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The RDM Positive Impact Foundation is funding an ambitious kamagra online canada $1.25 million research project at the UC Davis MIND Institute to study SYNGAP1. The rare genetic condition causes seizures (epilepsy), intellectual disability and kamagra online canada developmental delays. It is also highly associated with autism. About half kamagra online canada of all SYNGAP1 patients have an autism diagnosis. A staff member conducts research in the Segal Lab.Ron Mittelstaedt and his wife, Darin, who live in El Dorado Hills, run the foundation.

He’s the executive chairman kamagra online canada of Waste Connections, a solid waste and recycling company with 20,000 employees in North America, and his family operates Toogood Estate Winery in Somerset. The Mittelstaedts have donated millions of dollars to organizations that help children over the past 15 years.This time, it’s personal.About three and-a-half years ago, Ron Mittelstaedt’s best friend died, leaving behind three sons and their families. €œI’ve become sort of a surrogate dad, and now a kamagra online canada surrogate grandfather,” explained Mittelstaedt. One of those “grandsons” was diagnosed with a SYNGAP1 mutation a year and-a-half ago. With the family’s support, Mittelstaedt is providing meaningful funding to the MIND kamagra online canada Institute to advance research about the syndrome.“The reality is, like many rare conditions, there aren’t a lot of great options.

So, we’re trying to find potentially life-changing treatment that hopefully may impact the lives of people with SYNGAP1,” he said.Mittelstaedt was previously on the MIND Institute’s inaugural National Council of Visitors (then called the MIND Institute Advisory Council), and funded a successful research project that developed a blood test for Tourette syndrome.A staff member in the Silverman lab conducts behavioral neuroscience research.“We are grateful to the Mittelstaedts for their generosity,” said MIND Institute Director Leonard Abbeduto. €œAs a collaborative hub for preclinical and clinical research on neurodevelopmental disability, the MIND Institute is uniquely suited to build on past successes and tackle the complexities of SYNGAP1 to provide help for families.”The funding also supports UC Davis' $2 billion kamagra online canada fundraising campaign, Expect Greater. From UC Davis, For the World, the largest philanthropic endeavor in university history. Together, donors and UC Davis are advancing work to prepare kamagra online canada future leaders, sustain healthier communities, and bring innovative solutions to today's most urgent challenges.What is SYNGAP1?. SYNGAP1-related non-syndromic intellectual disability is a rare neurodevelopmental condition caused by a variation in one gene.

The gene, kamagra online canada SYNGAP1, contains instructions for making a protein (SynGAP). This protein is located at the junctions between nerve cells, called synapses, and helps regulate changes important for memory and learning. The protein also helps regulate communication between neurons.When the kamagra online canada variation is present, the SYNGAP1 protein in cells is reduced which causes an increase in the excitability in the synapses. This makes it difficult for neurons to communicate and increases the likelihood of seizure events. This can lead to a variety of symptoms:Jill SilvermanDevelopmental delayIntellectual disabilityPoor muscle tone, including trouble with balance and walkingEpilepsySensory processing challengesAutismSleep and behavior challenges.SYNGAP1 syndrome affects 1-4 out of kamagra online canada 10,000 people.

The first patient was identified in 2009.Groundbreaking researchThe MIND Institute’s interventional genetics team includes faculty who specialize in multiple research areas."We’re trying to find potentially life-changing treatment that hopefully may impact the lives of people with SYNGAP1"— Ron Mittelstaedt“Each of us is a world expert in our particular discipline, so bringing us all together means the chances of success are much more likely,” said Jill Silverman, associate professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and an internationally recognized expert in the use of rodent models for therapeutic development. Silverman’s Lab is known for its expertise in behavioral neuroscience research.In addition to Silverman, kamagra online canada the SYNGAP1 team includes three other MIND Institute faculty members. €œThe sum of the group is going to be much greater than anything we could have done alone,” said Fink, whose lab focuses on therapeutic development for neurodevelopmental conditions and neurodegenerative diseases. €œThe fact that the foundation has funded us as a team, kamagra online canada across multiple centers and programs is really unique. This funding brings us all together for an important project.”Kyle Fink in his lab, which focuses on therapeutic development for neurodevelopmental conditions and neurodegenerative diseases.The researchers will work on parallel tracks, each contributing a piece of the puzzle.Silverman will conduct specialized behavioral tests on mouse models of SYNGAP1, using tools with corresponding metrics in humans, such as EEGs (a type of brain scan) to determine clinically relevant outcomes.Nord and Fink will create a new mouse model that contains the mutated human SYNGAP1 gene, while Segal and Fink will create new molecular therapies to counter that mutated gene.

They’ll also figure out how to deliver those therapies to the brain.“We’re not just trying to treat the symptoms of the disease with a drug,” explained kamagra online canada Segal, whose lab specializes in molecular analysis. €œWe are trying to change the underlying genetic condition, and our particular approach is to do that in a way that does not change the DNA sequence. We use tools to change the gene kamagra online canada expression instead, which we think will make safer therapies. It’s really a state-of-the-art approach. It’s molecular therapy.”David Segal working in his lab, which specializes in molecular analysis.The kamagra online canada collaborative approach, often called “team science,” coupled with the RDM Positive Impact Foundation’s support, allows for an ambitious, fast-tracked research program.

The $1.25 million frees the researchers from the need to apply for multiple federal grants and enables them to focus immediately on SYNGAP1.The team excels in what’s often called “bench to bedside” research, translating results from the lab directly into therapies for patients.“We see these patients, we meet with them, we’re on Zoom calls with them and I want to find something that works for them. I want kamagra online canada to change their lives. That’s what I’m driven by,” Silverman said.Building on previous successSilverman, Fink and Segal have had previous success with their work on another rare genetic condition, Angelman syndrome, which causes developmental delay, speech and balance challenges and intellectual disability."We’re not just trying to treat the symptoms of the disease with a drug. We are trying to change the underlying genetic condition, and our particular approach is to do that in a way that does not change the DNA sequence kamagra online canada. We use tools to change the gene expression instead, which we think will make safer therapies.

It’s really a state-of-the-art approach kamagra online canada. It’s molecular therapy."— David SegalTheir labs helped to create and characterize the first rat model of Angelman syndrome last year. The Segal lab also created a protein therapeutic that could increase the level of the affected gene in mouse models of Angelman kamagra online canada syndrome, a major discovery.All three labs are still working on a wide range of therapeutics for Angelman, including molecular therapies delivered with kamagraes or stem cells and novel small molecule compounds.Ron Mittelstaedt is hoping for another success story, this time with SYNGAP1, but he’s also realistic about the research process.“We are all very aware that going down this path doesn’t guarantee anything except the ability to get up to bat, and we could get a hit or strike out. But doing nothing guarantees you don’t get a hit, so it’s important for us to take action, and we’re hopeful we’ll hit a home run.”Related StoriesUC Davis researchers get $3 million FAST grant to find treatment for Angelman syndrome The UC Davis MIND Institute in Sacramento, Calif. Was founded in 1998 as a unique interdisciplinary research center where kamagra online canada families, community leaders, researchers, clinicians and volunteers work together toward a common goal.

Researching causes, treatments and potential prevention of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The institute has major research efforts in autism, fragile kamagra online canada X syndrome, chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Down syndrome. More information about the institute and its Distinguished Lecturer Series, including previous presentations in this series, is available on the Web at mindinstitute.ucdavis.edu.UC Davis' Behavioral Health Center of Excellence (BHCOE) has awarded seed funding to help support three new research efforts aimed at improving mental health in California.Three $75,000 pilot grants will go to projects that explore:The novel roles a top-risk gene plays in autism and intellectual disabilityCalifornia Bridge Clinic’s unique approach to addiction treatment in the Emergency RoomA new approach to assessing emotional responses in the brain that could advance understanding about impairment associated with schizophrenia “We’re excited to be a catalyst for such a broad range of outstanding behavioral health research,” said Cameron Carter, director of the center, distinguished professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science and the C. Bryan Cameron Presidential Chair in Neuroscience kamagra online canada. €œPilot funding for highly innovative projects such as these advance our goal of positioning UC Davis faculty and researchers to better compete for further funding to build these projects and deliver advances to patient care.”The major goal of the center’s pilot grant program is to develop early studies that can develop into larger-scale funded research programs, with the end results being the enhancement of mental health care throughout California.Selected projects and researchersNovel roles of the intellectual disability-relevant gene Chd8 in the adult cerebellum.

This project is led by Diasynou Fioravante, an assistant professor at the UC Davis Center for Neuroscience kamagra online canada. She is exploring a gene called Chd8, which is important for early brain development. It also has kamagra online canada emerged as a top risk gene for autism and intellectual disability. Fioravante’s work has the potential to open up a new avenue of research on molecular, cellular, and circuit causes of severe neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as new opportunities for treatment. Low-barrier access to kamagra online canada substance-use disorder treatment through hospital-based Bridge Clinic.

With the pilot grant, Aimee Moulin, professor of Emergency Medicine, plans to evaluate the California Bridge Clinic’s unique approach to addiction treatment, a program that engages high-risk patients in ongoing treatment. The results will inform and enhance future grant proposals aimed at improving access to kamagra online canada substance-use disorder treatments for high-risk patient populations in California and beyond. Decoding internal emotional responses. Led by Steven Luck, distinguished professor of Psychology and core faculty for the kamagra online canada Center for Mind and Brain, the research is designed to develop and validate a new method for assessing emotional responses in the brain using EEG and machine learning. If it is successful, it will enable Luck to apply for a larger federal grant to study the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and open up new avenues for treatment of this challenging aspect of the illness.

BackgroundIn 2015, the Behavioral Health Center of Excellence awarded kamagra online canada its first set of pilot grants to 16 researchers in a variety of disciplines. In 2020, another round of pilot grants were awarded to three researchers. Each of those grants was designed to provide new approaches to understanding and improving mental kamagra online canada health. This year’s projects complement and expand upon the scope of the original set of pilot awards and again provide one year of funding support..

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Treatment with filgotinib among patients with ankylosing spondylitis was associated with declines in inflammation in the spine, a post-hoc additional info analysis of a multicenter randomized trial found."Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the sacroiliac joints and spine and can result in structural damage and disability," noted Xenofon Baraliakos, MD, of Ruhr University in Bochum, Germany, speaking at the European League Against Rheumatism virtual congress.In the phase II TORTUGA trial, treatment with the oral JAK 1 inhibitor filgotinib significantly improved MRI scores of bone marrow edema among patients with active ankylosing spondylitis using the criteria of the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC).To further explore the effects of filgotinib on inflammation, Baraliakos and colleagues conducted a post-hoc analysis of data from kamagra now review 88 patients in TORTUGA using the Canada-Denmark (CANDEN) method, which allows more comprehensive semiquantitative assessment than SPARCC of inflammation, fat, erosions, and new bone formation of the spine according to anatomic location.Patients with ankylosing spondylitis were randomized to filgotinib, 200 mg, or placebo daily for 12 weeks, and magnetic resonance imaging of the total spine was performed at baseline and at week 12. Participants had previously had an inadequate response or intolerance to two or more nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.At baseline, patients' mean age was 41, disease duration was 6.5 years, kamagra now review and mean ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score was 4.2. Three-quarters of the participants were men.There kamagra now review were some baseline differences between the filgotinib and placebo groups.

The total CANDEN spine inflammation score was 18 in the filgotinib group but 11.8 in the placebo group, while the total CANDEN new bone formation score was 17.7 in the filgotinib group but 38.1 in the placebo group.At week 12, the least squares mean of group difference on the total spine kamagra now review inflammation score was -4.49 (95% CI -6.85 to -2.12, P=0.0003). Differences between the groups were not significant for total spine http://www.mbstoday.org/mbs-collection-at-stevenson-university/ fat scores, bone erosion scores, and total ankylosis scores, although fat lesions showed a tendency to increase and the lack of change in erosion scores was expected in a 12-week trial, Baraliakos noted.There also were significant differences from baseline at week 12 on specific CANDEN inflammation subscores, according to least squares means of group differences:Posterior elements of the spine, -1.09 (95% CI -1.85 to -0.32, P=0.006)Facet joints, -0.35 (95% CI -0.65 to -0.04, P=0.026)Vertebral body, -2.84 (95% CI -4.96 to -0.73, P=0.009).Cumulative probability plots for each of these subscores also favored filgotinib.The decreased inflammation in the posterior elements and facet joints has kamagra now review not been demonstrated previously, Baraliakos said, adding, however, that because of imbalances in MRI measures at baseline and the post-hoc nature of the analysis, the findings will need to be confirmed in a large trial. Nancy Walsh earned a BA in English literature kamagra now review from Salve Regina College in Newport, R.I.

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The total CANDEN spine inflammation score was 18 in the filgotinib group but 11.8 in the placebo group, while the total CANDEN new bone formation score was 17.7 in the filgotinib group but 38.1 in the placebo group.At week 12, the least squares mean of group difference on the total spine inflammation score was -4.49 kamagra online canada (95% CI -6.85 to -2.12, P=0.0003). Differences between the groups were not kamagra online canada significant for total spine fat scores, bone erosion scores, and total ankylosis scores, although fat lesions showed a tendency to increase and the lack of change in erosion scores was expected in a 12-week trial, Baraliakos noted.There also were significant differences from baseline at week 12 on specific CANDEN inflammation subscores, according to least squares means of group differences:Posterior elements of the spine, -1.09 (95% CI -1.85 to -0.32, P=0.006)Facet joints, -0.35 (95% CI -0.65 to -0.04, P=0.026)Vertebral where to buy kamagra pills body, -2.84 (95% CI -4.96 to -0.73, P=0.009).Cumulative probability plots for each of these subscores also favored filgotinib.The decreased inflammation in the posterior elements and facet joints has not been demonstrated previously, Baraliakos said, adding, however, that because of imbalances in MRI measures at baseline and the post-hoc nature of the analysis, the findings will need to be confirmed in a large trial. Nancy Walsh earned a BA in English literature from Salve Regina College in Newport, kamagra online canada R.I.

