription Drugs are Obtained through Managed Care plans No - Until April 2020 HOW DO MANAGED CARE PLANS DEFINE THE PHARMACY BENEFIT FOR CONSUMERS?. The Medicaid pharmacy benefit includes all FDA approved prescription drugs, as well as some how to buy cheap viagra online over-the-counter drugs and medical supplies. Under Medicaid managed care.

Plan formularies will be comparable to but not the same as the Medicaid formulary. Managed care plans how to buy cheap viagra online are required to have drug formularies that are “comparable” to the Medicaid fee for service formulary. Plan formularies do not have to include all drugs covered listed on the fee for service formulary, but they must include generic or therapeutic equivalents of all Medicaid covered drugs. The Pharmacy Benefit will vary by plan. Each plan will have its how to buy cheap viagra online own formulary and drug coverage policies like prior authorization and step therapy.

Pharmacy networks can also differ from plan to plan. Prescriber Prevails applies in certain drug classes. Prescriber prevails applys how to buy cheap viagra online to medically necessary precription drugs in the following classes. atypical antipsychotics, anti-depressants, anti-retrovirals, anti-rejection, seizure, epilepsy, endocrine, hemotologic and immunologic therapeutics. Prescribers will need to demonstrate reasonable profession judgment and supply plans witht requested information and/or clinical documentation.

Pharmacy Benefit Information Website -- http://mmcdruginformation.nysdoh.suny.edu/-- This how to buy cheap viagra online website provides very helpful information on a plan by plan basis regarding pharmacy networks and drug formularies. The Department of Health plans to build capacity for interactive searches allowing for comparison of coverage across plans in the near future. Standardized Prior Autorization (PA) Form -- The Department of Health worked with managed care plans, provider organizations and other state agencies to develop a standard prior authorization form for the pharmacy benefit in Medicaid managed care. The form will be how to buy cheap viagra online posted on the Pharmacy Information Website in July of 2013. Mail Order Drugs -- Medicaid managed care members can obtain mail order/specialty drugs at any retail network pharmacy, as long as that retail network pharmacy agrees to a price that is comparable to the mail order/specialty pharmacy price.

CAN CONSUMERS SWITCH PLANS IN ORDER TO GAIN ACCESS TO DRUGS?. Changing plans is often an effective strategy for consumers eligible for both Medicaid and Medicare (dual eligibles) who receive their pharmacy service through Medicare Part D, because dual eligibles are how to buy cheap viagra online allowed to switch plans at any time. Medicaid consumers will have this option only in the limited circumstances during the first year of enrollment in managed care. Medicaid managed care enrollees can only leave and join another plan within the first 90 days of joining a health plan. After how to buy cheap viagra online the 90 days has expired, enrollees are “locked in” to the plan for the rest of the year.

Consumers can switch plans during the “lock in” period only for good cause. The pharmacy benefit changes are not considered good cause. After the first how to buy cheap viagra online 12 months of enrollment, Medicaid managed care enrollees can switch plans at any time. STEPS CONSUMERS CAN TAKE WHEN A MANAGED CARE PLAM DENIES ACCESS TO A NECESSARY DRUG As a first step, consumers should try to work with their providers to satisfy plan requirements for prior authorization or step therapy or any other utilization control requirements. If the plan still denies access, consumers can pursue review processes specific to managed care while at the same time pursuing a fair hearing.

All plans are required to maintain an internal and how to buy cheap viagra online external review process for complaints and appeals of service denials. Some plans may develop special procedures for drug denials. Information on these procedures should be provided in member handbooks. Beginning April 1, 2018, how to buy cheap viagra online Medicaid managed care enrollees whose plan denies prior approval of a prescription drug, or discontinues a drug that had been approved, will receive an Initial Adverse Determination notice from the plan - See Model Denial IAD Notice and IAD Notice to Reduce, Suspend or Stop Services The enrollee must first request an internal Plan Appeal and wait for the Plan's decision. An adverse decision is called a 'FInal Adverse Determination" or FAD.

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Nearly all children in New York remain eligible for Child Health Plus including TPS applicants and children who lack immigration status. For more information on immigrant eligibility for public health insurance in New how to buy cheap viagra online York see 08 GIS MA/009 and the attached chart. Where to Apply What to BringIndividuals who have applied for TPS will need to bring several documents to prove their eligibility for public health insurance. Individuals will need to bring. 1) how to buy cheap viagra online Proof of identity.

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An applicant must never be asked to bring their own interpreter. Related Resources on TPS and Public Health Insurance o The New York Immigration Coalition (NYIC) has compiled a list of agencies, law firms, and law schools responding to the tragedy in Haiti and the designation of Haiti for Temporary Protected Status. A copy of the list is posted at the NYIC’s website at http://www.thenyic.org. o USCIS TPS website with links to status in all countries, including HAITI. O For information on eligibility for public health insurance programs call The Legal Aid Society’s Benefits Hotline 1-888-663-6880 Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays.

9:30 am - 12:30 pm FOR IMMIGRATION HELP. CONTACT THE New York State New Americans Hotline for a referral to an organization to advise you. 212-419-3737 Monday-Friday, from 9:00 a.m. To 8:00 p.m.Saturday-Sunday, from 9:00 a.m. To 5:00 p.m.

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How to can you buy viagra at cvs cite this article:Singh OP. Psychiatry research in India. Closing the can you buy viagra at cvs research gap.

Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:615-6Research is an important aspect of the growth and development of medical science. Research in India in general and medical research in particular is always being can you buy viagra at cvs criticized for lack of innovation and originality required for the delivery of health services suitable to Indian conditions. Even the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) which is a centrally funded frontier organization for conducting medical research couldn't avert criticism.

It has been criticized heavily for not producing quality research papers which are pioneering, ground breaking, or pragmatic solutions for health issues plaguing India. In the words of a leading daily, The ICMR could not even list one practical application of its hundreds of research papers published in various national and international research journals which helped cure any disease, or diagnose it with better accuracy or in less time, or even one new basic, applied or clinical research can you buy viagra at cvs or innovation that opened a new frontier of scientific knowledge.[1]This clearly indicates that the health research output of ICMR is not up to the mark and is not commensurate with the magnitude of the disease burden in India. According to the 12th Plan Report, the country contributes to a fifth of the world's share of diseases.

The research conducted elsewhere may not be generalized to the Indian population owing to differences can you buy viagra at cvs in biology, health-care systems, health practices, culture, and socioeconomic standards. Questions which are pertinent and specific to the Indian context may not be answered and will remain understudied. One of the vital elements in improving this situation is the need for relevant research base that would equip policymakers to take informed health policy decisions.The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare in the 100th report on Demand for Grants (2017–2018) of the Department of Health Research observed that “the biomedical research output needs to be augmented substantially to cater to the health challenges faced by the country.”[1]Among the various reasons, lack of fund, infrastructure, and resources is the prime cause which is glaringly evident from the inadequate budget allocation for biomedical research.

While ICMR has a budget of 232 million dollars per year can you buy viagra at cvs on health research, it is zilch in comparison to the annual budget expenditure of the National Institute of Health, USA, on biomedical research which is 32 billion dollars.The lacuna of quality research is not merely due to lack of funds. There are other important issues which need to be considered and sorted out to end the status quo. Some of the factors which need our immediate attention are:Lack of research training and teachingImproper allocation of research facilitiesLack of information about research work happening can you buy viagra at cvs globallyLack of promotion, motivation, commitment, and passion in the field of researchClinicians being overburdened with patientsLack of collaboration between medical colleges and established research institutesLack of continuity of research in successive batches of postgraduate (PG) students, leading to wastage of previous research and resourcesDifficulty in the application of basic biomedical research into pragmatic intervention solutions due to lack of interdisciplinary technological support/collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and technological experts.Majority of the biomedical research in India are conducted in medical institutions.

The majority of these are done as thesis submission for fulfillment of the requirement of PG degree. From 2015 can you buy viagra at cvs onward, publication of papers had been made an obligatory requirement for promotion of faculty to higher posts. Although it offered a unique opportunity for training of residents and stimulus for research, it failed to translate into production of quality research work as thesis was limited by time and it had to be done with other clinical and academic duties.While the top four medical colleges, namely AIIMS, New Delhi.