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Justice, one of the four Beauchamp silagra vs kamagra and Childress prima facie basic principles of biomedical ethics, is explored in two excellent papers in the current issue of the journal. The papers stem from a British Medical Association (BMA) essay competition on justice and fairness in medical practice and policy. Although the competition was open to (almost) all comers, silagra vs kamagra of the 235 entries both the winning paper by Alistair Wardrope1 and the highly commended runner-up by Zoe Fritz and Caitríona Cox2 were written by practising doctors—a welcome indication of the growing importance being accorded to philosophical reflection about medical practice and practices within medicine itself.

Both papers are thoroughly thought provoking and represent two very different approaches to the topic. Each deserves a careful read.The competition was a component of a BMA 2019/2020 ‘Presidential project’ on fairness and justice and asked candidates to ‘use ethical reasoning and theory to tackle challenging, practical, contemporary, problems in health care and help provide a solution based on an explained and defended sense of fairness/justice’.In this guest editorial I’d like to explain why, in 2018 on becoming president-elect of the BMA, I chose the theme of justice and fairness in medical ethics for my 2019–2020 Presidential project—and why in a world of massive and ever-increasing and remediable health inequalities biomedical ethics requires greater international and interdisciplinary efforts to try to reach agreement on the need to achieve greater ‘health justice’ and to reach agreement on what that commitment actually means and on what in practice it requires.First, some background. As president I was offered the wonderful opportunity to pursue, with the organisation’s formidable assistance, a ‘project’ consistent silagra vs kamagra with the BMA’s interests and values.

As a hybrid of general medical practitioner and philosopher/medical ethicist, and as a firm defender of the Beauchamp and Childress four principles approach to medical ethics,3 I chose to try to raise the ethical profile of justice and fairness within medical ethics.My first objective was to ask the BMA to ask the World Medical Association (WMA) to add an explicit commitment ‘to strive to practise fairly and justly throughout my professional life’ to its contemporary version of the Hippocratic Oath—the Declaration of Geneva4—and to the companion document the International Code of Medical Ethics.5 The stimulus for this proposal was the WMA’s addition in 2017 of the principle of respect for patients’ autonomy. Important as that addition is, it is widely perceived (though in my own view mistakenly) as being too much focused on silagra vs kamagra individual patients and not enough on communities, groups and populations. The simple addition of a commitment to fairness and justice would provide a ‘balancing’ moral commitment.Adding the fourth principleIt would also explicitly add the fourth of those four prima facie moral commitments, increasingly widely accepted by doctors internationally.

Two of them—benefiting our patients (beneficence) and doing so with as little harm as possible (non-maleficence)—have been an integral part of medical ethics since Hippocratic times. Respect for autonomy and justice are silagra vs kamagra very much more recent additions to medical ethics. The WMA, having added respect for autonomy to the Declaration of Geneva, should, I proposed, complete the quartet by adding the ‘balancing’ principle of fairness and justice.Since the Declaration is unlikely to be revised for several years, it seems likely that the proposal to add to it an explicit commitment to practise fairly and justly will have to wait.

However, an explicit commitment to justice and fairness has, at the BMA’s request, been added to the draft silagra vs kamagra of the International Code of Medical Ethics and it seems reasonable to hope and expect that it will remain in the final document.Adding a commitment to fairness and justice is the easy part!. Few doctors would on reflection deny that they ought to try to practise fairly and justly. It is far more difficult to say what is actually meant by this.

Two additional components of my Presidential project—the essay competition and a conference (which with luck will have been held, virtually, shortly before publication of this editorial)—sought to help elucidate just what is meant by practising fairly and justly.One of the most striking features of the essay competition was the readiness of many writers to point to injustices in the context of medical practice and policy and describe ways of remedying them, but without giving a specific account of justice and fairness on the basis of which the diagnosis of injustice was made and the remedy silagra vs kamagra offered.Wardrope’s winning essay comes close to such an approach by challenging the implied premise that an account of justice and fairness must provide some such formal theory. In preference, he points to the evident injustice and unsustainability of humans’ degradation of ‘the Land’ and its atmosphere and its inhabitants and then challenges some assumptions of contemporary philosophy and ethics, especially what he sees as their anthropocentric and individualistic focus. Instead, he invokes Leopold Aldo’s ‘Land Ethic’ (as well silagra vs kamagra as drawing in aid Isabelle Stenger’s focus on ‘the intrusion of Gaia’).

In his thoughtful and challenging paper, he seeks to refocus our ethics—including our medical ethics and our sense of justice and fairness—on mankind’s exploitative threat, during this contemporary ‘anthropocene’ stage of evolution, to the continuing existence of humans and of all forms of life in our ‘biotic community’. As remedy, the author, allying his approach to those of contemporary virtue ethics, recommends the beneficial outcomes that would be brought about by a sense of fairness and justice—a developed and sensitive ‘ecological conscience’ as he calls it—that embraces the interests of the entire biotic community of which we humans are but a part.Fritz and Cox pursue a very different and philosophically more conventional approach to the essay competition’s question and offer a combination and development of two established philosophical theories, those of John Rawls and Thomas Scanlon, to provide a philosophically robust and practically beneficial methodology for justice and fairness in medical practice and policy. Briefly summarised, they recommend a silagra vs kamagra two-stage approach for healthcare justice.

First, those faced with a problem of fairness or justice in healthcare or policy should use Thomas Scanlon’s proposed contractualist approach whereby reasonable people seek solutions that they and others could not ‘reasonably reject’. This stage would involve committees of decision-makers and representatives of relevant stakeholders looking at the immediate and longer term impact on existing stakeholders of proposed solutions. They would then check those solutions against substantive criteria of justice derived from Rawls’ theory (which, via his silagra vs kamagra theoretical device of the ‘veil of ignorance’, Rawls and the authors argue that all reasonable people can be expected to accept!.

). The Rawlsian criteria relied silagra vs kamagra on by Fritz and Cox are equity of access to healthcare. The ‘difference principle’ whereby avoidable inequalities of primary goods can only be justified if they benefit the most disadvantaged.

The just savings principle, of particular importance for ensuring intergenerational justice and sustainability. And a criterion of increased openness, transparency and accountability.It would of course be naïve to silagra vs kamagra expect a single universalisable solution to the question ‘what do we mean by fairness and justice in health care?. €™ As the papers by Wardrope1 and Fritz and Cox2 demonstrate, there can be very wide differences of approach in well-defended accounts.

My own hope silagra vs kamagra for my project is to emphasise the importance first of committing ourselves within medicine to practising fairly and justly in whatever branch we practise. And then to think carefully about what we do mean by that and act accordingly.Following AristotleFor my own part, over 40 years of looking, I have not yet found a single substantive theory of justice that is plausibly universalisable and have had to content myself with Aristotle’s formal, almost content-free but probably universalisable theory, according to which equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally in proportion to the relevant inequalities—what some health economists refer to as horizontal and vertical justice or equity.6Beauchamp and Childress in their recent eighth and ‘perhaps final’ edition of their foundational ‘Principles of biomedical ethics’1 acknowledge that ‘[t]he construction of a unified theory of justice that captures our diverse conceptions and principles of justice in biomedical ethics continues to be controversial and difficult to pin down’.They still cite Aristotle’s formal principle (though with less explanation than in their first edition back in 1979) and they still believe that this formal principle requires substantive or ‘material’ content if it is to be useful in practice. They then describe six different theories of justice—four ‘traditional’ (utilitarian, libertarian, communitarian and egalitarian) and two newer theories, which they suggest may be more helpful in the context of health justice, one based on capabilities and the other on actual well-being.They again end their discussion of justice with their reminder that ‘Policies of just access to health care, strategies of efficiencies in health care institutions, and global needs for the reduction of health-impairing conditions dwarf in social importance every other issue considered in this book’ …….

€˜every society must ration its resources but many societies can close gaps in fair rationing more conscientiously than they have to date’ [emphasis silagra vs kamagra added]. And they go on to stress their own support for ‘recognition of global rights to health and enforceable rights to health care in nation-states’.For my own part I recommend, perhaps less ambitiously, that across the globe we extract from Aristotle’s formal theory of justice a starting point that ethically requires us to focus on equality and always to treat others as equals and treat them equally unless there are moral justifications for not doing so. Where such justifications exist we should say what they are, explain the moral assumptions that justify them and, to the extent possible, seek the agreement silagra vs kamagra of those affected.IntroductionIt did not occur to the Governor that there might be more than one definition of what is good … It did not occur to him that while the courts were writing one definition of goodness in the law books, fires were writing quite another one on the face of the land.

(Leopold, ‘Good Oak’1, pp 10–11)As I wrote the abstract that would become this essay, wildfires were spreading across Australia’s east coast. By the time I was invited to write the essay, back-to-back winter storms were flooding communities all around my home. The essay silagra vs kamagra has been written in moments of respite between shifts during the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra.

Every one of these events was described as ‘unprecedented’. Yet each is becoming increasingly likely, and that due to our interactions with our environment.Public discourse surrounding these events is dominated by questions of justice and fairness. How to balance competing imperatives of protecting individual silagra vs kamagra lives against risk of spreading contagion.

How best to allocate scarce resources like intensive care beds or mechanical ventilators. The conceptual silagra vs kamagra tools of clinical ethics are well tailored to these sorts of questions. The rights of the individual versus the community, issues of distributive justice—these are familiar to anyone with even a passing acquaintance with its canonical debates.What biomedical ethics has remained largely silent on is how we have been left to confront these decisions.

How human activity has eroded Earth’s life support systems to make the ‘unprecedented’ the new normal. A medical ethic fit for the Anthropocene—our (still tentative) geological epoch silagra vs kamagra defined by human influence on natural systems—must be able not just to react to the consequences of our exploitation of the natural world, but reimagine our relationship with it.Those reimaginations already exist, if we know where to look for them. The ‘Land Ethic’ of the US conservationist Aldo Leopold offers one such vision.i Developed over decades of experience working in and teaching land management, the Land Ethic is most famously formulated in an essay of the same name published shortly before Leopold’s death fighting a wildfire on a neighbour’s farm.

It begins with a reinterpretation of the ethical relationship between humanity and the ‘land community’, the ecosystems we live within silagra vs kamagra and depend upon. Moving us from ‘conqueror’ to ‘plain member and citizen’ of that community1 (p 204). Land ceases to be a resource to be exploited for human need once we view ourselves as part of, and only existing within, the land community.

Our moral evaluations shift consonantly:A silagra vs kamagra thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.1 (pp 224–225)The justice of the Land Ethic questions many presuppositions of biomedical ethics. By valuing the community in itself—in a way irreducible to the welfare of its members—it steps away from the individualism axiomatic in contemporary bioethics.2 Viewing ourselves as citizens of the silagra vs kamagra land community also extends the moral horizons of healthcare from a solely human focus, taking seriously the interests of the non-human members of that community.

Taking into account the ‘stability’ of the community requires intergenerational justice—that we consider those affected by our actions now, and their implications for future generations.3 The resulting vision of justice in healthcare—one that takes climate and environmental justice seriously—could offer health workers an ethic fit for the future, demonstrating ways in which practice must change to do justice to patients, public and planet—now and in years to come.Healthcare in the AnthropoceneSeemeth it a small thing unto you to have fed upon good pasture, but ye must tread down with your feet the residue of your pasture?. And to have drunk of the clear waters, but ye must foul the residue with your feet?. (Ezekiel 34:18, quoted in Leopold, ‘Conservation in the Southwest’4, p 94)The majority of the development of human societies worldwide—including all of recorded human history—has taken place within a single geological epoch, a roughly 11 600 yearlong period of relative warmth and climatic stability known as the Holocene silagra vs kamagra.

That stability, however, can no longer be taken for granted. The epoch that has sustained most of human development is giving way to one shaped by the planetary consequences of that development—the Anthropocene.The Anthropocene is marked by accelerating degradation of the ecosystems that have sustained human societies. Human activity is already estimated to have raised global temperatures 1°C above preindustrial levels, and if emissions continue at current levels we are likely to reach 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052.5 The global rate of species extinction is orders of magnitude higher than the average over the past 10 million years.6 Ocean acidification, deforestation and disruption of nitrogen and phosphorus flows are likely at or beyond sustainable planetary boundaries.7Yet this period has silagra vs kamagra also seen rapid (if uneven) improvements in human health, with improved life expectancy, falling child mortality and falling numbers of people living in extreme poverty.

The 2015 report of the Rockefeller Foundation-Lancet Commission on planetary health explained this dissonance in stark terms. €˜we have been mortgaging the health of silagra vs kamagra future generations to realise economic and development gains in the present.’7In the instrumental rationality of modernity, nature has featured only as inexhaustible resource and infinite sink to fuel social and economic ends. But this disenchanted worldview can no longer hide from the implausibility of these assumptions.

It cannot resist what the philosopher Isabelle Stengers has called ‘the intrusion of Gaia’.8 The present kamagra—made more likely by deforestation, land use change and biodiversity loss9—is just the most immediately salient of these intrusions. Anthropogenic environmental changes are increasing undernutrition, increasing range and transmissibility of many vectorborne and waterborne diseases like dengue fever and cholera, increasing frequency and silagra vs kamagra severity of extreme weather events like heatwaves and wildfires, and driving population exposure to air pollution—which already accounts for over 7 million deaths annually.10These intrusions will shape healthcare in the Anthropocene. This is because health workers will have to deal with their consequences, and because modern industrialised healthcare as practised in most high-income countries—and considered aspirational elsewhere—was borne of the same worldview that has mortgaged the health of future generations.

The health sector in the USA is estimated to account for 8% of the country’s greenhouse gas footprint.11 Pharmaceutical production and waste causes more local environmental degradation, accumulating in water supplies with damaging effects for local flora and fauna.12 silagra vs kamagra Public health has similarly embraced short-term gains with neglect of long-term consequences. Health messaging was instrumental to the development and popularisation of many disposable and single-use products, while a 1947 report funded by the Rockefeller Foundation (who would later fund the landmark 2015 Lancet report on planetary health) popularised the high-meat, high-dairy ‘American’ diet—dependent on fossil fuel-driven intensive agricultural practices—as the healthy ideal.13Healthcare fit for the Anthropocene requires a shift in perspectives that allows us to see and work with the intrusion of Gaia. But can dominant approaches in bioethics incorporate that shift?.

A perfect moral stormWe have built a beautiful piece of social machinery … which is coughing along on two cylinders because we have been too timid, and too anxious for quick success, to tell the farmer the true silagra vs kamagra magnitude of his obligations. (Leopold, ‘The Ecological Conscience’4, p 341)At local, national and international scales, the lifestyles of the wealthiest pose an existential threat to the poorest and most marginalised in society. Our actions now are depriving silagra vs kamagra future generations of the environmental prerequisites of good health and social flourishing.

If justice means, as Ranaan Gillon parses it, ‘the moral obligation to act on the basis of fair adjudication between competing claims’,14 then this state of affairs certainly seems unjust. However, the tools available for grappling with questions of justice in bioethics seem ill equipped to deal with these sorts of injustice.To illustrate this problem, consider how Gillon further fleshes out his description of justice. In terms silagra vs kamagra of fair distribution of scarce resources, respect for people’s rights, and respect for morally acceptable laws.

The first of these—labelled distributive justice—concerns how fairly to allot finite resources among potential beneficiaries. Classic problems of distributive justice in healthcare concern a group of people at a particular time (usually patients), who could each benefit from a particular resource (historically, discussions have often focused on transplant organs. More recently, intensive care beds and silagra vs kamagra ventilators have come to the fore).

But there are fewer of these resources than there are people with a need for them. Such discussions are not easy, but they silagra vs kamagra are at least familiar—we know where to begin with them. We can consider each party’s need, their potential to benefit from the resource, any special rights or other claims they may have to it, and so forth.

The distribution of benefits and harms in the Anthropocene, however, does not comfortably fit this formalism. It is one thing silagra vs kamagra to say that there is but one intensive care bed, from which Smith has a good chance of gaining another year of life, Jones a poor chance, and so offer it to Smith. Another entirely to say that production of the materials consumed in Smith’s care has contributed to the degradation of scarce water supplies on the other side of the globe, or that the unsustainable pattern of energy use will affect innumerable other future persons in poorly quantifiable ways through fuelling climate change.

The calculations of distributive justice are well suited to problems where there are a set pool of potential beneficiaries, and silagra vs kamagra the use of the scarce resources available affects only those within that pool. But global environmental problems do not fit this pattern—the effects of our actions are spatially and temporally dispersed, so that large numbers of present and future people are affected in different ways.Nor can this problem be readily addressed by turning to Gillon’s second category of obligations of justice, those grounded in human rights. For while it might be plausible (if not entirely uncontroversial) to say that those communities whose water supplies are degraded by pharmaceutical production have a right to clean water, it is another thing entirely to say that Smith’s healthcare is directly violating that right.

It would not be true to say that, were it not for the resources used in caring for Smith, that the communities in question would face no threat to water security—indeed, they would likely silagra vs kamagra make no appreciable difference. Similarly for the effects of Smith’s care on future generations facing accelerating environmental change.iiThe issue here is of fragmentation of agency. While it is not the case that Smith’s care is directly responsible for these environmental harms, the cumulative consequences of many such acts—and the ways in which these acts are embedded silagra vs kamagra in particular systems of energy generation, waste management, international trade, and so on—are reliably producing these harms.

The injustice is structural, in Iris Marion Young’s terminology—arising from the ways in which social structures constrain individuals from pursuing certain courses of action, and enable them to follow others, with side effects that cumulatively produce devastating impacts.15Gillon describes the third component of justice as respect for morally acceptable laws. But there is little reason to believe that existing legal frameworks provide sufficient guidance to address these structural injustices. While the intricacies of global governance are well beyond what I can hope to address here, the stark fact remains that, despite the international commitment of the 2015 Paris Agreement to attempt to keep global temperature rise to 1.5°C above preindustrial levels, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that present national commitments—even if these are substantially increased in coming years—will take us well beyond that target.5 Confronted by such institutional inadequacy, silagra vs kamagra respect for the rule of law is inadequate to remedy injustice.The confluence of these particular features—dispersion of causes and effects, fragmentation of agency and institutional inadequacy—makes it difficult for us to reason ethically about the choices we have to make.

Stephen Gardiner calls this a ‘perfect moral storm’.16 Each of these factors individually would be difficult to address using the resources of contemporary biomedical ethics. Their convergence makes it seem insurmountable.This perfect storm was not, however, unpredictable. Van Rensselaer Potter, a professor of Oncology responsible for introducing the term ‘bioethics’ into Anglophone discourse, observed that since he coined the phrase, the study of bioethics had diverged from his original usage (governing all issues at the intersection of ethics and the biological sciences) silagra vs kamagra to a narrow focus on the moral dilemmas arising in interactions between individuals in biomedical contexts.

Potter predicted that the short-term, individualistic and medicalised focus of this approach would result in a neglect of population-level and ecological-level issues affecting human and planetary health, with catastrophic consequences.17 His proposed solution was a new ‘global bioethics’, grounded in a new understanding of humanity’s position within planetary systems—one articulated by the Land Ethic.The Land EthicA land ethic changes the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land-community to plain member and citizen of it. It implies respect for his fellow-members, and also respect for the community as such.iii (Leopold, ‘The Land Ethic’1, p 204)Developed throughout a career in forestry, conservation and wildlife management, the Land Ethic is less an attempt to provide a set of maxims for moral action, silagra vs kamagra than to shift our perspectives of the moral landscape. In his working life, Aldo Leopold witnessed how actions intended to optimise short-term economic outcomes eroded the environments on which we depend—whether soil degradation arising from intensive farming and deforestation, or disruption of freshwater ecosystems by industrial dairy farming.

He also saw that contemporary morality remained silent on such actions, even when their consequences were to the collective detriment of all.Leopold argued that a series of ‘historical accidents’ left our morality particularly ill suited to handle these intrusions of Gaia—with a worldview that considered them ‘intrusions’, rather than the predictable response of our biotic community. These ‘accidents’ were silagra vs kamagra. The unusual resilience of European ecological communities to anthropogenic interference (England survived an almost wholesale deforestation without consequent loss of ecosystem resilience, while similar changes elsewhere resulted in permanent environmental degradation).

And the legacy of European settler colonialism, meaning that silagra vs kamagra an ethic arising in these particular conditions came to dominate global social arrangements4 (p 311). The first of these supported a worldview in which ‘Land … is … something to be tamed rather than something to be understood, loved, and lived with. Resources are still regarded as separate entities, indeed, as commodities, rather than as our cohabitants in the land community’4 (p 311).

The second enabled the marginalisation of other views silagra vs kamagra. In this genealogy, Leopold anticipated the perfect moral storm discussed above. His intent with the Land Ethic was to navigate it.There are three key components of the Land Ethic that comprise the first silagra vs kamagra three sections of Leopold’s final essay on the subject.

(1) the ‘community concept’ that allows communities as wholes to have intrinsic value. (2) the ‘ethical sequence’ that situates the value of such communities as extending, not replacing, values assigned to individuals. And (3) the ‘ecological conscience’ that views ethical action not in terms of following a particular code, but in developing appropriate moral perception.The community conceptThe silagra vs kamagra most widely quoted passage of Leopold’s opus—already cited above, and frequently (mis)taken as a summary maxim of the ethic—states that:A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community.

It is wrong when it tends otherwise.1 (pp 224–225)This passage makes the primary object of our moral responsibilities ‘the biotic community’, a term Leopold uses interchangeably with the ‘land community’. Leopold’s community concept is notable in at least three respects. Its holism—an embrace of the moral significance of communities in a way that is not simply reducible to the significance of its individual members silagra vs kamagra.

Its understanding of communities as temporally extended, placing importance on their ‘integrity’ and ‘stability’. And its rejection of anthropocentrism, affording humanity a place as ‘plain member and citizen’ of a broader land community.Individualism is so prevalent in biomedical ethics that it is scarcely argued for, instead forming part of the ‘background constellation of values’2 tacitly silagra vs kamagra assumed within the field. We are used to evaluating the well-being of a community as a function of the well-being of its individual members—this is the rationale underlying quality-adjusted life year calculations endemic within health economics, and most discussions of distributive justice adopt some variation of this approach.

Holism instead proposes that this makes no more sense than evaluating a person’s well-being as an aggregate of the well-being of their individual organs. While we can sensibly talk about people’s hearts, livers or kidneys, their health is defined in terms of and constitutively dependent on the health of the person as a silagra vs kamagra whole. Similarly, holism proposes, while individuals can be identified separately, it only makes sense to talk about them and their well-being in the context of the larger biotic community which supports and defines us.Holism helps us to negotiate the issues that confront individualistic accounts of collective well-being in Anthropocene health injustices.

In the previous section, we found in the environmental consequences of industrialised healthcare that it is silagra vs kamagra difficult to identify which parties in particular are harmed, and how much each individual action contributes to those harms. But our intuition that the overall result is unfair or unjust is itself a holistic assessment of the overall outcome, not dependent on our calculation of the welfare of every party involved. Holism respects the intuition that says—no matter the individuals involved—a world where people now exploit ecological resources in a fashion that deprives people in the future of the prerequisites of survival, is worse than one where communities now and in the future live in a sustainable relationship with their environment.The second aspect of Leopold’s community concept is that the community is something that does not exist at a single time and place—it is defined in terms of its development through time.

Promoting the ‘integrity’ and ‘stability’ of the community requires that we not just consider its immediate interests, but silagra vs kamagra how that will affect its long-term sustainability or resilience. We saw earlier the difficulties in trying to say just who is harmed and how when we approach harm to future generations individualistically. But from the perspective of the Land Ethic, when we exploit environmental resources in ways that will have predictable damaging results for future generations, the object of our harm is not just some purely notional silagra vs kamagra future person.

It is a presently existing, temporally extended entity—the community of which they will be part.Lastly, Leopold’s community is quite consciously a biotic—not merely human—community. Leopold defines the land community as the open network of energy and mineral exchange that sustains all aspects of that network:Land… is not merely soil. It is a silagra vs kamagra fountain of energy flowing through a circuit of soils, plants, and animals.

Food chains are the living channels which conduct energy upward. Death and decay return it to the soil. The circuit silagra vs kamagra is not closed.

Some energy is dissipated in decay, some is added by absorption, some is stored in soils, peats, and forests, but it is a sustained circuit, like a slowly augmented revolving fund of life.4 (pp 268–269)While the components within this network may change, the land community as a whole remains stable when the overall complexity of the network is not disrupted—other components are able to adjust to these changes, or new ones arise to take their place.ivThe normative inference Leopold makes from his understanding of the land community is this. It makes no sense to single out individual entities within the community silagra vs kamagra as being especially valuable or useful, without taking into account the whole community upon which they mutually depend. To do so is self-defeating.

By privileging the interests of a few members of the community, we ultimately undermine the prerequisites of their existence.The ethical sequenceThe Land Ethic’s holism is in fact its most frequently critiqued feature. Its emphasis on the value of the biotic community silagra vs kamagra leads some to allege a subjugation of individual interests to the needs of the environment. This critique neglects how Leopold positions the Land Ethic in what he calls the ‘ethical sequence’.

This is the gradual extension of scope of ethical considerations, both in terms of the complexity of social interactions they cover silagra vs kamagra (from interactions between two people, to the structure of progressively larger social groups), and in the kinds of person they acknowledge as worthy of moral consideration (as we resist, for example, classist, sexist or racist exclusions from personhood).This sequence serves less as a description of the history of morality, than a prescription for how we should understand the Land Ethic as adding to, rather than supplanting, our responsibilities to others. We do not argue that taking seriously health workers’ responsibilities for public health and health promotion supplants their duties to the patients they work with on a daily basis. Similarly, the Land Ethic implies ‘respect for [our] fellow members, and also respect for the community as such’1 (p 204).

At times, our responsibilities towards these silagra vs kamagra different parties may come into tension. But balancing these responsibilities has always been part of the work of clinical ethics.The ecological conscienceIf the community concept gives a definition of the good, and the ethical sequence situates this definition within the existing moral landscape, neither offers an explicit decision procedure to guide right action. In arguing for the ‘ecological conscience’, Leopold explains his rationale for not attempting to silagra vs kamagra articulate such a procedure.

In his career as conservationist, Leopold witnessed time and again laws nominally introduced in the name of environmental protection that did little to achieve their long-term goals, while exacerbating other environmental threats.v This is not surprising, given the ‘perfect moral storm’ of Anthropocene global health and environmental threats discussed above. The cumulative results of apparently innocent actions can be widespread and damaging.Leopold’s response to this problem is to advocate the cultivation of an ‘ecological conscience’. What is needed to promote a healthy human relationship with the land community is not for us to be told exactly how and how not to act in the face of environmental health threats, but rather to shift our view of the land from ‘a commodity belonging to us’ towards ‘a community to which we belong’1 (p viii) silagra vs kamagra.