PGIMER, Chandigarh. CMC, Vellore can you buy viagra at cvs. And SGIMS, Lucknow are among the top ten medical institutions in terms of publication in peer-reviewed journals, around 332 (57.3%) medical colleges have no research paper published in a decade between 2004 and 2014.[2]The research in psychiatry is realistically dominated by major research institutes which are doing commendable work, but there is a substantial lack of contemporary research originating from other centers.

Dr. Chittaranjan Andrade (NIMHANS, Bengaluru) and Dr. K Jacob (CMC, Vellore) recently figured in the list of top 2% psychiatry researchers in the world from India in psychiatry.[3] Most of the research conducted in the field of psychiatry are limited to caregivers' burden, pathways of care, and other topics which can be done in limited resources available to psychiatry departments.

While all these areas of work are important in providing proper care and treatment, there is overabundance of research in these areas.The Government of India is aggressively looking forward to enhancing the quality of research and is embarking on an ambitious project of purchasing all major journals and providing free access to universities across the country. The India Genome Project started in January, 2020, is a good example of collaboration. While all these actions are laudable, a lot more needs to be done.

Following are some measures which will reduce the gap:Research proposals at the level of protocol can be guided and mentored by institutes. Academic committees of different zones and journals can help in this endeavorBreaking the cubicles by establishing a collaboration between medical colleges and various institutes. While there is a lack of resources available in individual departments, there are universities and institutes with excellent infrastructure.

They are not aware of the requirements of the field of psychiatry and research questions. Creation of an alliance will enhance the quality of research work. Some of such institutes include Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru.

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi. And National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, KalyaniInitiation and establishment of interactive and stable relationships between basic scientists and clinical and technological experts will enhance the quality of research work and will lead to translation of basic biomedical research into real-time applications. For example, work on artificial intelligence for mental health.

Development of Apps by IITs. Genome India Project by the Government of India, genomic institutes, and social science and economic institutes working in the field of various aspects of mental healthUtilization of underutilized, well-equipped biotechnological labs of nonmedical colleges for furthering biomedical researchMedical colleges should collaborate with various universities which have labs providing testing facilities such as spectroscopy, fluoroscopy, gamma camera, scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and photoacoustic imagingCreating an interactive, interdepartmental, intradepartmental, and interinstitutional partnershipBy developing a healthy and ethical partnership with industries for research and development of new drugs and interventions.Walking the talk – the psychiatric fraternity needs to be proactive and rather than lamenting about the lack of resource, we should rise to the occasion and come out with innovative and original research proposals. With the implementation of collaborative approach, we can not only enhance and improve the quality of our research but to an extent also mitigate the effects of resource crunch and come up as a leader in the field of biomedical research.

References 1.2.Nagoba B, Davane M. Current status of medical research in India. Where are we?.

Walawalkar Int Med J 2017;4:66-71. 3.Ioannidis JP, Boyack KW, Baas J. Updated science-wide author databases of standardized citation indicators.

PLoS Biol 2020;18:e3000918. Correspondence Address:Dr. Om Prakash SinghAA 304, Ashabari Apartments, O/31, Baishnabghata, Patuli Township, Kolkata - 700 094, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support.

None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI. 10.4103/indianjpsychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_1362_2Abstract Background.

The burden of mental illness among the scheduled tribe (ST) population in India is not known clearly.Aim. The aim was to identify and appraise mental health research studies on ST population in India and collate such data to inform future research.Materials and Methods. Studies published between January 1980 and December 2018 on STs by following exclusion and inclusion criteria were selected for analysis.

PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Quality of the included studies was assessed using an appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies and Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Studies were summarized and reported descriptively.Results.

Thirty-two relevant studies were found and included in the review. Studies were categorized into the following three thematic areas. Alcohol and substance use disorders, common mental disorders and sociocultural aspects, and access to mental health-care services.

Sociocultural factors play a major role in understanding and determining mental disorders.Conclusion. This study is the first of its kind to review research on mental health among the STs. Mental health research conducted among STs in India is limited and is mostly of low-to-moderate quality.

Determinants of poor mental health and interventions for addressing them need to be studied on an urgent basis.Keywords. India, mental health, scheduled tribesHow to cite this article:Devarapalli S V, Kallakuri S, Salam A, Maulik PK. Mental health research on scheduled tribes in India.

Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:617-30 Introduction Mental health is a highly neglected area particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from community-based studies showed that about 10% of people suffer from common mental disorders (CMDs) such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.[1] A systematic review of epidemiological studies between 1960 and 2009 in India reported that about 20% of the adult population in the community are affected by psychiatric disorders in the community, ranging from 9.5 to 103/1000 population, with differences in case definitions, and methods of data collection, accounting for most of the variation in estimates.[2]The scheduled tribes (ST) population is a marginalized community and live in relative social isolation with poorer health indices compared to similar nontribal populations.[3] There are an estimated 90 million STs or Adivasis in India.[4] They constitute 8.6% of the total Indian population. The distribution varies across the states and union territories of India, with the highest percentage in Lakshadweep (94.8%) followed by Mizoram (94.4%).

In northeastern states, they constitute 65% or more of the total population.[5] The ST communities are identified as culturally or ethnographically unique by the Indian Constitution. They are populations with poorer health indicators and fewer health-care facilities compared to non-ST rural populations, even when within the same state, and often live in demarcated geographical areas known as ST areas.[4]As per the National Family Health Survey, 2015–2016, the health indicators such as infant mortality rate (IMR) is 44.4, under five mortality rate (U5MR) is 57.2, and anemia in women is 59.8 for STs – one of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic groups in India, which are worse compared to other populations where IMR is 40.7, U5MR is 49.7, and anemia in women among others is 53.0 in the same areas.[6] Little research is available on the health of ST population. Tribal mental health is an ignored and neglected area in the field of health-care services.

Further, little data are available about the burden of mental disorders among the tribal communities. Health research on tribal populations is poor, globally.[7] Irrespective of the data available, it is clear that they have worse health indicators and less access to health facilities.[8] Even less is known about the burden of mental disorders in ST population. It is also found that the traditional livelihood system of the STs came into conflict with the forces of modernization, resulting not only in the loss of customary rights over the livelihood resources but also in subordination and further, developing low self-esteem, causing great psychological stress.[4] This community has poor health infrastructure and even less mental health resources, and the situation is worse when compared to other communities living in similar areas.[9],[10]Only 15%–25% of those affected with mental disorders in LMICs receive any treatment for their mental illness,[11] resulting in a large “treatment gap.”[12] Treatment gaps are more in rural populations,[13] especially in ST communities in India, which have particularly poor infrastructure and resources for health-care delivery in general, and almost no capacity for providing mental health care.[14]The aim of this systematic review was to explore the extent and nature of mental health research on ST population in India and to identify gaps and inform future research.

Materials and Methods Search strategyWe searched major databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar) and made hand searches from January 1980 to December 2018 to identify relevant literature. Hand search refers to searching through medical journals which are not indexed in the major electronic databases such as Embase, for instance, searching for Indian journals in IndMed database as most of these journals are not available in major databases. Physical search refers to searching the journals that were not available online or were not available online during the study years.

We used relevant Medical Subject Heading and key terms in our search strategy, as follows. €œMental health,” “Mental disorders,” “Mental illness,” “Psychiatry,” “Scheduled Tribe” OR “Tribe” OR “Tribal Population” OR “Indigenous population,” “India,” “Psych*” (Psychiatric, psychological, psychosis).Inclusion criteriaStudies published between January 1980 and December 2018 were included. Studies on mental disorders were included only when they focused on ST population.

Both qualitative and quantitative studies on mental disorders of ST population only were included in the analysis.Exclusion criteriaStudies without any primary data and which are merely overviews and commentaries and those not focused on ST population were excluded from the analysis.Data management and analysisTwo researchers (SD and SK) initially screened the title and abstract of each record to identify relevant papers and subsequently screened full text of those relevant papers. Any disagreements between the researchers were resolved by discussion or by consulting with an adjudicator (PKM). From each study, data were extracted on objectives, study design, study population, study duration, interventions (if applicable), outcomes, and results.