To understand what the Land Ethic requires of us, therefore, we should learn more about the land community and our relationship with it, to develop our moral perception and extend its scope to embrace the non-human members of our community.Seen in this light, the Land Ethic shares much in common with virtue ethics, where right action is defined in terms of what the moral agent would do, rather than vice versa. But rather than the Eudaimonia of individual human flourishing proposed by Aristotle, the phronimos of the Land Ethic sees their telos coming from their position within the land community. While clinical virtue ethicists have traditionally taken the virtues of medical practice to be grounded in the interaction with individual patients, the realities of healthcare in the Anthropocene mean that silagra vs kamagra limiting our moral perceptions in this way would ultimately be self-defeating—hurting those very patients we mean to serve (and many more besides).18 The virtuous clinician must adopt a view of the moral world that can focus on a person both as an individual, and simultaneously as member of the land community.

I will close by exploring how adopting that perspective might change our practice.Justice in the AnthropoceneFailing this, it seems to me we fail in the ultimate test of our vaunted superiority—the self-control of environment. We fall silagra vs kamagra back into the biological category of the potato bug which exterminated the potato, and thereby exterminated itself. (Leopold, ‘The River of the Mother of God’4, p 127)I have articulated some of the challenges healthcare faces in the Anthropocene.

I have suggested that the tools presently available to clinical ethics may be inadequate to meet them. The Land silagra vs kamagra Ethic invites us to reimagine our position in and relationship with the land community. I want to close by suggesting how the development of an ecological conscience might support a transition to more just healthcare.

I will not endeavour to give detailed prescriptions for action, given Leopold’s warnings about the silagra vs kamagra limitations of such codifications. Rather, I will attempt to show how the cultivation of an ecological conscience might change our perception of what justice demands. Following the tradition of virtue ethics with which the Land Ethic holds much in common, this is best achieved by looking at models of virtuous action, and exploring what makes it virtuous.19Industrialised healthcare developed within a paradigm that saw the environment as inert resource and held that the scope of clinical ethics ranged only over the clinician’s interaction with their patients.

When we begin to see clinician and patient not as standing apart from the environment, but as silagra vs kamagra ‘member and citizen of the land community’, their relationship with one another and with the world around them changes consonantly. The present kamagra has only begun to make commonplace the idea that health workers do not simply treat infectious diseases, but interact with them in a range of ways, including as vector—and as a result our moral obligations in confronting them may extend beyond the immediate clinical encounter, to cover all the other ways we may contract or spread disease. But we may silagra vs kamagra be responsible for disease outbreaks with conditions other than erectile dysfunction treatment, and in ways beyond simply becoming infected.

The development of an ecological conscience would show how our practices of consumption may fuel deforestation that accelerates the emergence of novel pathogens, or support intensive animal rearing that drives antibiotic resistance.18The Land Ethic also challenges us not to abstract our work away from the places in which it takes place. General practitioner surgeries and hospitals are situated within social and land communities alike, shaping and shaped by them. These spaces can be used silagra vs kamagra in ways that support or undermine those communities.

Surgeries can work to empower their communities to pursue more sustainable and healthy diets by doubling as food cooperatives, or providing resources and ‘social prescriptions’ for increased walking and cycling. Hospitals can use their extensive real estate to provide publicly accessible green and wild spaces within urban environments, and use their role as major nodes in transport infrastructure to change that infrastructure to support active travel alternatives.ivThe Land Ethic reminds us that a community (human or land) is not healthy if its flourishing cannot be sustainably maintained. An essential component of silagra vs kamagra Anthropocene health justice is intergenerational justice.

Contemporary industrialised healthcare has an unsustainable ecological footprint. Continuing with such a model of care would serve only to mortgage the health of future generations for the silagra vs kamagra sake of those living now. Ecologically conscious practice must take seriously the sorts of downstream, distributed consequences of activity that produce anthropogenic global health threats, and evaluate to what extent our most intensive healthcare practices truly serve to promote public and planetary health.

It is not enough for the clinician to assume that our resource usage is a necessary evil in the pursuit of best clinical outcomes, for it is already apparent that much of our environmental exploitation is of minimal or even negative long-term value. The work silagra vs kamagra of the National Health Service (NHS) Sustainable Development Unit has seen a 10% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the NHS from 2007 to 2015 despite an 18% increase in clinical activity,20 while different models of care used in less industrialised nations manage to provide high-quality health outcomes in less resource-intensive fashion.21ConclusionOur present problem is one of attitudes and implements. We are remodelling the Alhambra with a steam-shovel.

We shall silagra vs kamagra hardly relinquish the steam-shovel, which after all has many good points, but we are in need of gentler and more objective criteria for its successful use. (Leopold, ‘The Land Ethic’1, p 226)The moral challenges of the Anthropocene do not solely confront health workers. But the potentially catastrophic health effects of anthropogenic global environmental change, and the contribution of healthcare activity to driving these changes provide a specific and unique imperative for action from health workers.Yet it is hard to articulate this imperative in the language of contemporary clinical ethics, ill equipped for this intrusion of Gaia.

Justice in the Anthropocene requires us to be able to adopt a perspective from which these changes no longer appear as silagra vs kamagra unexpected intrusions, but that acknowledges the land community as part of our moral community. The Land Ethic articulates an understanding of justice that is holistic, structural, intergenerational, and rejects anthropocentrism. This understanding seeks not to supplant, but to augment, our existing silagra vs kamagra one.

It aims to do so by helping us to develop an ‘ecological conscience’, seeing ourselves as ‘plain member and citizen’ of the land community. The Land Ethic does not provide a step-by-step guide to just action. Nor does it definitively adjudicate on how to balance the silagra vs kamagra interests of our patients, other populations now and in the future, and the planet.

It could, however, help us on the first step towards that change—showing how to cultivate the ‘internal change in our intellectual emphasis, loyalties, affections, and convictions’1 (pp 209–210) necessary to realise the virtues of just healthcare in the Anthropocene.AcknowledgmentsThis essay was written as a submission for the BMA Presidential Essay Prize. I am grateful to the organisers and judging panel for the opportunity..

Justice, one of the four Beauchamp and Childress prima facie kamagra online canada basic principles of biomedical ethics, is explored in two https://thestoryquest.co.uk/cheap-cipro-online-canada/ excellent papers in the current issue of the journal. The papers stem from a British Medical Association (BMA) essay competition on justice and fairness in medical practice and policy. Although the competition was open to (almost) all comers, of the 235 entries both the winning paper by Alistair Wardrope1 and the highly commended runner-up by Zoe Fritz and Caitríona Cox2 were written by practising doctors—a welcome indication of the growing importance being accorded kamagra online canada to philosophical reflection about medical practice and practices within medicine itself. Both papers are thoroughly thought provoking and represent two very different approaches to the topic.

Each deserves a careful read.The competition was a component of a BMA 2019/2020 ‘Presidential project’ on fairness and justice and asked candidates to ‘use ethical reasoning and theory to tackle challenging, practical, contemporary, problems in health care and help provide a solution based on an explained and defended sense of fairness/justice’.In this guest editorial I’d like to explain why, in 2018 on becoming president-elect of the BMA, I chose the theme of justice and fairness in medical ethics for my 2019–2020 Presidential project—and why in a world of massive and ever-increasing and remediable health inequalities biomedical ethics requires greater international and interdisciplinary efforts to try to reach agreement on the need to achieve greater ‘health justice’ and to reach agreement on what that commitment actually means and on what in practice it requires.First, some background. As president I was offered the wonderful opportunity to pursue, with the organisation’s formidable assistance, a ‘project’ consistent with the BMA’s interests and kamagra online canada values. As a hybrid of general medical practitioner and philosopher/medical ethicist, and as a firm defender of the Beauchamp and Childress four principles approach to medical ethics,3 I chose to try to raise the ethical profile of justice and fairness within medical ethics.My first objective was to ask the BMA to ask the World Medical Association (WMA) to add an explicit commitment ‘to strive to practise fairly and justly throughout my professional life’ to its contemporary version of the Hippocratic Oath—the Declaration of Geneva4—and to the companion document the International Code of Medical Ethics.5 The stimulus for this proposal was the WMA’s addition in 2017 of the principle of respect for patients’ autonomy. Important as that addition is, it is widely perceived (though in my own kamagra online canada view mistakenly) as being too much focused on individual patients and not enough on communities, groups and populations.

The simple addition of a commitment to fairness and justice would provide a ‘balancing’ moral commitment.Adding the fourth principleIt would also explicitly add the fourth of those four prima facie moral commitments, increasingly widely accepted by doctors internationally. Two of them—benefiting our patients (beneficence) and doing so with as little harm as possible (non-maleficence)—have been an integral part of medical ethics since Hippocratic times. Respect for autonomy and justice are very much more kamagra online canada recent additions to medical ethics. The WMA, having added respect for autonomy to the Declaration of Geneva, should, I proposed, complete the quartet by adding the ‘balancing’ principle of fairness and justice.Since the Declaration is unlikely to be revised for several years, it seems likely that the proposal to add to it an explicit commitment to practise fairly and justly will have to wait.

However, an explicit commitment to justice and fairness has, at the BMA’s request, been added to the draft of kamagra online canada the International Code of Medical Ethics and it seems reasonable to hope and expect that it will remain in the final document.Adding a commitment to fairness and justice is the easy part!. Few doctors would on reflection deny that they ought to try to practise fairly and justly. It is far more difficult to say what is actually meant by this. Two additional components of my Presidential project—the essay competition and a conference (which with luck will have been held, virtually, shortly before publication of this editorial)—sought to help elucidate just what is meant by practising fairly and justly.One of the most striking features of the essay competition was the readiness of many writers to point to injustices in the context of medical practice and policy and describe ways of remedying them, but without giving a specific account of justice and fairness on the basis of which the diagnosis of injustice was made and the remedy offered.Wardrope’s winning essay comes close to such an approach by challenging the implied premise that an account of justice and fairness must provide some such kamagra online canada formal theory.

In preference, he points to the evident injustice and unsustainability of humans’ degradation of ‘the Land’ and its atmosphere and its inhabitants and then challenges some assumptions of contemporary philosophy and ethics, especially what he sees as their anthropocentric and individualistic focus. Instead, he kamagra online canada invokes Leopold Aldo’s ‘Land Ethic’ (as well as drawing in aid Isabelle Stenger’s focus on ‘the intrusion of Gaia’). In his thoughtful and challenging paper, he seeks to refocus our ethics—including our medical ethics and our sense of justice and fairness—on mankind’s exploitative threat, during this contemporary ‘anthropocene’ stage of evolution, to the continuing existence of humans and of all forms of life in our ‘biotic community’. As remedy, the author, allying his approach to those of contemporary virtue ethics, recommends the beneficial outcomes that would be brought about by a sense of fairness and justice—a developed and sensitive ‘ecological conscience’ as he calls it—that embraces the interests of the entire biotic community of which we humans are but a part.Fritz and Cox pursue a very different and philosophically more conventional approach to the essay competition’s question and offer a combination and development of two established philosophical theories, those of John Rawls and Thomas Scanlon, to provide a philosophically robust and practically beneficial methodology for justice and fairness in medical practice and policy.

Briefly summarised, they recommend a two-stage kamagra online canada approach for healthcare justice. First, those faced with a problem of fairness or justice in healthcare or policy should use Thomas Scanlon’s proposed contractualist approach whereby reasonable people seek solutions that they and others could not ‘reasonably reject’. This stage would involve committees of decision-makers and representatives of relevant stakeholders looking at the immediate and longer term impact on existing stakeholders of proposed solutions. They would then check those solutions against substantive criteria of justice derived from Rawls’ theory (which, via his theoretical device of the ‘veil of ignorance’, Rawls and the authors argue kamagra online canada that all reasonable people can be expected to accept!.

). The Rawlsian criteria relied on by Fritz kamagra online canada and Cox are equity of access to healthcare. The ‘difference principle’ whereby avoidable inequalities of primary goods can only be justified if they benefit the most disadvantaged. The just savings principle, of particular importance for ensuring intergenerational justice and sustainability.

And a criterion of increased openness, transparency and accountability.It would of course be naïve to expect a single universalisable solution to the question ‘what do we mean by fairness and justice kamagra online canada in health care?. €™ As the papers by Wardrope1 and Fritz and Cox2 demonstrate, there can be very wide differences of approach in well-defended accounts. My own hope for my project is to emphasise the importance first of committing ourselves kamagra online canada within medicine to practising fairly and justly in whatever branch we practise. And then to think carefully about what we do mean by that and act accordingly.Following AristotleFor my own part, over 40 years of looking, I have not yet found a single substantive theory of justice that is plausibly universalisable and have had to content myself with Aristotle’s formal, almost content-free but probably universalisable theory, according to which equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally in proportion to the relevant inequalities—what some health economists refer to as horizontal and vertical justice or equity.6Beauchamp and Childress in their recent eighth and ‘perhaps final’ edition of their foundational ‘Principles of biomedical ethics’1 acknowledge that ‘[t]he construction of a unified theory of justice that captures our diverse conceptions and principles of justice in biomedical ethics continues to be controversial and difficult to pin down’.They still cite Aristotle’s formal principle (though with less explanation than in their first edition back in 1979) and they still believe that this formal principle requires substantive or ‘material’ content if it is to be useful in practice.

They then describe six different theories of justice—four ‘traditional’ (utilitarian, libertarian, communitarian and egalitarian) and two newer theories, which they suggest may be more helpful in the context of health justice, one based on capabilities and the other on actual well-being.They again end their discussion of justice with their reminder that ‘Policies of just access to health care, strategies of efficiencies in health care institutions, and global needs for the reduction of health-impairing conditions dwarf in social importance every other issue considered in this book’ ……. €˜every society kamagra online canada must ration its resources but many societies can close gaps in fair rationing more conscientiously than they have to date’ [emphasis added]. And they go on to stress their own support for ‘recognition of global rights to health and enforceable rights to health care in nation-states’.For my own part I recommend, perhaps less ambitiously, that across the globe we extract from Aristotle’s formal theory of justice a starting point that ethically requires us to focus on equality and always to treat others as equals and treat them equally unless there are moral justifications for not doing so. Where such justifications exist we should say what they are, explain the moral assumptions that justify them and, to the extent possible, seek the agreement of those affected.IntroductionIt did not occur to the Governor that there might be more than one definition of what kamagra online canada is good … It did not occur to him that while the courts were writing one definition of goodness in the law books, fires were writing quite another one on the face of the land.

(Leopold, ‘Good Oak’1, pp 10–11)As I wrote the abstract that would become this essay, wildfires were spreading across Australia’s east coast. By the time I was invited to write the essay, back-to-back winter storms were flooding communities all around my home. The essay has been written in moments of respite between shifts during the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra online canada kamagra. Every one of these events was described as ‘unprecedented’.

Yet each is becoming increasingly likely, and that due to our interactions with our environment.Public discourse surrounding these events is dominated by questions of justice and fairness. How to balance competing imperatives of protecting individual lives against risk of spreading kamagra online canada contagion. How best to allocate scarce resources like intensive care beds or mechanical ventilators. The conceptual tools of clinical kamagra online canada ethics are well tailored to these sorts of questions.

The rights of the individual versus the community, issues of distributive justice—these are familiar to anyone with even a passing acquaintance with its canonical debates.What biomedical ethics has remained largely silent on is how we have been left to confront these decisions. How human activity has eroded Earth’s life support systems to make the ‘unprecedented’ the new normal. A medical ethic fit for the Anthropocene—our (still tentative) geological epoch defined by human influence on natural systems—must be able not just to react to the consequences of our exploitation of the natural world, kamagra online canada but reimagine our relationship with it.Those reimaginations already exist, if we know where to look for them. The ‘Land Ethic’ of the US conservationist Aldo Leopold offers one such vision.i Developed over decades of experience working in and teaching land management, the Land Ethic is most famously formulated in an essay of the same name published shortly before Leopold’s death fighting a wildfire on a neighbour’s farm.

It begins with a reinterpretation of the ethical relationship kamagra online canada between humanity and the ‘land community’, the ecosystems we live within and depend upon. Moving us from ‘conqueror’ to ‘plain member and citizen’ of that community1 (p 204). Land ceases to be a resource to be exploited for human need once we view ourselves as part of, and only existing within, the land community. Our moral evaluations shift consonantly:A thing is right when it tends to preserve kamagra online canada the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community.

It is wrong when it tends otherwise.1 (pp 224–225)The justice of the Land Ethic questions many presuppositions of biomedical ethics. By valuing the community in itself—in a way irreducible to the welfare of its members—it steps away from the individualism axiomatic in contemporary bioethics.2 Viewing ourselves as citizens of the land community also extends the kamagra online canada moral horizons of healthcare from a solely human focus, taking seriously the interests of the non-human members of that community. Taking into account the ‘stability’ of the community requires intergenerational justice—that we consider those affected by our actions now, and their implications for future generations.3 The resulting vision of justice in healthcare—one that takes climate and environmental justice seriously—could offer health workers an ethic fit for the future, demonstrating ways in which practice must change to do justice to patients, public and planet—now and in years to come.Healthcare in the AnthropoceneSeemeth it a small thing unto you to have fed upon good pasture, but ye must tread down with your feet the residue of your pasture?. And to have drunk of the clear waters, but ye must foul the residue with your feet?.

(Ezekiel 34:18, quoted in Leopold, ‘Conservation in the Southwest’4, p 94)The majority of the development of human societies worldwide—including all of recorded human history—has taken place within a single geological epoch, a roughly 11 600 yearlong period kamagra online canada of relative warmth and climatic stability known as the Holocene. That stability, however, can no longer be taken for granted. The epoch that has sustained most of human development is giving way to one shaped by the planetary consequences of that development—the Anthropocene.The Anthropocene is marked by accelerating degradation of the ecosystems that have sustained human societies. Human activity is already estimated to have raised global temperatures 1°C above preindustrial levels, and if emissions continue at current levels we are likely to reach 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052.5 The global rate of species extinction is orders of magnitude higher than the average over the past 10 million years.6 Ocean acidification, deforestation and disruption of nitrogen and phosphorus flows are kamagra online canada likely at or beyond sustainable planetary boundaries.7Yet this period has also seen rapid (if uneven) improvements in human health, with improved life expectancy, falling child mortality and falling numbers of people living in extreme poverty.

The 2015 report of the Rockefeller Foundation-Lancet Commission on planetary health explained this dissonance in stark terms. €˜we have been mortgaging the health of future generations to realise economic and development gains in the present.’7In the instrumental rationality of modernity, nature has featured only as kamagra online canada inexhaustible resource and infinite sink to fuel social and economic ends. But this disenchanted worldview can no longer hide from the implausibility of these assumptions. It cannot resist what the philosopher Isabelle Stengers has called ‘the intrusion of Gaia’.8 The present kamagra—made more likely by deforestation, land use change and biodiversity loss9—is just the most immediately salient of these intrusions.

Anthropogenic environmental changes are increasing undernutrition, increasing range and transmissibility of many vectorborne and waterborne diseases like dengue fever kamagra online canada and cholera, increasing frequency and severity of extreme weather events like heatwaves and wildfires, and driving population exposure to air pollution—which already accounts for over 7 million deaths annually.10These intrusions will shape healthcare in the Anthropocene. This is because health workers will have to deal with their consequences, and because modern industrialised healthcare as practised in most high-income countries—and considered aspirational elsewhere—was borne of the same worldview that has mortgaged the health of future generations. The health sector in the USA is estimated to account for 8% of the country’s greenhouse gas footprint.11 Pharmaceutical production and waste causes more local environmental degradation, accumulating in water supplies with damaging effects for local flora and fauna.12 Public health has similarly embraced short-term kamagra online canada gains with neglect of long-term consequences. Health messaging was instrumental to the development and popularisation of many disposable and single-use products, while a 1947 report funded by the Rockefeller Foundation (who would later fund the landmark 2015 Lancet report on planetary health) popularised the high-meat, high-dairy ‘American’ diet—dependent on fossil fuel-driven intensive agricultural practices—as the healthy ideal.13Healthcare fit for the Anthropocene requires a shift in perspectives that allows us to see and work with the intrusion of Gaia.

But can dominant approaches in bioethics incorporate that shift?. A perfect moral stormWe have built a beautiful piece of social machinery … which is coughing along on two cylinders because we have been too timid, and too anxious for quick success, to tell the farmer the true kamagra online canada magnitude of his obligations. (Leopold, ‘The Ecological Conscience’4, p 341)At local, national and international scales, the lifestyles of the wealthiest pose an existential threat to the poorest and most marginalised in society. Our actions kamagra online canada now are depriving future generations of the environmental prerequisites of good health and social flourishing.

If justice means, as Ranaan Gillon parses it, ‘the moral obligation to act on the basis of fair adjudication between competing claims’,14 then this state of affairs certainly seems unjust. However, the tools available for grappling with questions of justice in bioethics seem ill equipped to deal with these sorts of injustice.To illustrate this problem, consider how Gillon further fleshes out his description of justice. In terms of fair distribution kamagra online canada of scarce resources, respect for people’s rights, and respect for morally acceptable laws. The first of these—labelled distributive justice—concerns how fairly to allot finite resources among potential beneficiaries.

Classic problems of distributive justice in healthcare concern a group of people at a particular time (usually patients), who could each benefit from a particular resource (historically, discussions have often focused on transplant organs. More recently, intensive care beds and ventilators have come to the kamagra online canada fore). But there are fewer of these resources than there are people with a need for them. Such discussions are not easy, but they are at kamagra online canada least familiar—we know where to begin with them.

We can consider each party’s need, their potential to benefit from the resource, any special rights or other claims they may have to it, and so forth. The distribution of benefits and harms in the Anthropocene, however, does not comfortably fit this formalism. It is one thing to say that kamagra online canada there is but one intensive care bed, from which Smith has a good chance of gaining another year of life, Jones a poor chance, and so offer it to Smith. Another entirely to say that production of the materials consumed in Smith’s care has contributed to the degradation of scarce water supplies on the other side of the globe, or that the unsustainable pattern of energy use will affect innumerable other future persons in poorly quantifiable ways through fuelling climate change.

The calculations of distributive justice are well kamagra online canada suited to problems where there are a set pool of potential beneficiaries, and the use of the scarce resources available affects only those within that pool. But global environmental problems do not fit this pattern—the effects of our actions are spatially and temporally dispersed, so that large numbers of present and future people are affected in different ways.Nor can this problem be readily addressed by turning to Gillon’s second category of obligations of justice, those grounded in human rights. For while it might be plausible (if not entirely uncontroversial) to say that those communities whose water supplies are degraded by pharmaceutical production have a right to clean water, it is another thing entirely to say that Smith’s healthcare is directly violating that right. It would not be true to say that, kamagra online canada were it not for the resources used in caring for Smith, that the communities in question would face no threat to water security—indeed, they would likely make no appreciable difference.

Similarly for the effects of Smith’s care on future generations facing accelerating environmental change.iiThe issue here is of fragmentation of agency. While it is not the case that Smith’s care is directly responsible for these environmental harms, the cumulative consequences of many such acts—and the ways in which these acts are embedded in particular systems of kamagra online canada energy generation, waste management, international trade, and so on—are reliably producing these harms. The injustice is structural, in Iris Marion Young’s terminology—arising from the ways in which social structures constrain individuals from pursuing certain courses of action, and enable them to follow others, with side effects that cumulatively produce devastating impacts.15Gillon describes the third component of justice as respect for morally acceptable laws. But there is little reason to believe that existing legal frameworks provide sufficient guidance to address these structural injustices.

While the intricacies of global governance are well beyond what I can hope to address here, the stark fact remains that, despite the international commitment of the 2015 Paris kamagra online canada Agreement to attempt to keep global temperature rise to 1.5°C above preindustrial levels, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that present national commitments—even if these are substantially increased in coming years—will take us well beyond that target.5 Confronted by such institutional inadequacy, respect for the rule of law is inadequate to remedy injustice.The confluence of these particular features—dispersion of causes and effects, fragmentation of agency and institutional inadequacy—makes it difficult for us to reason ethically about the choices we have to make. Stephen Gardiner calls this a ‘perfect moral storm’.16 Each of these factors individually would be difficult to address using the resources of contemporary biomedical ethics. Their convergence makes it seem insurmountable.This perfect storm was not, however, unpredictable. Van Rensselaer Potter, a professor of Oncology responsible for introducing the term ‘bioethics’ into Anglophone discourse, observed that since he coined the kamagra online canada phrase, the study of bioethics had diverged from his original usage (governing all issues at the intersection of ethics and the biological sciences) to a narrow focus on the moral dilemmas arising in interactions between individuals in biomedical contexts.

Potter predicted that the short-term, individualistic and medicalised focus of this approach would result in a neglect of population-level and ecological-level issues affecting human and planetary health, with catastrophic consequences.17 His proposed solution was a new ‘global bioethics’, grounded in a new understanding of humanity’s position within planetary systems—one articulated by the Land Ethic.The Land EthicA land ethic changes the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land-community to plain member and citizen of it. It implies respect for his fellow-members, and also respect for the community as such.iii (Leopold, ‘The Land Ethic’1, p 204)Developed throughout a career in forestry, conservation and wildlife management, the Land Ethic kamagra online canada is less an attempt to provide a set of maxims for moral action, than to shift our perspectives of the moral landscape. In his working life, Aldo Leopold witnessed how actions intended to optimise short-term economic outcomes eroded the environments on which we depend—whether soil degradation arising from intensive farming and deforestation, or disruption of freshwater ecosystems by industrial dairy farming. He also saw that contemporary morality remained silent on such actions, even when their consequences were to the collective detriment of all.Leopold argued that a series of ‘historical accidents’ left our morality particularly ill suited to handle these intrusions of Gaia—with a worldview that considered them ‘intrusions’, rather than the predictable response of our biotic community.

These ‘accidents’ were kamagra online canada. The unusual resilience of European ecological communities to anthropogenic interference (England survived an almost wholesale deforestation without consequent loss of ecosystem resilience, while similar changes elsewhere resulted in permanent environmental degradation). And the legacy of European settler kamagra online canada colonialism, meaning that an ethic arising in these particular conditions came to dominate global social arrangements4 (p 311). The first of these supported a worldview in which ‘Land … is … something to be tamed rather than something to be understood, loved, and lived with.

Resources are still regarded as separate entities, indeed, as commodities, rather than as our cohabitants in the land community’4 (p 311). The second kamagra online canada enabled the marginalisation of other views. In this genealogy, Leopold anticipated the perfect moral storm discussed above. His intent with the Land Ethic was to navigate it.There are three key components of the Land Ethic that comprise the first kamagra online canada three sections of Leopold’s final essay on the subject.

(1) the ‘community concept’ that allows communities as wholes to have intrinsic value. (2) the ‘ethical sequence’ that situates the value of such communities as extending, not replacing, values assigned to individuals. And (3) the ‘ecological conscience’ that views kamagra online canada ethical action not in terms of following a particular code, but in developing appropriate moral perception.The community conceptThe most widely quoted passage of Leopold’s opus—already cited above, and frequently (mis)taken as a summary maxim of the ethic—states that:A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.1 (pp 224–225)This passage makes the primary object of our moral responsibilities ‘the biotic community’, a term Leopold uses interchangeably with the ‘land community’.

Leopold’s community concept is notable in at least three respects. Its holism—an embrace of the moral significance of communities in a way that is not simply reducible to the significance kamagra online canada of its individual members. Its understanding of communities as temporally extended, placing importance on their ‘integrity’ and ‘stability’. And its rejection of anthropocentrism, affording humanity a place as ‘plain member and citizen’ of a broader land community.Individualism is so prevalent in biomedical ethics that it is scarcely argued for, instead forming part of the ‘background constellation of values’2 tacitly assumed within the field kamagra online canada.