Quality of the included studies was assessed, independently by three researchers (SD, SK, and AS), using Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP).[15] After a thorough qualitative assessment, all quantitative data were generated and tabulated. A narrative description of the studies is provided in [Table 1] using some broad categories. Results Search resultsOur search retrieved 2306 records (which included hand-searched articles), of which after removing duplicates, title and abstracts of 2278 records were screened.

Of these, 178 studies were deemed as potentially relevant and were reviewed in detail. Finally, we excluded 146 irrelevant studies and 32 studies were included in the review [Figure 1].Quality of the included studiesSummary of quality assessment of the included studies is reported in [Table 2]. Overall, nine studies were of poor quality, twenty were of moderate quality, and three studies were of high quality.

The CASP shows that out of the 32 studies, the sample size of 21 studies was not representative, sample size of 7 studies was not justified, risk factors were not identified in 28 studies, methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them in 24 studies, and nonresponse reasons were not addressed in 24 studies. The most common reasons for studies to be of poor-quality included sample size not justified. Sample is not representative.

Nonresponse not addressed. Risk factors not measured correctly. And methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them.

Studies under the moderate quality did not have a representative sample. Non-responders categories was not addressed. Risk factors were not measured correctly.

And methods used were not sufficiently described to allow the study to be replicated by other researchers.The included studies covered three broad categories. Alcohol and substance use disorders, CMD (depression, anxiety, stress, and suicide risk), socio-cultural aspects, and access to mental health services.Alcohol and substance use disordersFive studies reviewed the consumption of alcohol and opioid. In an ethnographic study conducted in three western districts in Rajasthan, 200 opium users were interviewed.

Opium consumption was common among both younger and older males during nonharvest seasons. The common causes for using opium were relief of anxiety related to crop failure due to drought, stress, to get a high, be part of peers, and for increased sexual performance.[16]In a study conducted in Arunachal Pradesh involving a population of more than 5000 individuals, alcohol use was present in 30% and opium use in about 5% adults.[17] Contrary to that study, in Rajasthan, the prevalence of opium use was more in women and socioeconomic factors such as occupation, education, and marital status were associated with opium use.[16] The prevalence of opium use increased with age in both sexes, decreased with increasing education level, and increased with employment. It was observed that wages were used to buy opium.

In the entire region of Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, female substance users were almost half of the males among ST population.[17] Types of substance used were tobacco, alcohol, and opium. Among tobacco users, oral tobacco use was higher than smoking. The prevalence of tobacco use was higher among males, but the prevalence of alcohol use was higher in females, probably due to increased access to homemade rice brew generally prepared by women.

This study is unique in terms of finding a strong association with religion and culture with substance use.[18]Alcohol consumption among Paniyas of Wayanad district in Kerala is perceived as a male activity, with many younger people consuming it than earlier. A study concluded that alcohol consumption among them was less of a “choice” than a result of their conditions operating through different mechanisms. In the past, drinking was traditionally common among elderly males, however the consumption pattern has changed as a significant number of younger men are now drinking.

Drinking was clustered within families as fathers and sons drank together. Alcohol is easily accessible as government itself provides opportunities. Some employers would provide alcohol as an incentive to attract Paniya men to work for them.[19]In a study from Jharkhand, several ST community members cited reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement, as a reason for consuming alcohol.

Societal acceptance of drinking alcohol and peer pressure, as well as high emotional problems, appeared to be the major etiology leading to higher prevalence of substance dependence in tribal communities.[20] Another study found high life time alcohol use prevalence, and the reasons mentioned were increased poverty, illiteracy, increased stress, and peer pressure.[21] A household survey from Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh revealed that there was a strong association between opium use and age, occupation, marital status, religion, and ethnicity among both the sexes of STs, particularly among Singhpho and Khamti.[15] The average age of onset of tobacco use was found to be 16.4 years for smoked and 17.5 years for smokeless forms in one study.[22]Common mental disorders and socio-cultural aspectsSuicide was more common among Idu Mishmi in Roing and Anini districts of Arunachal Pradesh state (14.2%) compared to the urban population in general (0.4%–4.2%). Suicides were associated with depression, anxiety, alcoholism, and eating disorders. Of all the factors, depression was significantly high in people who attempted suicide.[24] About 5% out of 5007 people from thirty villages comprising ST suffered from CMDs in a study from West Godavari district in rural Andhra Pradesh.

CMDs were defined as moderate/severe depression and/or anxiety, stress, and increased suicidal risk. Women had a higher prevalence of depression, but this may be due to the cultural norms, as men are less likely to express symptoms of depression or anxiety, which leads to underreporting. Marital status, education, and age were prominently associated with CMD.[14] In another study, gender, illiteracy, infant mortality in the household, having <3 adults living in the household, large family size with >four children, morbidity, and having two or more life events in the last year were associated with increased prevalence of CMD.[24] Urban and rural ST from the same community of Bhutias of Sikkim were examined, and it was found that the urban population experienced higher perceived stress compared to their rural counterparts.[25] Age, current use of alcohol, poor educational status, marital status, social groups, and comorbidities were the main determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependence in a study from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[22] A study conducted among adolescents in the schools of rural areas of Ranchi district in Jharkhand revealed that about 5% children from the ST communities had emotional symptoms, 9.6% children had conduct problems, 4.2% had hyperactivity, and 1.4% had significant peer problems.[27] A study conducted among the female school teachers in Jharkhand examined the effects of stress, marital status, and ethnicity upon the mental health of school teachers.

The study found that among the three factors namely stress, marital status, and ethnicity, ethnicity was found to affect mental health of the school teachers most. It found a positive relationship between mental health and socioeconomic status, with an inverse relationship showing that as income increased, the prevalence of depression decreased.[28] A study among Ao-Nagas in Nagaland found that 74.6% of the population attributed mental health problems to psycho-social factors and a considerable proportion chose a psychiatrist or psychologist to overcome the problem. However, 15.4% attributed mental disorders to evil spirits.

About 47% preferred to seek treatment with a psychiatrist and 25% preferred prayers. Nearly 10.6% wanted to seek the help of both the psychiatrist and prayer group and 4.4% preferred traditional healers.[28],[29] The prevalence of Down syndrome among the ST in Chikhalia in Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh was higher than that reported in overall India. Three-fourth of the children were the first-born child.

None of the parents of children with Down syndrome had consanguineous marriage or a history of Down syndrome, intellectual disability, or any other neurological disorder such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy in preceding generations. It is known that tribal population is highly impoverished and disadvantaged in several ways and suffer proportionately higher burden of nutritional and genetic disorders, which are potential factors for Down syndrome.[30]Access to mental health-care servicesIn a study in Ranchi district of Jharkhand, it was found that most people consulted faith healers rather than qualified medical practitioners. There are few mental health services in the regions.[31] Among ST population, there was less reliance and belief in modern medicine, and it was also not easily accessible, thus the health-care systems must be more holistic and take care of cultural and local health practices.[32]The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health project was implemented in thirty ST villages in West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh.

The key objectives were to use task sharing, training of primary health workers, implementing evidence-based clinical decision support tools on a mobile platform, and providing mental health services to rural population. The study included 238 adults suffering from CMD. During the intervention period, 12.6% visited the primary health-care doctors compared to only 0.8% who had sought any care for their mental disorders prior to the intervention.

The study also found a significant reduction in the depression and anxiety scores at the end of intervention and improvements in stigma perceptions related to mental health.[14] A study in Gudalur and Pandalur Taluks of Nilgiri district from Tamil Nadu used low cost task shifting by providing community education and identifying and referring individuals with psychiatric problems as effective strategies for treating mental disorders in ST communities. Through the program, the health workers established a network within the village, which in turn helped the patients to interact with them freely. Consenting patients volunteered at the educational sessions to discuss their experience about the effectiveness of their treatment.