We are used to evaluating the well-being of a community as a function of the well-being of its individual members—this is the rationale underlying quality-adjusted life year calculations endemic within health economics, and most discussions of distributive justice adopt some variation of this approach. Holism instead proposes that this makes no more sense than evaluating a person’s well-being as an aggregate of the well-being of their individual organs. While we can sensibly talk about people’s hearts, livers or kidneys, their kamagra online canada health is defined in terms of and constitutively dependent on the health of the person as a whole. Similarly, holism proposes, while individuals can be identified separately, it only makes sense to talk about them and their well-being in the context of the larger biotic community which supports and defines us.Holism helps us to negotiate the issues that confront individualistic accounts of collective well-being in Anthropocene health injustices.

In the previous section, we found in the environmental consequences of industrialised healthcare that it kamagra online canada is difficult to identify which parties in particular are harmed, and how much each individual action contributes to those harms. But our intuition that the overall result is unfair or unjust is itself a holistic assessment of the overall outcome, not dependent on our calculation of the welfare of every party involved. Holism respects the intuition that says—no matter the individuals involved—a world where people now exploit ecological resources in a fashion that deprives people in the future of the prerequisites of survival, is worse than one where communities now and in the future live in a sustainable relationship with their environment.The second aspect of Leopold’s community concept is that the community is something that does not exist at a single time and place—it is defined in terms of its development through time. Promoting the ‘integrity’ and ‘stability’ of the community requires that we not just consider its immediate interests, but how that will affect its long-term kamagra online canada sustainability or resilience.

We saw earlier the difficulties in trying to say just who is harmed and how when we approach harm to future generations individualistically. But from kamagra online canada the perspective of the Land Ethic, when we exploit environmental resources in ways that will have predictable damaging results for future generations, the object of our harm is not just some purely notional future person. It is a presently existing, temporally extended entity—the community of which they will be part.Lastly, Leopold’s community is quite consciously a biotic—not merely human—community. Leopold defines the land community as the open network of energy and mineral exchange that sustains all aspects of that network:Land… is not merely soil.

It is a fountain of energy flowing through a circuit of soils, kamagra online canada plants, and animals. Food chains are the living channels which conduct energy upward. Death and decay return it to the soil. The circuit is kamagra online canada not closed.

Some energy is dissipated in decay, some is added by absorption, some is stored in soils, peats, and forests, but it is a sustained circuit, like a slowly augmented revolving fund of life.4 (pp 268–269)While the components within this network may change, the land community as a whole remains stable when the overall complexity of the network is not disrupted—other components are able to adjust to these changes, or new ones arise to take their place.ivThe normative inference Leopold makes from his understanding of the land community is this. It makes no sense to single out individual entities within the community as being especially valuable or useful, without taking into kamagra online canada account the whole community upon which they mutually depend. To do so is self-defeating. By privileging the interests of a few members of the community, we ultimately undermine the prerequisites of their existence.The ethical sequenceThe Land Ethic’s holism is in fact its most frequently critiqued feature.

Its emphasis on the value of the biotic community leads some to allege a kamagra online canada subjugation of individual interests to the needs of the environment. This critique neglects how Leopold positions the Land Ethic in what he calls the ‘ethical sequence’. This is the gradual extension of scope of ethical kamagra online canada considerations, both in terms of the complexity of social interactions they cover (from interactions between two people, to the structure of progressively larger social groups), and in the kinds of person they acknowledge as worthy of moral consideration (as we resist, for example, classist, sexist or racist exclusions from personhood).This sequence serves less as a description of the history of morality, than a prescription for how we should understand the Land Ethic as adding to, rather than supplanting, our responsibilities to others. We do not argue that taking seriously health workers’ responsibilities for public health and health promotion supplants their duties to the patients they work with on a daily basis.

Similarly, the Land Ethic implies ‘respect for [our] fellow members, and also respect for the community as such’1 (p 204). At times, our responsibilities towards kamagra online canada these different parties may come into tension. But balancing these responsibilities has always been part of the work of clinical ethics.The ecological conscienceIf the community concept gives a definition of the good, and the ethical sequence situates this definition within the existing moral landscape, neither offers an explicit decision procedure to guide right action. In arguing for the ‘ecological conscience’, Leopold explains his rationale for not attempting to articulate such a kamagra online canada procedure.

In his career as conservationist, Leopold witnessed time and again laws nominally introduced in the name of environmental protection that did little to achieve their long-term goals, while exacerbating other environmental threats.v This is not surprising, given the ‘perfect moral storm’ of Anthropocene global health and environmental threats discussed above. The cumulative results of apparently innocent actions can be widespread and damaging.Leopold’s response to this problem is to advocate the cultivation of an ‘ecological conscience’. What is needed to promote a healthy human relationship with the land community is not for us to be told exactly how and how not to act in the face of environmental health threats, but rather to shift our view of the land from ‘a commodity belonging to us’ towards ‘a community to which we belong’1 kamagra online canada (p viii). To understand what the Land Ethic requires of us, therefore, we should learn more about the land community and our relationship with it, to develop our moral perception and extend its scope to embrace the non-human members of our community.Seen in this light, the Land Ethic shares much in common with virtue ethics, where right action is defined in terms of what the moral agent would do, rather than vice versa.

But rather than the Eudaimonia of individual human flourishing proposed by Aristotle, the phronimos of the Land Ethic sees their telos coming from their position within the land community. While clinical virtue ethicists have traditionally taken the virtues of medical practice to be grounded in the interaction with individual patients, the kamagra online canada realities of healthcare in the Anthropocene mean that limiting our moral perceptions in this way would ultimately be self-defeating—hurting those very patients we mean to serve (and many more besides).18 The virtuous clinician must adopt a view of the moral world that can focus on a person both as an individual, and simultaneously as member of the land community. I will close by exploring how adopting that perspective might change our practice.Justice in the AnthropoceneFailing this, it seems to me we fail in the ultimate test of our vaunted superiority—the self-control of environment. We fall back into the biological category of the potato bug which exterminated the potato, and thereby exterminated itself kamagra online canada.

(Leopold, ‘The River of the Mother of God’4, p 127)I have articulated some of the challenges healthcare faces in the Anthropocene. I have suggested that the tools presently available to clinical ethics may be inadequate to meet them. The Land Ethic invites kamagra online canada us to reimagine our position in and relationship with the land community. I want to close by suggesting how the development of an ecological conscience might support a transition to more just healthcare.

I will not kamagra online canada endeavour to give detailed prescriptions for action, given Leopold’s warnings about the limitations of such codifications. Rather, I will attempt to show how the cultivation of an ecological conscience might change our perception of what justice demands. Following the tradition of virtue ethics with which the Land Ethic holds much in common, this is best achieved by looking at models of virtuous action, and exploring what makes it virtuous.19Industrialised healthcare developed within a paradigm that saw the environment as inert resource and held that the scope of clinical ethics ranged only over the clinician’s interaction with their patients. When we begin to see clinician and patient not as standing apart from the environment, but as ‘member and kamagra online canada citizen of the land community’, their relationship with one another and with the world around them changes consonantly.

The present kamagra has only begun to make commonplace the idea that health workers do not simply treat infectious diseases, but interact with them in a range of ways, including as vector—and as a result our moral obligations in confronting them may extend beyond the immediate clinical encounter, to cover all the other ways we may contract or spread disease. But we may be responsible for disease outbreaks kamagra online canada with conditions other than erectile dysfunction treatment, and in ways beyond simply becoming infected. The development of an ecological conscience would show how our practices of consumption may fuel deforestation that accelerates the emergence of novel pathogens, or support intensive animal rearing that drives antibiotic resistance.18The Land Ethic also challenges us not to abstract our work away from the places in which it takes place. General practitioner surgeries and hospitals are situated within social and land communities alike, shaping and shaped by them.

These spaces can be used kamagra online canada in ways that support or undermine those communities. Surgeries can work to empower their communities to pursue more sustainable and healthy diets by doubling as food cooperatives, or providing resources and ‘social prescriptions’ for increased walking and cycling. Hospitals can use their extensive real estate to provide publicly accessible green and wild spaces within urban environments, and use their role as major nodes in transport infrastructure to change that infrastructure to support active travel alternatives.ivThe Land Ethic reminds us that a community (human or land) is not healthy if its flourishing cannot be sustainably maintained. An essential component of Anthropocene health justice kamagra online canada is intergenerational justice.

Contemporary industrialised healthcare has an unsustainable ecological footprint. Continuing with such kamagra online canada a model of care would serve only to mortgage the health of future generations for the sake of those living now. Ecologically conscious practice must take seriously the sorts of downstream, distributed consequences of activity that produce anthropogenic global health threats, and evaluate to what extent our most intensive healthcare practices truly serve to promote public and planetary health. It is not enough for the clinician to assume that our resource usage is a necessary evil in the pursuit of best clinical outcomes, for it is already apparent that much of our environmental exploitation is of minimal or even negative long-term value.

The work of the National Health Service (NHS) Sustainable Development Unit has seen a 10% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the NHS from 2007 to 2015 despite an 18% increase in clinical activity,20 while different models of kamagra online canada care used in less industrialised nations manage to provide high-quality health outcomes in less resource-intensive fashion.21ConclusionOur present problem is one of attitudes and implements. We are remodelling the Alhambra with a steam-shovel. We shall kamagra online canada hardly relinquish the steam-shovel, which after all has many good points, but we are in need of gentler and more objective criteria for its successful use. (Leopold, ‘The Land Ethic’1, p 226)The moral challenges of the Anthropocene do not solely confront health workers.

But the potentially catastrophic health effects of anthropogenic global environmental change, and the contribution of healthcare activity to driving these changes provide a specific and unique imperative for action from health workers.Yet it is hard to articulate this imperative in the language of contemporary clinical ethics, ill equipped for this intrusion of Gaia. Justice in the Anthropocene requires us to be able to adopt a perspective from which these changes no longer appear as unexpected intrusions, but that kamagra online canada acknowledges the land community as part of our moral community. The Land Ethic articulates an understanding of justice that is holistic, structural, intergenerational, and rejects anthropocentrism. This understanding seeks not to kamagra online canada supplant, but to augment, our existing one.

It aims to do so by helping us to develop an ‘ecological conscience’, seeing ourselves as ‘plain member and citizen’ of the land community. The Land Ethic does not provide a step-by-step guide to just action. Nor does it definitively adjudicate on how to kamagra online canada balance the interests of our patients, other populations now and in the future, and the planet. It could, however, help us on the first step towards that change—showing how to cultivate the ‘internal change in our intellectual emphasis, loyalties, affections, and convictions’1 (pp 209–210) necessary to realise the virtues of just healthcare in the Anthropocene.AcknowledgmentsThis essay was written as a submission for the BMA Presidential Essay Prize.

I am grateful to the organisers and judging panel for the opportunity..

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SALT LAKE cheap kamagra CITY, June 24, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- Health Catalyst, a knockout post Inc. ("Health Catalyst," Nasdaq. HCAT), a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to cheap kamagra healthcare organizations, today announced that it has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Twistle, Inc. ("Twistle"), an Albuquerque, New Mexico-based healthcare patient engagement SaaS technology company that automates patient-centered, HIPAA-compliant communication between care teams and patients to transform the patient experience, drive better care outcomes, and reduce healthcare costs. We anticipate that Twistle's leading clinical workflow and patient engagement platform, paired with the Health Catalyst population health offering, will enable a comprehensive go-to-market solution to address the population cheap kamagra health needs of healthcare organizations, as well as Life Science organizations, around the globe.

Health Catalyst's cloud-based data platform, DOS™, will enhance Twistle's automation by enabling richer data-driven patient interaction. The Twistle technology also enables Health Catalyst's clinical, quality, and Life Sciences solutions, through established clinical pathways and patient communication channels."Twistle is a leading healthcare technology company committed to developing software that healthcare organizations and Life Science companies need to keep patients engaged in their healthcare," said Dan Burton, CEO of cheap kamagra Health Catalyst. "Their efforts to improve patient outcomes and reduce the cost of care are deeply aligned with our mission to be the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed improvements. We're excited to welcome the Twistle team to cheap kamagra Health Catalyst and look forward to working together to enable healthcare organizations to achieve the promise of population health." "Health Catalyst's acquisition of Twistle highlights our belief that the most promising technology in healthcare is combining AI and data with 'digital endpoints' for patient services to deliver value. Twistle creates endpoints that, in our experience, make it simple for us to interact asynchronously with patients in smarter ways, meeting them where they are digitally, and give our care teams the time to be even better at what they do best—delivering great care," said Aaron Martin, managing general partner of Providence Ventures and chief digital officer of Providence.

"Combined with Health Catalyst's data and analytics technology, we expect accelerated innovation in cheap kamagra personalizing our outreach to patients," he added."The synergy between our cultures, values, and solutions will have a tremendous impact on the health and wellness of patients. Health Catalyst's patient insights can trigger personalized outreach, and the patient's unique profile will allow Twistle's communication pathways to adapt to their preferences and attributes in unprecedented ways. We are excited about the prospects of our joint solutions proactively engaging at-risk populations, advancing health equity, and improving patient activation in their care," said Kulmeet cheap kamagra Singh, founder and CEO of Twistle. "We anticipate that care teams will realize even more efficiency gains as our automated outreach will be more intelligent and individualized, freeing their time to focus on patients that require intervention to stay on track with their medical plan of care."Health Catalyst expects to fund the transaction using a mix of stock and cash. The parties expect the transaction, cheap kamagra which is subject to customary closing conditions, to close in early Q3 2021.