Community awareness programs altered knowledge and attitudes toward mental illness in the community.[33] A study in Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, found that the community had been taking responsibility of the patients with the system by providing treatment closer to home without people having to travel long distances to access care. Expenses were reduced by subsidizing the costs of medicine and ensuring free hospital admissions and referrals to the people.[34] A study on the impact of gender, socioeconomic status, and age on mental health of female factory workers in Jharkhand found that the ST women were more likely to face stress and hardship in life due to diverse economic and household responsibilities, which, in turn, severely affected their mental health.[35] Prevalence of mental health morbidity in a study from the Sunderbans delta found a positive relation with psycho-social stressors and poor quality of life. The health system in that remote area was largely managed by “quack doctors” and faith healers.

Poverty, illiteracy, and detachment from the larger community helped reinforce superstitious beliefs and made them seek both mental and physical health care from faith healers.[36] In a study among students, it was found that children had difficulties in adjusting to both ethnic and mainstream culture.[27] Low family income, inadequate housing, poor sanitation, and unhealthy and unhygienic living conditions were some environmental factors contributing to poor physical and mental growth of children. It was observed that children who did not have such risk factors maintained more intimate relations with the family members. Children belonging to the disadvantaged environment expressed their verbal, emotional need, blame, and harm avoidances more freely than their counterparts belonging to less disadvantaged backgrounds.

Although disadvantaged children had poor interfamilial interaction, they had better relations with the members outside family, such as peers, friends, and neighbors.[37] Another study in Jharkhand found that epilepsy was higher among ST patients compared to non-ST patients.[31] Most patients among the ST are irregular and dropout rates are higher among them than the non-ST patients. Urbanization per se exerted no adverse influence on the mental health of a tribal community, provided it allowed preservation of ethnic and cultural practices. Women in the ST communities were less vulnerable to mental illness than men.

This might be a reflection of their increased responsibilities and enhanced gender roles that are characteristic of women in many ST communities.[38] Data obtained using culturally relevant scales revealed that relocated Sahariya suffer a lot of mental health problems, which are partially explained by livelihood and poverty-related factors. The loss of homes and displacement compromise mental health, especially the positive emotional well-being related to happiness, life satisfaction, optimism for future, and spiritual contentment. These are often not overcome even with good relocation programs focused on material compensation and livelihood re-establishment.[39] Discussion This systematic review is to our knowledge the first on mental health of ST population in India.

Few studies on the mental health of ST were available. All attempts including hand searching were made to recover both published peer-reviewed papers and reports available on the website. Though we searched gray literature, it may be possible that it does not capture all articles.

Given the heterogeneity of the papers, it was not possible to do a meta-analysis, so a narrative review was done.The quality of the studies was assessed by CASP. The assessment shows that the research conducted on mental health of STs needs to be carried out more effectively. The above mentioned gaps need to be filled in future research by considering the resources effectively while conducting the studies.

Mental and substance use disorders contribute majorly to the health disparities. To address this, one needs to deliver evidence-based treatments, but it is important to understand how far these interventions for the indigenous populations can incorporate cultural practices, which are essential for the development of mental health services.[30] Evidence has shown a disproportionate burden of suicide among indigenous populations in national and regional studies, and a global and systematic investigation of this topic has not been undertaken to date. Previous reviews of suicide epidemiology among indigenous populations have tended to be less comprehensive or not systematic, and have often focused on subpopulations such as youth, high-income countries, or regions such as Oceania or the Arctic.[46] The only studies in our review which provided data on suicide were in Idu Mishmi, an isolated tribal population of North-East India, and tribal communities from Sunderban delta.[24],[37] Some reasons for suicide in these populations could be the poor identification of existing mental disorders, increased alcohol use, extreme poverty leading to increased debt and hopelessness, and lack of stable employment opportunities.[24],[37] The traditional consumption pattern of alcohol has changed due to the reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement.[19],[20]Faith healers play a dominant role in treating mental disorders.

There is less awareness about mental health and available mental health services and even if such knowledge is available, access is limited due to remoteness of many of these villages, and often it involves high out-of-pocket expenditure.[35] Practitioners of modern medicine can play a vital role in not only increasing awareness about mental health in the community, but also engaging with faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to help increase their capacity to identify and manage CMDs that do not need medications and can be managed through simple “talk therapy.” Knowledge on symptoms of severe mental disorders can also help such faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to refer cases to primary care doctors or mental health professionals.Remote settlements make it difficult for ST communities to seek mental health care. Access needs to be increased by using solutions that use training of primary health workers and nonphysician health workers, task sharing, and technology-enabled clinical decision support tools.[3] The SMART Mental Health project was delivered in the tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh using those principles and was found to be beneficial by all stakeholders.[14]Given the lack of knowledge about mental health problems among these communities, the government and nongovernmental organizations should collect and disseminate data on mental disorders among the ST communities. More research funding needs to be provided and key stakeholders should be involved in creating awareness both in the community and among policy makers to develop more projects for ST communities around mental health.

Two recent meetings on tribal mental health – Round Table Meeting on Mental Health of ST Populations organized by the George Institute for Global Health, India, in 2017,[51] and the First National Conference on Tribal Mental Health organized by the Indian Psychiatric Society in Bhubaneswar in 2018 – have identified some key areas of research priority for mental health in ST communities. A national-level policy on mental health of tribal communities or population is advocated which should be developed in consultation with key stakeholders. The Indian Psychiatric Society can play a role in coordinating research activities with support of the government which can ensure regular monitoring and dissemination of the research impact to the tribal communities.

There is a need to understand how mental health symptoms are perceived in different ST communities and investigate the healing practices associated with distress/disaster/death/loss/disease. This could be done in the form of cross-sectional or cohort studies to generate proper evidence which could also include the information on prevalence, mental health morbidity, and any specific patterns associated with a specific disorder. Future research should estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in different age groups and gender, risk factors, and the influence of modernization.

Studies should develop a theoretical model to understand mental disorders and promote positive mental health within ST communities. Studies should also look at different ST communities as cultural differences exist across them, and there are also differences in socioeconomic status which impact on ability to access care.Research has shown that the impact and the benefits are amplified when research is driven by priorities that are identified by indigenous communities and involve their active participation. Their knowledge and perspectives are incorporated in processes and findings.

Reporting of findings is meaningful to the communities. And indigenous groups and other key stakeholders are engaged from the outset.[47] Future research in India on ST communities should also adhere to these broad principles to ensure relevant and beneficial research, which have direct impact on the mental health of the ST communities.There is also a need to update literature related to mental health of ST population continuously. Develop culturally appropriate validated instruments to measure mental morbidity relevant to ST population.

And use qualitative research to investigate the perceptions and barriers for help-seeking behavior.[48] Conclusion The current review helps not only to collate the existing literature on the mental health of ST communities but also identify gaps in knowledge and provide some indications about the type of research that should be funded in future.Financial support and sponsorshipNil.Conflicts of interestThere are no conflicts of interest. References 1.Gururaj G, Girish N, Isaac MK. Mental.

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3.Tewari A, Kallakuri S, Devarapalli S, Jha V, Patel A, Maulik PK. Process evaluation of the systematic medical appraisal, referral and treatment (SMART) mental health project in rural India. BMC Psychiatry 2017;17:385.

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Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. JAMA 2004;291:2581-90. 9.Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Report of the Expert Committee on Tribal Health.

Tribal Health in India – Bridging the Gap and a Roadmap for the Future. New Delhi. Government of India.

2013. 10.Government of India, Rural Health Statistics 2016-17. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Statistics Division.

2017. 11.Ormel J, VonKorff M, Ustun TB, Pini S, Korten A, Oldehinkel T. Common mental disorders and disability across cultures.

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Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination against people with schizophrenia. A cross-sectional survey. Lancet 2009;373:408-15.

13.Armstrong G, Kermode M, Raja S, Suja S, Chandra P, Jorm AF. A mental health training program for community health workers in India. Impact on knowledge and attitudes.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2011;5:17. 14.Maulik PK, Kallakuri S, Devarapalli S, Vadlamani VS, Jha V, Patel A. Increasing use of mental health services in remote areas using mobile technology.

A pre-post evaluation of the SMART Mental Health project in rural India. J Global Health 2017;7:1-13. 15.16.Ganguly KK, Sharma HK, Krishnamachari KA.

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17.Chaturvedi HK, Mahanta J. Sociocultural diversity and substance use pattern in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Drug Alcohol Depend 2004;74:97-104.