Further details regarding the acquisition will be reported on a Form 8-K filing that will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission today.About Health CatalystHealth Catalyst is a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations committed to being the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. Its customers leverage the cloud-based data platform—powered cheap kamagra by data from more than 100 million patient records and encompassing trillions of facts—as well as its analytics software and professional services expertise to make data-informed decisions and realize measurable clinical, financial, and operational improvements. Health Catalyst envisions a future in which all healthcare decisions are data informed.About TwistleTwistle, a healthcare technology company founded in 2011, automates patient-centered, HIPAA-compliant communication between care teams and patients to transform the patient experience, drive better outcomes, and reduce costs. An automatic navigation (GPS) system for health, Twistle offers "turn-by-turn" guidance to patients as they cheap kamagra navigate care journeys before, during, and after a care episode. Patients are engaged in their own care and follow best practices, communicate as needed with their care teams, and realize measurably better outcomes.

Twistle integrates sophisticated automation with multi-channel communication, engaging patients through secure text messaging, interactive voice response, patient portals, or cheap kamagra the health system's digital applications.Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking StatementsThis press release contains forward-looking statements relating to expectations, plans, and prospects including expectations relating to our ability to close, and the timing of the closing of, this transaction and the benefits that will be derived from this transaction. These forward-looking statements are based upon the current expectations and beliefs of Health Catalyst's management as of the date of this release, and are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements including, without limitation, the risk of adverse and unpredictable macro-economic conditions and risks related to closing this transaction and integration of the companies. All forward-looking statements in this press release are based on information available to the Company as of the cheap kamagra date hereof, and Health Catalyst disclaims any obligation to update these forward-looking statements.Media Contact:Amanda Hundtamanda.hundt@healthcatalyst.com575-491-0974 View original content to download multimedia:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/health-catalyst-announces-agreement-to-acquire-twistle-301319757.htmlSOURCE Health CatalystSALT LAKE CITY, May 28, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Health Catalyst, Inc. ("Health Catalyst", Nasdaq. HCAT), a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, today announced cheap kamagra that Dan Burton, CEO, and Adam Brown, SVP of Investor Relations and FP&A, will participate in the 41st Annual William Blair Growth Stock Conference including a fireside chat on Wednesday, June 2, 2021 at 5:40 p.m.

ET. A webcast link will cheap kamagra be available at https://ir.healthcatalyst.com/investor-relations. About Health Catalyst Health Catalyst is a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations committed to being the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. Its customers leverage the cloud-based data platform—powered by data from more than 100 million patient records and encompassing cheap kamagra trillions of facts—as well as its analytics software and professional services expertise to make data-informed decisions and realize measurable clinical, financial, and operational improvements. Health Catalyst envisions a future in which all healthcare decisions are data informed.

Health Catalyst cheap kamagra Investor Relations Contact. Adam BrownSenior Vice President, Investor Relations and FP&A+1 (855)-309-6800ir@healthcatalyst.com Health Catalyst Media Contact. Amanda Hundtamanda.hundt@healthcatalyst.com+1 (575) 491-0974.

SALT LAKE CITY, Lasix 100mg price June 24, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- Health kamagra online canada Catalyst, Inc. ("Health Catalyst," Nasdaq. HCAT), a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, today announced that it has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Twistle, kamagra online canada Inc. ("Twistle"), an Albuquerque, New Mexico-based healthcare patient engagement SaaS technology company that automates patient-centered, HIPAA-compliant communication between care teams and patients to transform the patient experience, drive better care outcomes, and reduce healthcare costs. We anticipate that Twistle's leading clinical workflow and patient engagement platform, paired with the Health Catalyst population health offering, will enable a kamagra online canada comprehensive go-to-market solution to address the population health needs of healthcare organizations, as well as Life Science organizations, around the globe.

Health Catalyst's cloud-based data platform, DOS™, will enhance Twistle's automation by enabling richer data-driven patient interaction. The Twistle technology also enables Health Catalyst's clinical, quality, and Life Sciences solutions, through established clinical pathways and patient communication channels."Twistle is a leading kamagra online canada healthcare technology company committed to developing software that healthcare organizations and Life Science companies need to keep patients engaged in their healthcare," said Dan Burton, CEO of Health Catalyst. "Their efforts to improve patient outcomes and reduce the cost of care are deeply aligned with our mission to be the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed improvements. We're excited to welcome the Twistle team to Health Catalyst and look forward to working together to enable healthcare organizations to achieve the promise of population health." "Health kamagra online canada Catalyst's acquisition of Twistle highlights our belief that the most promising technology in healthcare is combining AI and data with 'digital endpoints' for patient services to deliver value. Twistle creates endpoints that, in our experience, make it simple for us to interact asynchronously with patients in smarter ways, meeting them where they are digitally, and give our care teams the time to be even better at what they do best—delivering great care," said Aaron Martin, managing general partner of Providence Ventures and chief digital officer of Providence.

"Combined with Health Catalyst's data and analytics technology, we expect accelerated innovation in personalizing our outreach to patients," he added."The synergy between our cultures, values, and solutions will have a tremendous impact on the health and wellness of kamagra online canada patients. Health Catalyst's patient insights can trigger personalized outreach, and the patient's unique profile will allow Twistle's communication pathways to adapt to their preferences and attributes in unprecedented ways. We are excited about kamagra online canada the prospects of our joint solutions proactively engaging at-risk populations, advancing health equity, and improving patient activation in their care," said Kulmeet Singh, founder and CEO of Twistle. "We anticipate that care teams will realize even more efficiency gains as our automated outreach will be more intelligent and individualized, freeing their time to focus on patients that require intervention to stay on track with their medical plan of care."Health Catalyst expects to fund the transaction using a mix of stock and cash. The parties expect the transaction, which is subject to kamagra online canada customary closing conditions, to close in early Q3 2021.

Further details regarding the acquisition will be reported on a Form 8-K filing that will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission today.About Health CatalystHealth Catalyst is a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations committed to being the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. Its customers leverage the cloud-based data platform—powered by data from more than 100 million patient records and encompassing trillions of facts—as well as its kamagra online canada analytics software and professional services expertise to make data-informed decisions and realize measurable clinical, financial, and operational improvements. Health Catalyst envisions a future in which all healthcare decisions are data informed.About TwistleTwistle, a healthcare technology company founded in 2011, automates patient-centered, HIPAA-compliant communication between care teams and patients to transform the patient experience, drive better outcomes, and reduce costs. An automatic navigation (GPS) system for health, Twistle offers "turn-by-turn" kamagra online canada guidance to patients as they navigate care journeys before, during, and after a care episode. Patients are engaged in their own care and follow best practices, communicate as needed with their care teams, and realize measurably better outcomes.

Twistle integrates sophisticated automation with multi-channel communication, engaging patients through secure text messaging, interactive voice response, patient portals, or the health system's digital applications.Cautionary Note kamagra online canada Regarding Forward-Looking StatementsThis press release contains forward-looking statements relating to expectations, plans, and prospects including expectations relating to our ability to close, and the timing of the closing of, this transaction and the benefits that will be derived from this transaction. These forward-looking statements are based upon the current expectations and beliefs of Health Catalyst's management as of the date of this release, and are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements including, without limitation, the risk of adverse and unpredictable macro-economic conditions and risks related to closing this transaction and integration of the companies. All forward-looking statements in this press release are based on information available to the Company as of the date hereof, and Health Catalyst disclaims any obligation to update these forward-looking statements.Media Contact:Amanda Hundtamanda.hundt@healthcatalyst.com575-491-0974 View original content to download multimedia:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/health-catalyst-announces-agreement-to-acquire-twistle-301319757.htmlSOURCE Health CatalystSALT LAKE CITY, May 28, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Health kamagra online canada Catalyst, Inc. ("Health Catalyst", Nasdaq. HCAT), a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, kamagra online canada today announced that Dan Burton, CEO, and Adam Brown, SVP of Investor Relations and FP&A, will participate in the 41st Annual William Blair Growth Stock Conference including a fireside chat on Wednesday, June 2, 2021 at 5:40 p.m.

ET. A webcast link will be available at https://ir.healthcatalyst.com/investor-relations kamagra online canada. About Health Catalyst Health Catalyst is a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations committed to being the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. Its customers leverage the cloud-based data platform—powered by data from more than 100 million patient records and encompassing trillions of facts—as well as its analytics software and professional services expertise kamagra online canada to make data-informed decisions and realize measurable clinical, financial, and operational improvements. Health Catalyst envisions a future in which all healthcare decisions are data informed.

Health Catalyst kamagra online canada Investor Relations Contact. Adam BrownSenior Vice President, Investor Relations and FP&A+1 (855)-309-6800ir@healthcatalyst.com Health Catalyst Media Contact. Amanda Hundtamanda.hundt@healthcatalyst.com+1 (575) 491-0974.

Kamagra gel srbija

As a kamagra gel srbija kamagra online canada world-leading authority on adult congenital heart disease (ACHD), Professor Michael A. Gatzoulis believes the field is a success story of modern medicine with an ever-increasing number of patients able to reach and enjoy adulthood, including those with complex disease who previously had a guarded prognosis.Yet he also concedes there is still a long way to go to improve the care for this group of patients with life-long disease. In addition to more evidence-based practice for this global disease affecting approximately 1% of kamagra gel srbija new-borns, he advocates a personalized ACHD approach with patient education and empowerment at its heart, and better use of technology.A Consultant Cardiologist at the Royal Brompton &. Harefield NHS Trust in London, and the Academic Head of ACHD and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH), his key objective has been ‘to promote the needs of patients with congenital heart disease, including delivery of best care, translation research, training, and education’.Prof.

Gatzoulis was born into an ‘open-minded and supportive’ medical family in Drama, a city in the north-east of Greece, where his older brother Konstantinos—currently Professor of Cardiology at the University of Athens—and younger sister Thalia (now a successful artist) also studied medicine. His father, Athanasios, was a paediatrician.‘I was very rebellious as a teenager’, he recalled, ‘my old friends hardly recognize me now’ kamagra gel srbija. Indeed, he failed to enter the Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki at the first attempt but was accepted the following year in 1977. Following graduation and his national service as a soldier and a year’s provincial service as a young doctor, he left his homeland kamagra gel srbija for London in 1987 ‘for a new challenge’, securing a paediatric Senior House Officer role working long hours.

€˜I liked the environment and the responsibility, though in the beginning it was challenging. For the first few months I was coming home totally exhausted, but it got better, and I have no regrets’.With an interest in the heart, he felt the natural next step was paediatric cardiology, so he seized the opportunity when consultant paediatric cardiologist Dr Michael Rigby asked him to join the Royal Brompton Hospital in 1992 (Figure 1). Figure 1Royal Brompton Hospital, South Block, Circa 1880.Figure kamagra gel srbija 1Royal Brompton Hospital, South Block, Circa 1880.With his PhD mentor there, Prof. Andrew Redington, he began studying the right ventricle (RV) in adult patients with Tetralogy of Fallot, which led to several important publications.Right ventricular diastolic function, he added, was linked for the first time to arrhythmia and propensity to sudden cardiac death, the ‘mechano-electric concept’, which had implications on prognostication and led to a proactive approach towards pulmonary valve replacement (Figure 2).1 Figure 2ECG with broad QRS complex and a CMR of a dilated RV with pulmonary regurgitation (PR).

ECG with broad QRS kamagra gel srbija complex and 1st degree heart block of a patient with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot presenting with sustained VT. Note QRS >. 180 ms. Composite shows cardiac MRI from the patient with (A) and (B) moderate to severe pulmonary regurgitation, (C) marked dilatation and some hypertrophy of the right ventricle with secondary tricuspid regurgitation and (D) Right pulmonary artery (RPA) stenosis kamagra gel srbija at the site of a previous Blalock–Taussig Shunt.

Patient underwent surgical PV implantation, relief of RPA stenosis, and AICD implantation.Figure 2ECG with broad QRS complex and a CMR of a dilated RV with pulmonary regurgitation (PR). ECG with broad QRS complex and 1st degree heart block of a patient with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot presenting with sustained VT kamagra gel srbija. Note QRS >. 180 ms.

Composite shows cardiac MRI from the patient with (A) and (B) moderate to severe pulmonary regurgitation, (C) marked dilatation and some hypertrophy kamagra gel srbija of the right ventricle with secondary tricuspid regurgitation and (D) Right pulmonary artery (RPA) stenosis at the site of a previous Blalock–Taussig Shunt. Patient underwent surgical PV implantation, relief of RPA stenosis, and AICD implantation.‘It was a golden era for paediatric cardiology at the Brompton’, said Prof. Gatzoulis, ‘and I could clearly see that ACHD was kamagra gel srbija an area of growth and need’.Having completed his post-graduate training in London by the end of 1996, and smitten by clinical research, he decided not to go back to Greece but moved instead to Canada to work with Gary Webb at the Toronto General Hospital.Returning to London in 1999, he became head of the GUCH (Grown-up CHD) unit at Royal Brompton Hospital, succeeding Prof. Jane Somerville, to run and expand one of the world’s largest ACHD clinical, training and research programmes.Today, Prof.

Gatzoulis is the academic head of the Adult Congenital Heart Centre and the Centre for Pulmonary Hypertension and clinical lead for ACHD at the Royal Brompton Hospital and a Professor of Cardiology and CHD at the National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London. Together with his colleagues, he looks after more than 10 000 ACHD and 1000 PAH kamagra gel srbija patients, including those with the greatest disease complexity.Among his influences was his father, ‘an amazing person ahead of his time’, who after a successful career as a paediatrician retired at 60 and embarked on a new calling on nature preservation and community work. Prof. Redington taught him how to conduct and report research, while Dr Webb kamagra gel srbija was inspiring with his ‘inclusivity and painstaking work on databases’.

But he also reflects on the influence of obstetrician Prof. Phil Steer from the Chelsea &. Westminster Hospital, ‘for his patient-centred holistic kamagra gel srbija approach and team building, while maintaining academic rigour and output’.Prof. Gatzoulis’ research focus has been on mechanisms and prevention of heart failure (HF) and sudden cardiac death in CHD and the treatment of PAH.