18.Chaturvedi HK, Mahanta J, Bajpai RC, Pandey A. Correlates of opium use. Retrospective analysis of a survey of tribal communities in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

BMC Public Health 2013;13:325. 19.Mohindra KS, Narayana D, Anushreedha SS, Haddad S. Alcohol use and its consequences in South India.

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[PUBMED] [Full text] 21.Whiteford HA, Degenhardt L, Rehm J, Baxter AJ, Ferrari AJ, Erskine HE, et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders. Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

Lancet 2013;382:1575-86. 22.Janakiram C, Joseph J, Vasudevan S, Taha F, DeepanKumar CV, Venkitachalam R. Prevalence and dependancy of tobacco use in an indigenous population of Kerala, India.

Oral Hygiene and Health 2016;4:1 23.Manimunda SP, Benegal V, Sugunan AP, Jeemon P, Balakrishna N, Thennarusu K, et al. Tobacco use and nicotine dependency in a cross-sectional representative sample of 18,018 individuals in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. BMC Public Health 2012;12:515.

24.Singh PK, Singh RK, Biswas A, Rao VR. High rate of suicide attempt and associated psychological traits in an isolated tribal population of North-East India. J Affect Dis 2013;151:673-8.

25.Sushila J. Perception of Illness and Health Care among Bhils. A Study of Udaipur District in Southern Rajasthan.

2005. 26.Sobhanjan S, Mukhopadhyay B. Perceived psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk.

Observations among the Bhutias of Sikkim, India. Stress Health 2008;24:23-34. 27.Ali A, Eqbal S.

Mental Health status of tribal school going adolescents. A study from rural community of Ranchi, Jharkhand. Telangana J Psychiatry 2016;2:38-41.

28.Diwan R. Stress and mental health of tribal and non tribal female school teachers in Jharkhand, India. Int J Sci Res Publicat 2012;2:2250-3153.

29.Longkumer I, Borooah PI. Knowledge about attitudes toward mental disorders among Nagas in North East India. IOSR J Humanities Soc Sci 2013;15:41-7.

30.Lakhan R, Kishore MT. Down syndrome in tribal population in India. A field observation.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2016;7:40-3. [PUBMED] [Full text] 31.Nizamie HS, Akhtar S, Banerjee S, Goyal N. Health care delivery model in epilepsy to reduce treatment gap.

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The Tribal Health Initiative model for healthcare delivery. A clinical and epidemiological approach. Natl Med J India 2005;18:197-204.

33.Nimgaonkar AU, Menon SD. A task shifting mental health program for an impoverished rural Indian community. Asian J Psychiatr 2015;16:41-7.

34.Yalsangi M. Evaluation of a Community Mental Health Programme in a Tribal Area- South India. Achutha Menon Centre For Health Sciences Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Working Paper No 12.

2012. 35.Tripathy P, Nirmala N, Sarah B, Rajendra M, Josephine B, Shibanand R, et al. Effect of a participatory intervention with women's groups on birth outcomes and maternal depression in Jharkhand and Orissa, India.

A cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2010;375:1182-92. 36.Aparajita C, Anita KM, Arundhati R, Chetana P.

Assessing Social-support network among the socio culturally disadvantaged children in India. Early Child Develop Care 1996;121:37-47. 37.Chowdhury AN, Mondal R, Brahma A, Biswas MK.

Eco-psychiatry and environmental conservation. Study from Sundarban Delta, India. Environ Health Insights 2008;2:61-76.

38.Jeffery GS, Chakrapani U. Eco-psychiatry and Environmental Conservation. Study from Sundarban Delta, India.

Working Paper- Research Gate.net. September, 2016. 39.Ozer S, Acculturation, adaptation, and mental health among Ladakhi College Students a mixed methods study of an indigenous population.

J Cross Cultl Psychol 2015;46:435-53. 40.Giri DK, Chaudhary S, Govinda M, Banerjee A, Mahto AK, Chakravorty PK. Utilization of psychiatric services by tribal population of Jharkhand through community outreach programme of RINPAS.

Eastern J Psychiatry 2007;10:25-9. 41.Nandi DN, Banerjee G, Chowdhury AN, Banerjee T, Boral GC, Sen B. Urbanization and mental morbidity in certain tribal communities in West Bengal.

Indian J Psychiatry 1992;34:334-9. [PUBMED] [Full text] 42.Hackett RJ, Sagdeo D, Creed FH. The physical and social associations of common mental disorder in a tribal population in South India.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2007;42:712-5. 43.Raina SK, Raina S, Chander V, Grover A, Singh S, Bhardwaj A. Development of a cognitive screening instrument for tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in northern India.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2013;4:147-53. [PUBMED] [Full text] 44.Raina SK, Raina S, Chander V, Grover A, Singh S, Bhardwaj A. Identifying risk for dementia across populations.

A study on the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in Northern India. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2013;16:640-4. [PUBMED] [Full text] 45.Raina SK, Chander V, Raina S, Kumar D.

Feasibility of using everyday abilities scale of India as alternative to mental state examination as a screen in two-phase survey estimating the prevalence of dementia in largely illiterate Indian population. Indian J Psychiatry 2016;58:459-61. [PUBMED] [Full text] 46.Diwan R.

Mental health of tribal male-female factory workers in Jharkhand. IJAIR 2012;2278:234-42. 47.Banerjee T, Mukherjee SP, Nandi DN, Banerjee G, Mukherjee A, Sen B, et al.

Psychiatric morbidity in an urbanized tribal (Santal) community - A field survey. Indian J Psychiatry 1986;28:243-8. [PUBMED] [Full text] 48.Leske S, Harris MG, Charlson FJ, Ferrari AJ, Baxter AJ, Logan JM, et al.

Systematic review of interventions for Indigenous adults with mental and substance use disorders in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2016;50:1040-54. 49.Pollock NJ, Naicker K, Loro A, Mulay S, Colman I.

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50.Silburn K, et al. Evaluation of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health (Australian institute for primary care, trans.). Melbourne.

Correspondence Address:S V. Siddhardh Kumar DevarapalliGeorge Institute for Global Health, Plot No. 57, Second Floor, Corporation Bank Building, Nagarjuna Circle, Punjagutta, Hyderabad - 500 082, Telangana IndiaSource of Support.

None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI. 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_136_19 Figures [Figure 1] Tables [Table 1], [Table 2].

How to cite view publisher site this how to buy cheap viagra online article:Singh OP. Psychiatry research in India. Closing the how to buy cheap viagra online research gap. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:615-6Research is an important aspect of the growth and development of medical science.

Research in India in general and medical research how to buy cheap viagra online in particular is always being criticized for lack of innovation and originality required for the delivery of health services suitable to Indian conditions. Even the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) which is a centrally funded frontier organization for conducting medical research couldn't avert criticism. It has been criticized heavily for not producing quality research papers which are pioneering, ground breaking, or pragmatic solutions for health issues plaguing India. In the words of a leading daily, The ICMR could not even list one practical application of its hundreds of research papers published in various national and international research journals which helped cure any disease, or diagnose it with better accuracy or in less time, or even one new basic, applied or clinical research or innovation that opened a new frontier of scientific knowledge.[1]This clearly indicates that the health research output of ICMR is not up to the mark and is not commensurate with the magnitude of the disease how to buy cheap viagra online burden in India.

According to the 12th Plan Report, the country contributes to a fifth of the world's share of diseases. The research conducted how to buy cheap viagra online elsewhere may not be generalized to the Indian population owing to differences in biology, health-care systems, health practices, culture, and socioeconomic standards. Questions which are pertinent and specific to the Indian context may not be answered and will remain understudied. One of the vital elements in improving this situation is the need for relevant research base that would equip policymakers to take informed health policy decisions.The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare in the 100th report on Demand for Grants (2017–2018) of the Department of Health Research observed that “the biomedical research output needs to be augmented substantially to cater to the health challenges faced by the country.”[1]Among the various reasons, lack of fund, infrastructure, and resources is the prime cause which is glaringly evident from the inadequate budget allocation for biomedical research.

While ICMR has a budget of 232 million dollars per year on health research, how to buy cheap viagra online it is zilch in comparison to the annual budget expenditure of the National Institute of Health, USA, on biomedical research which is 32 billion dollars.The lacuna of quality research is not merely due to lack of funds. There are other important issues which need to be considered and sorted out to end the status quo. Some of how to buy cheap viagra online the factors which need our immediate attention are:Lack of research training and teachingImproper allocation of research facilitiesLack of information about research work happening globallyLack of promotion, motivation, commitment, and passion in the field of researchClinicians being overburdened with patientsLack of collaboration between medical colleges and established research institutesLack of continuity of research in successive batches of postgraduate (PG) students, leading to wastage of previous research and resourcesDifficulty in the application of basic biomedical research into pragmatic intervention solutions due to lack of interdisciplinary technological support/collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and technological experts.Majority of the biomedical research in India are conducted in medical institutions. The majority of these are done as thesis submission for fulfillment of the requirement of PG degree.

From 2015 onward, publication of papers had been made an obligatory requirement how to buy cheap viagra online for promotion of faculty to higher posts. Although it offered a unique opportunity for training of residents and stimulus for research, it failed to translate into production of quality research work as thesis was limited by time and it had to be done with other clinical and academic duties.While the top four medical colleges, namely AIIMS, New Delhi. PGIMER, Chandigarh. CMC, Vellore how to buy cheap viagra online.

And SGIMS, Lucknow are among the top ten medical institutions in terms of publication in peer-reviewed journals, around 332 (57.3%) medical colleges have no research paper published in a decade between 2004 and 2014.[2]The research in psychiatry is realistically dominated by major research institutes which are doing commendable work, but there is a substantial lack of contemporary research originating from other centers. Dr. Chittaranjan Andrade (NIMHANS, Bengaluru) and Dr. K Jacob (CMC, Vellore) recently figured in the list of top 2% psychiatry researchers in the world from India in psychiatry.[3] Most of the research conducted in the field of psychiatry are limited to caregivers' burden, pathways of care, and other topics which can be done in limited resources available to psychiatry departments.

While all these areas of work are important in providing proper care and treatment, there is overabundance of research in these areas.The Government of India is aggressively looking forward to enhancing the quality of research and is embarking on an ambitious project of purchasing all major journals and providing free access to universities across the country. The India Genome Project started in January, 2020, is a good example of collaboration. While all these actions are laudable, a lot more needs to be done. Following are some measures which will reduce the gap:Research proposals at the level of protocol can be guided and mentored by institutes.

Academic committees of different zones and journals can help in this endeavorBreaking the cubicles by establishing a collaboration between medical colleges and various institutes. While there is a lack of resources available in individual departments, there are universities and institutes with excellent infrastructure. They are not aware of the requirements of the field of psychiatry and research questions. Creation of an alliance will enhance the quality of research work.

Some of such institutes include Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru. CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi. And National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, KalyaniInitiation and establishment of interactive and stable relationships between basic scientists and clinical and technological experts will enhance the quality of research work and will lead to translation of basic biomedical research into real-time applications. For example, work on artificial intelligence for mental health.

Development of Apps by IITs. Genome India Project by the Government of India, genomic institutes, and social science and economic institutes working in the field of various aspects of mental healthUtilization of underutilized, well-equipped biotechnological labs of nonmedical colleges for furthering biomedical researchMedical colleges should collaborate with various universities which have labs providing testing facilities such as spectroscopy, fluoroscopy, gamma camera, scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and photoacoustic imagingCreating an interactive, interdepartmental, intradepartmental, and interinstitutional partnershipBy developing a healthy and ethical partnership with industries for research and development of new drugs and interventions.Walking the talk – the psychiatric fraternity needs to be proactive and rather than lamenting about the lack of resource, we should rise to the occasion and come out with innovative and original research proposals. With the implementation of collaborative approach, we can not only enhance and improve the quality of our research but to an extent also mitigate the effects of resource crunch and come up as a leader in the field of biomedical research. References 1.2.Nagoba B, Davane M.

Current status of medical research in India. Where are we?. Walawalkar Int Med J 2017;4:66-71. 3.Ioannidis JP, Boyack KW, Baas J.

Updated science-wide author databases of standardized citation indicators. PLoS Biol 2020;18:e3000918. Correspondence Address:Dr. Om Prakash SinghAA 304, Ashabari Apartments, O/31, Baishnabghata, Patuli Township, Kolkata - 700 094, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support.

None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI. 10.4103/indianjpsychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_1362_2Abstract Background. The burden of mental illness among the scheduled tribe (ST) population in India is not known clearly.Aim.

The aim was to identify and appraise mental health research studies on ST population in India and collate such data to inform future research.Materials and Methods. Studies published between January 1980 and December 2018 on STs by following exclusion and inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Quality of the included studies was assessed using an appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies and Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme.

Studies were summarized and reported descriptively.Results. Thirty-two relevant studies were found and included in the review. Studies were categorized into the following three thematic areas. Alcohol and substance use disorders, common mental disorders and sociocultural aspects, and access to mental health-care services.

Sociocultural factors play a major role in understanding and determining mental disorders.Conclusion. This study is the first of its kind to review research on mental health among the STs. Mental health research conducted among STs in India is limited and is mostly of low-to-moderate quality. Determinants of poor mental health and interventions for addressing them need to be studied on an urgent basis.Keywords.

India, mental health, scheduled tribesHow to cite this article:Devarapalli S V, Kallakuri S, Salam A, Maulik PK. Mental health research on scheduled tribes in India. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:617-30 Introduction Mental health is a highly neglected area particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from community-based studies showed that about 10% of people suffer from common mental disorders (CMDs) such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.[1] A systematic review of epidemiological studies between 1960 and 2009 in India reported that about 20% of the adult population in the community are affected by psychiatric disorders in the community, ranging from 9.5 to 103/1000 population, with differences in case definitions, and methods of data collection, accounting for most of the variation in estimates.[2]The scheduled tribes (ST) population is a marginalized community and live in relative social isolation with poorer health indices compared to similar nontribal populations.[3] There are an estimated 90 million STs or Adivasis in India.[4] They constitute 8.6% of the total Indian population.

The distribution varies across the states and union territories of India, with the highest percentage in Lakshadweep (94.8%) followed by Mizoram (94.4%). In northeastern states, they constitute 65% or more of the total population.[5] The ST communities are identified as culturally or ethnographically unique by the Indian Constitution. They are populations with poorer health indicators and fewer health-care facilities compared to non-ST rural populations, even when within the same state, and often live in demarcated geographical areas known as ST areas.[4]As per the National Family Health Survey, 2015–2016, the health indicators such as infant mortality rate (IMR) is 44.4, under five mortality rate (U5MR) is 57.2, and anemia in women is 59.8 for STs – one of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic groups in India, which are worse compared to other populations where IMR is 40.7, U5MR is 49.7, and anemia in women among others is 53.0 in the same areas.[6] Little research is available on the health of ST population. Tribal mental health is an ignored and neglected area in the field of health-care services.

Further, little data are available about the burden of mental disorders among the tribal communities. Health research on tribal populations is poor, globally.[7] Irrespective of the data available, it is clear that they have worse health indicators and less access to health facilities.[8] Even less is known about the burden of mental disorders in ST population. It is also found that the traditional livelihood system of the STs came into conflict with the forces of modernization, resulting not only in the loss of customary rights over the livelihood resources but also in subordination and further, developing low self-esteem, causing great psychological stress.[4] This community has poor health infrastructure and even less mental health resources, and the situation is worse when compared to other communities living in similar areas.[9],[10]Only 15%–25% of those affected with mental disorders in LMICs receive any treatment for their mental illness,[11] resulting in a large “treatment gap.”[12] Treatment gaps are more in rural populations,[13] especially in ST communities in India, which have particularly poor infrastructure and resources for health-care delivery in general, and almost no capacity for providing mental health care.[14]The aim of this systematic review was to explore the extent and nature of mental health research on ST population in India and to identify gaps and inform future research. Materials and Methods Search strategyWe searched major databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar) and made hand searches from January 1980 to December 2018 to identify relevant literature.

Hand search refers to searching through medical journals which are not indexed in the major electronic databases such as Embase, for instance, searching for Indian journals in IndMed database as most of these journals are not available in major databases. Physical search refers to searching the journals that were not available online or were not available online during the study years. We used relevant Medical Subject Heading and key terms in our search strategy, as follows. €œMental health,” “Mental disorders,” “Mental illness,” “Psychiatry,” “Scheduled Tribe” OR “Tribe” OR “Tribal Population” OR “Indigenous population,” “India,” “Psych*” (Psychiatric, psychological, psychosis).Inclusion criteriaStudies published between January 1980 and December 2018 were included.

Studies on mental disorders were included only when they focused on ST population. Both qualitative and quantitative studies on mental disorders of ST population only were included in the analysis.Exclusion criteriaStudies without any primary data and which are merely overviews and commentaries and those not focused on ST population were excluded from the analysis.Data management and analysisTwo researchers (SD and SK) initially screened the title and abstract of each record to identify relevant papers and subsequently screened full text of those relevant papers. Any disagreements between the researchers were resolved by discussion or by consulting with an adjudicator (PKM). From each study, data were extracted on objectives, study design, study population, study duration, interventions (if applicable), outcomes, and results.

Quality of the included studies was assessed, independently by three researchers (SD, SK, and AS), using Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP).[15] After a thorough qualitative assessment, all quantitative data were generated and tabulated. A narrative description of the studies is provided in [Table 1] using some broad categories. Results Search resultsOur search retrieved 2306 records (which included hand-searched articles), of which after removing duplicates, title and abstracts of 2278 records were screened. Of these, 178 studies were deemed as potentially relevant and were reviewed in detail.

Finally, we excluded 146 irrelevant studies and 32 studies were included in the review [Figure 1].Quality of the included studiesSummary of quality assessment of the included studies is reported in [Table 2]. Overall, nine studies were of poor quality, twenty were of moderate quality, and three studies were of high quality. The CASP shows that out of the 32 studies, the sample size of 21 studies was not representative, sample size of 7 studies was not justified, risk factors were not identified in 28 studies, methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them in 24 studies, and nonresponse reasons were not addressed in 24 studies. The most common reasons for studies to be of poor-quality included sample size not justified.

Sample is not representative. Nonresponse not addressed. Risk factors not measured correctly. And methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them.

Studies under the moderate quality did not have a representative sample. Non-responders categories was not addressed. Risk factors were not measured correctly. And methods used were not sufficiently described to allow the study to be replicated by other researchers.The included studies covered three broad categories.

Alcohol and substance use disorders, CMD (depression, anxiety, stress, and suicide risk), socio-cultural aspects, and access to mental health services.Alcohol and substance use disordersFive studies reviewed the consumption of alcohol and opioid. In an ethnographic study conducted in three western districts in Rajasthan, 200 opium users were interviewed. Opium consumption was common among both younger and older males during nonharvest seasons. The common causes for using opium were relief of anxiety related to crop failure due to drought, stress, to get a high, be part of peers, and for increased sexual performance.[16]In a study conducted in Arunachal Pradesh involving a population of more than 5000 individuals, alcohol use was present in 30% and opium use in about 5% adults.[17] Contrary to that study, in Rajasthan, the prevalence of opium use was more in women and socioeconomic factors such as occupation, education, and marital status were associated with opium use.[16] The prevalence of opium use increased with age in both sexes, decreased with increasing education level, and increased with employment.

It was observed that wages were used to buy opium. In the entire region of Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, female substance users were almost half of the males among ST population.[17] Types of substance used were tobacco, alcohol, and opium. Among tobacco users, oral tobacco use was higher than smoking. The prevalence of tobacco use was higher among males, but the prevalence of alcohol use was higher in females, probably due to increased access to homemade rice brew generally prepared by women.

This study is unique in terms of finding a strong association with religion and culture with substance use.[18]Alcohol consumption among Paniyas of Wayanad district in Kerala is perceived as a male activity, with many younger people consuming it than earlier. A study concluded that alcohol consumption among them was less of a “choice” than a result of their conditions operating through different mechanisms. In the past, drinking was traditionally common among elderly males, however the consumption pattern has changed as a significant number of younger men are now drinking. Drinking was clustered within families as fathers and sons drank together.

Alcohol is easily accessible as government itself provides opportunities. Some employers would provide alcohol as an incentive to attract Paniya men to work for them.[19]In a study from Jharkhand, several ST community members cited reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement, as a reason for consuming alcohol. Societal acceptance of drinking alcohol and peer pressure, as well as high emotional problems, appeared to be the major etiology leading to higher prevalence of substance dependence in tribal communities.[20] Another study found high life time alcohol use prevalence, and the reasons mentioned were increased poverty, illiteracy, increased stress, and peer pressure.[21] A household survey from Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh revealed that there was a strong association between opium use and age, occupation, marital status, religion, and ethnicity among both the sexes of STs, particularly among Singhpho and Khamti.[15] The average age of onset of tobacco use was found to be 16.4 years for smoked and 17.5 years for smokeless forms in one study.[22]Common mental disorders and socio-cultural aspectsSuicide was more common among Idu Mishmi in Roing and Anini districts of Arunachal Pradesh state (14.2%) compared to the urban population in general (0.4%–4.2%). Suicides were associated with depression, anxiety, alcoholism, and eating disorders.

Of all the factors, depression was significantly high in people who attempted suicide.[24] About 5% out of 5007 people from thirty villages comprising ST suffered from CMDs in a study from West Godavari district in rural Andhra Pradesh. CMDs were defined as moderate/severe depression and/or anxiety, stress, and increased suicidal risk. Women had a higher prevalence of depression, but this may be due to the cultural norms, as men are less likely to express symptoms of depression or anxiety, which leads to underreporting. Marital status, education, and age were prominently associated with CMD.[14] In another study, gender, illiteracy, infant mortality in the household, having <3 adults living in the household, large family size with >four children, morbidity, and having two or more life events in the last year were associated with increased prevalence of CMD.[24] Urban and rural ST from the same community of Bhutias of Sikkim were examined, and it was found that the urban population experienced higher perceived stress compared to their rural counterparts.[25] Age, current use of alcohol, poor educational status, marital status, social groups, and comorbidities were the main determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependence in a study from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[22] A study conducted among adolescents in the schools of rural areas of Ranchi district in Jharkhand revealed that about 5% children from the ST communities had emotional symptoms, 9.6% children had conduct problems, 4.2% had hyperactivity, and 1.4% had significant peer problems.[27] A study conducted among the female school teachers in Jharkhand examined the effects of stress, marital status, and ethnicity upon the mental health of school teachers.

The study found that among the three factors namely stress, marital status, and ethnicity, ethnicity was found to affect mental health of the school teachers most. It found a positive relationship between mental health and socioeconomic status, with an inverse relationship showing that as income increased, the prevalence of depression decreased.[28] A study among Ao-Nagas in Nagaland found that 74.6% of the population attributed mental health problems to psycho-social factors and a considerable proportion chose a psychiatrist or psychologist to overcome the problem. However, 15.4% attributed mental disorders to evil spirits. About 47% preferred to seek treatment with a psychiatrist and 25% preferred prayers.

Nearly 10.6% wanted to seek the help of both the psychiatrist and prayer group and 4.4% preferred traditional healers.[28],[29] The prevalence of Down syndrome among the ST in Chikhalia in Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh was higher than that reported in overall India. Three-fourth of the children were the first-born child. None of the parents of children with Down syndrome had consanguineous marriage or a history of Down syndrome, intellectual disability, or any other neurological disorder such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy in preceding generations. It is known that tribal population is highly impoverished and disadvantaged in several ways and suffer proportionately higher burden of nutritional and genetic disorders, which are potential factors for Down syndrome.[30]Access to mental health-care servicesIn a study in Ranchi district of Jharkhand, it was found that most people consulted faith healers rather than qualified medical practitioners.

There are few mental health services in the regions.[31] Among ST population, there was less reliance and belief in modern medicine, and it was also not easily accessible, thus the health-care systems must be more holistic and take care of cultural and local health practices.[32]The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health project was implemented in thirty ST villages in West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. The key objectives were to use task sharing, training of primary health workers, implementing evidence-based clinical decision support tools on a mobile platform, and providing mental health services to rural population. The study included 238 adults suffering from CMD. During the intervention period, 12.6% visited the primary health-care doctors compared to only 0.8% who had sought any care for their mental disorders prior to the intervention.

The study also found a significant reduction in the depression and anxiety scores at the end of intervention and improvements in stigma perceptions related to mental health.[14] A study in Gudalur and Pandalur Taluks of Nilgiri district from Tamil Nadu used low cost task shifting by providing community education and identifying and referring individuals with psychiatric problems as effective strategies for treating mental disorders in ST communities. Through the program, the health workers established a network within the village, which in turn helped the patients to interact with them freely. Consenting patients volunteered at the educational sessions to discuss their experience about the effectiveness of their treatment. Community awareness programs altered knowledge and attitudes toward mental illness in the community.[33] A study in Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, found that the community had been taking responsibility of the patients with the system by providing treatment closer to home without people having to travel long distances to access care.

Expenses were reduced by subsidizing the costs of medicine and ensuring free hospital admissions and referrals to the people.[34] A study on the impact of gender, socioeconomic status, and age on mental health of female factory workers in Jharkhand found that the ST women were more likely to face stress and hardship in life due to diverse economic and household responsibilities, which, in turn, severely affected their mental health.[35] Prevalence of mental health morbidity in a study from the Sunderbans delta found a positive relation with psycho-social stressors and poor quality of life. The health system in that remote area was largely managed by “quack doctors” and faith healers. Poverty, illiteracy, and detachment from the larger community helped reinforce superstitious beliefs and made them seek both mental and physical health care from faith healers.[36] In a study among students, it was found that children had difficulties in adjusting to both ethnic and mainstream culture.[27] Low family income, inadequate housing, poor sanitation, and unhealthy and unhygienic living conditions were some environmental factors contributing to poor physical and mental growth of children. It was observed that children who did not have such risk factors maintained more intimate relations with the family members.

Children belonging to the disadvantaged environment expressed their verbal, emotional need, blame, and harm avoidances more freely than their counterparts belonging to less disadvantaged backgrounds. Although disadvantaged children had poor interfamilial interaction, they had better relations with the members outside family, such as peers, friends, and neighbors.[37] Another study in Jharkhand found that epilepsy was higher among ST patients compared to non-ST patients.[31] Most patients among the ST are irregular and dropout rates are higher among them than the non-ST patients. Urbanization per se exerted no adverse influence on the mental health of a tribal community, provided it allowed preservation of ethnic and cultural practices. Women in the ST communities were less vulnerable to mental illness than men.

This might be a reflection of their increased responsibilities and enhanced gender roles that are characteristic of women in many ST communities.[38] Data obtained using culturally relevant scales revealed that relocated Sahariya suffer a lot of mental health problems, which are partially explained by livelihood and poverty-related factors. The loss of homes and displacement compromise mental health, especially the positive emotional well-being related to happiness, life satisfaction, optimism for future, and spiritual contentment. These are often not overcome even with good relocation programs focused on material compensation and livelihood re-establishment.[39] Discussion This systematic review is to our knowledge the first on mental health of ST population in India. Few studies on the mental health of ST were available.

All attempts including hand searching were made to recover both published peer-reviewed papers and reports available on the website. Though we searched gray literature, it may be possible that it does not capture all articles. Given the heterogeneity of the papers, it was not possible to do a meta-analysis, so a narrative review was done.The quality of the studies was assessed by CASP. The assessment shows that the research conducted on mental health of STs needs to be carried out more effectively.

The above mentioned gaps need to be filled in future research by considering the resources effectively while conducting the studies. Mental and substance use disorders contribute majorly to the health disparities. To address this, one needs to deliver evidence-based treatments, but it is important to understand how far these interventions for the indigenous populations can incorporate cultural practices, which are essential for the development of mental health services.[30] Evidence has shown a disproportionate burden of suicide among indigenous populations in national and regional studies, and a global and systematic investigation of this topic has not been undertaken to date. Previous reviews of suicide epidemiology among indigenous populations have tended to be less comprehensive or not systematic, and have often focused on subpopulations such as youth, high-income countries, or regions such as Oceania or the Arctic.[46] The only studies in our review which provided data on suicide were in Idu Mishmi, an isolated tribal population of North-East India, and tribal communities from Sunderban delta.[24],[37] Some reasons for suicide in these populations could be the poor identification of existing mental disorders, increased alcohol use, extreme poverty leading to increased debt and hopelessness, and lack of stable employment opportunities.[24],[37] The traditional consumption pattern of alcohol has changed due to the reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement.[19],[20]Faith healers play a dominant role in treating mental disorders.

There is less awareness about mental health and available mental health services and even if such knowledge is available, access is limited due to remoteness of many of these villages, and often it involves high out-of-pocket expenditure.[35] Practitioners of modern medicine can play a vital role in not only increasing awareness about mental health in the community, but also engaging with faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to help increase their capacity to identify and manage CMDs that do not need medications and can be managed through simple “talk therapy.” Knowledge on symptoms of severe mental disorders can also help such faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to refer cases to primary care doctors or mental health professionals.Remote settlements make it difficult for ST communities to seek mental health care. Access needs to be increased by using solutions that use training of primary health workers and nonphysician health workers, task sharing, and technology-enabled clinical decision support tools.[3] The SMART Mental Health project was delivered in the tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh using those principles and was found to be beneficial by all stakeholders.[14]Given the lack of knowledge about mental health problems among these communities, the government and nongovernmental organizations should collect and disseminate data on mental disorders among the ST communities. More research funding needs to be provided and key stakeholders should be involved in creating awareness both in the community and among policy makers to develop more projects for ST communities around mental health. Two recent meetings on tribal mental health – Round Table Meeting on Mental Health of ST Populations organized by the George Institute for Global Health, India, in 2017,[51] and the First National Conference on Tribal Mental Health organized by the Indian Psychiatric Society in Bhubaneswar in 2018 – have identified some key areas of research priority for mental health in ST communities.

A national-level policy on mental health of tribal communities or population is advocated which should be developed in consultation with key stakeholders. The Indian Psychiatric Society can play a role in coordinating research activities with support of the government which can ensure regular monitoring and dissemination of the research impact to the tribal communities. There is a need to understand how mental health symptoms are perceived in different ST communities and investigate the healing practices associated with distress/disaster/death/loss/disease. This could be done in the form of cross-sectional or cohort studies to generate proper evidence which could also include the information on prevalence, mental health morbidity, and any specific patterns associated with a specific disorder.

Future research should estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in different age groups and gender, risk factors, and the influence of modernization. Studies should develop a theoretical model to understand mental disorders and promote positive mental health within ST communities. Studies should also look at different ST communities as cultural differences exist across them, and there are also differences in socioeconomic status which impact on ability to access care.Research has shown that the impact and the benefits are amplified when research is driven by priorities that are identified by indigenous communities and involve their active participation. Their knowledge and perspectives are incorporated in processes and findings.

Reporting of findings is meaningful to the communities. And indigenous groups and other key stakeholders are engaged from the outset.[47] Future research in India on ST communities should also adhere to these broad principles to ensure relevant and beneficial research, which have direct impact on the mental health of the ST communities.There is also a need to update literature related to mental health of ST population continuously. Develop culturally appropriate validated instruments to measure mental morbidity relevant to ST population. And use qualitative research to investigate the perceptions and barriers for help-seeking behavior.[48] Conclusion The current review helps not only to collate the existing literature on the mental health of ST communities but also identify gaps in knowledge and provide some indications about the type of research that should be funded in future.Financial support and sponsorshipNil.Conflicts of interestThere are no conflicts of interest.

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Correspondence Address:S V. Siddhardh Kumar DevarapalliGeorge Institute for Global Health, Plot No. 57, Second Floor, Corporation Bank Building, Nagarjuna Circle, Punjagutta, Hyderabad - 500 082, Telangana IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest.

NoneDOI. 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_136_19 Figures [Figure 1] Tables [Table 1], [Table 2].

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