He said kamagra gel srbija. €˜We have improved the outlook for CHD patients a great deal, but for the most part we have not fixed it’. Prof. Gatzoulis recalls how kamagra gel srbija Prof.

Andrew Coats, then head of research at the Royal Brompton, was supportive of his early descriptive work on heart failure markers and exercise intolerance in ACHD, which have now become standard practice (Figure 3). €˜Our work reinforced that we have not cured CHD and at the same time we have opened new therapeutic opportunities’. Figure 3Heart failure and transplantation teams from the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust at their regular Multi-disciplinary Team (MDT) meeting at the Brompton site.Figure 3Heart failure and transplantation teams from the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust at their regular Multi-disciplinary Team kamagra gel srbija (MDT) meeting at the Brompton site.The Brompton’s designation as a national centre for ACHD and PAH in 2002 was a significant step forward, delivering greater patient numbers for his team to understand the pathophysiology and try novel therapies. €˜Patients with Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES), the extreme end of the CHD-PAH spectrum, were either neglected or mismanaged by dogma and we have done a lot of work on pathophysiology of their condition and advanced therapies (Figure 4), which has transformed their lives and relevant practice’.

Figure kamagra gel srbija 4Peripheral cyanosis in a patient with ES PDA, Graph showing improved 6 minute-walk-distance (MWD) and survival from disease targeting therapy (DTT), Composite Figure. Right panel. Peripheral cyanosis. Only possible diagnosis is a Patent Ductus kamagra gel srbija Arteriosus and Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES.

Take the patient’s socks off). Left panel kamagra gel srbija. (A, B) Improvement on pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRi) and the 6 MWD in patients with ES after 16 weeks of Bosentan therapy versus placebo, BREATHE 5 study, (C) Improvement in symptoms and QoL after 16 weeks of intention to treat patients with ES with iron supplementation and (D) Survival benefit of patients with ES on PAH advanced therapies. From Gatzoulis et al.

IJC 2014, permission granted.Figure 4Peripheral cyanosis kamagra gel srbija in a patient with ES PDA, Graph showing improved 6 minute-walk-distance (MWD) and survival from disease targeting therapy (DTT), Composite Figure. Right panel. Peripheral cyanosis kamagra gel srbija. Only possible diagnosis is a Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES.

Take the patient’s socks off). Left panel kamagra gel srbija. (A, B) Improvement on pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRi) and the 6 MWD in patients with ES after 16 weeks of Bosentan therapy versus placebo, BREATHE 5 study, (C) Improvement in symptoms and QoL after 16 weeks of intention to treat patients with ES with iron supplementation and (D) Survival benefit of patients with ES on PAH advanced therapies. From Gatzoulis et kamagra gel srbija al.

IJC 2014, permission granted. Figure 5Paul Wood Textbook cover ‘Diseases of the Heart and Circulation’.Figure 5Paul Wood Textbook cover ‘Diseases of the Heart and Circulation’.He believes his original work on pulmonary regurgitation/right ventricular function, with his serendipitous ECG observations, the mechano-electric concept, together with the groundwork on HF and the clinical trials on PAH in the context of CHD, as among his most important.Asked how he thinks his work has advanced the field, Prof. Gatzoulis replied kamagra gel srbija. €˜There was a major impact from our research on ACHD practice with our proactive approach.

A lot of the recent focus of mainstream cardiology—for example, the right ventricle, the pulmonary vascular bed, and even transaortic valve implantation (TAVI)—relate kamagra gel srbija to original research or innovations originating from CHD.‘Overall, we have made progress, but we cannot be complacent. There is clearly more to do. More evidence is needed to inform our practice and we must work more collaboratively to achieve this. CHD is a very kamagra gel srbija heterogeneous disease.

And we are not doing a good enough job in empowering patients to lead independent and full lives.‘Now is the time to move to a more patient-centred, holistic approach, where we are truly the patient’s advocate. Education is central to this and merits kamagra gel srbija further investment.2 Better use of technology, including Artificial Intelligence3 and remote monitoring are also due and have come to the fore due to the self-isolation protocols of the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra'.Prof. Gatzoulis is particularly proud of the 150+ ACHD Fellows that trained with him at the Brompton. €˜The number one asset for me is the patient, but number two—and close behind—are the Fellows who come to train with us in ACHD.

The fact is that I learn from them—and from the patients—more kamagra gel srbija than they learn from me!. The ACHD Fellows are now all over the world practising ACHD and I am immensely proud of them’.A former president of the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease, a council member of the ACHD WG of the ESC, and recipient of multiple awards including the prestigious Aristotle Medal for the Year for Science and Politics (2019), he is the author of over 380 peer-reviewed publications, edited or co-edited 10 cardiology textbooks, is an incoming Deputy Editor of the EHJ, Associate Editor of the International Journal of Cardiology and is launching a new journal with a CHD and PAH focus.A father of two teenage boys, away from medicine he enjoys tennis, watersports and cycling, food markets/cooking/restaurants, museums/arts, and travel.Advice he would give young researchers as they set out on a path toward success within the field is. €˜Pursue your kamagra gel srbija dreams and seek the right environment. Work hard and stay close to the patient and to your research, and do not be put off by obstacles’.Prof.

Gatzoulis, as one of the leading pioneers, points to future challenges in the ‘continuously evolving cardiovascular subspecialty’ of ACHD. Understanding better the late course of kamagra gel srbija the disease. Optimizing therapies. Ensuring patient access to tertiary care.

Training of the kamagra gel srbija new generation of professionals to serve ACHD patients. And securing resources (Figure 5).4‘Visionary heads of cardiology always had space for this unique cardiovascular subspecialty for the wealth of its anatomic spectrum, the intriguing physiology, the wonderful clinical signs and the deserving patients. The examples are multiple, from the late Paul Wood at the Brompton, to Eugene Braunwald in Boston, to kamagra gel srbija Pavlos Toutouzas in Athens and many others.‘The number of adult ACHD patients has long exceeded the number of children with CHD’, he said, ‘yet the provision of care for the former is lacking. Furthermore, patients and their families have not been educated and empowered enough regarding their CHD, lifestyle issues and outlook and, yet they navigate their lives with a positive attitude, despite uncertainty, multiple operations, and physical disability in some.

For me, the patients are the true heroes in this journey, and a daily inspiration’. ReferencesReferences are available as supplementary material at European Heart Journal online.Conflict kamagra gel srbija of interest. None declared. Published on behalf of the European Society kamagra gel srbija of Cardiology.

All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, kamagra gel srbija please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com. For the podcast associated with this article, please visit https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/pages/Podcasts.This is a Focus Issue on congenital heart disease (CHD).

The population of adults kamagra gel srbija with CHD has risen dramatically over the last 60 years, in large part due to the success of cardiac surgery and paediatric cardiac care. In most western civilizations, >85% of babies born with CHD can now be expected to survive to adulthood. Almost 1 in 100 babies are born with CHD, and the adult population of patients in Europe is estimated at 2.3 million and in the USA at >1 million, both outnumbering the paediatric CHD population.1,2 This leads to unique challenges that the surgical and medical community, together with the patients themselves, face.3,4 Some have largely been overcome, while others remain to be solved. In addition, kamagra gel srbija there are unexpected new challenges which have emerged.

This issue addresses some of these challenges regarding treatment, participation in competitive sports, and advance care planning in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD).The first contribution is a clinical research article entitled ‘Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis including more than 44 kamagra gel srbija 000 patients’ by Gerhard-Paul Diller from the University Hopital Münster in Germany and colleagues.5 Although the use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is well established in patients with atrial fibrillation and pulmonary thrombo-embolism,6–8 their value in patients with ACHD is still largely unexplored. The authors evaluated the use of NOACs compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in ACHD patients and assessed the outcome in a nationwide analysis. Using data from one of Germany’s largest health insurers, all ACHD patients treated with VKAs or NOACs were identified and changes in prescription patterns assessed.

Furthermore, the association between anticoagulation kamagra gel srbija regimen and complications including mortality was studied. About 44 000 ACHD patients were included. Between 2005 and 2018, the use of oral anticoagulants in those with ACHD increased from 6.3% kamagra gel srbija to 12.4%. Since NOACs became available their utilization has increased continually, accounting for 45% of prescribed anticoagulants in ACHD patients in 2018.

ACHD patients on NOACs had higher thrombo-embolic events (3.8% vs. 2.8%), major cardiovascular events (7.8% kamagra gel srbija vs. 6.0%), bleeding rates (11.7% vs. 9.0%), and kamagra gel srbija all-cause mortality (4.0% vs.

2.8%. All P <. 0.05) after kamagra gel srbija 1 year of therapy compared with VKAs. After comprehensive adjustment for patient characteristics, NOACs were still associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular events [hazard ratio (HR) 1.22] and increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.43) during long-term follow-up (Figure 1).

Figure 1Upper kamagra gel srbija panel. Increased use of (novel) oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease over time. The figure displays the annual prescription of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients between 2005 and 2018 covering 521 493 patient-years in a total cohort size of n = 44 097 ACHD patients. The proportion of ACHD kamagra gel srbija patients on oral anticoagulation increased from 6.3% in 2005 to 12.8% in 2018.

Vitamin K antagonists were supplemented but also increasingly replaced by novel oral anticoagulants, with the latter accounting for 45% of all oral anticoagulants prescribed in 2018. The numbers over the bars represent the proportion of ACHD patients on oral anticoagulation during the respective year, while the white numbers represent the percentage of anticoagulated patients receiving novel oral anticoagulants. Lower panel kamagra gel srbija. Results of the adjusted multivariable time-dependent Cox regression analysis.

The figure illustrates vitamin K antagonists were superior to novel oral anticoagulants regarding all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events and bleeding, whereas no statistical difference could be established for thromboembolic events (from Freisinger E, Gerβ J, Makowski L, Marschall kamagra gel srbija U, Reinecke H, Baumgartner H, Koeppe J, Diller G-P. Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis including more than 44 000 patients. See pages kamagra gel srbija 4168–4177).Figure 1Upper panel.

Increased use of (novel) oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease over time. The figure displays the annual prescription of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients between 2005 and 2018 covering 521 493 patient-years in a total cohort size of n = 44 097 ACHD kamagra gel srbija patients. The proportion of ACHD patients on oral anticoagulation increased from 6.3% in 2005 to 12.8% in 2018. Vitamin K antagonists were supplemented but also increasingly replaced by novel oral anticoagulants, with the latter accounting for 45% of all oral anticoagulants prescribed in 2018.

The numbers over the bars represent the proportion of ACHD patients on oral anticoagulation during the respective year, kamagra gel srbija while the white numbers represent the percentage of anticoagulated patients receiving novel oral anticoagulants. Lower panel. Results of the adjusted multivariable time-dependent Cox kamagra gel srbija regression analysis. The figure illustrates vitamin K antagonists were superior to novel oral anticoagulants regarding all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events and bleeding, whereas no statistical difference could be established for thromboembolic events (from Freisinger E, Gerβ J, Makowski L, Marschall U, Reinecke H, Baumgartner H, Koeppe J, Diller G-P.

Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis including more than 44 000 kamagra gel srbija patients. See pages 4168–4177).The authors conclude that despite the lack of prospective studies in ACHD patients, NOACs are increasingly replacing VKAs and now account for almost half of all oral anticoagulant prescriptions. In particularly, NOACs were associated with excess long-term risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality in this nationwide analysis, emphasizing the need for prospective studies before solid recommendations for their use kamagra gel srbija in ACHD patients can be provided.

The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Frans Van de Werf from KU Leuven in Belgium and colleagues.9 They note that while awaiting the results of controlled studies, it is wise to use VKAs as the standard anticoagulant therapy in ACHD patients and consider NOACs for selected cases after consultation with a multidisciplinary team. Figure 2Event free survival. Time = 0 refers to the date kamagra gel srbija of randomization. The dotted line indicates the end of the initial COMPARE trial period.

CI, confidence interval kamagra gel srbija. HR, hazard ratio (from van Andel MM, Indrakusuma R, Jalalzadeh H, Balm R, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den Berg MP, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJM, de Waard V, Groenink M. Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of kamagra gel srbija the multicentre randomized controlled COMPARE trial.

See pages 4181–4187).Figure 2Event free survival. Time = kamagra gel srbija 0 refers to the date of randomization. The dotted line indicates the end of the initial COMPARE trial period. CI, confidence interval.

HR, hazard ratio (from van Andel MM, Indrakusuma R, Jalalzadeh H, Balm R, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den Berg kamagra gel srbija MP, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJM, de Waard V, Groenink M. Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre randomized controlled COMPARE trial kamagra gel srbija. See pages 4181–4187).The COMPARE trial showed a small but significant beneficial effect of 3-year losartan treatment on aortic root dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS).10 However, no significant effect was found on clinical endpoints, possibly due to a short follow-up period.

In a clinical research manuscript entitled ‘Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre randomized controlled COMPARE trial’, Mitzi van Andel from the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands and colleagues investigate the long-term clinical outcomes after losartan treatment.11 In the kamagra gel srbija original COMPARE study (inclusion 2008–2009), 233 adult patients with MFS were randomly allocated to either the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan on top of regular treatment (beta-blockers in 71% of the patients) or no additional medication. After the COMPARE trial period of 3 years, study subjects chose to continue their losartan medication or not. In a median follow-up period of 8 years, 75 patients continued losartan medication, whereas 78 patients, originally allocated to the control group, never used losartan after inclusion.

No differences existed between baseline characteristics of the two groups except for age at inclusion and beta-blocker use (losartan kamagra gel srbija 81%, control 64%). Clinical endpoints, defined as all-cause mortality, aortic dissection/rupture, elective aortic root replacement, reoperation, and vascular graft implantation beyond the aortic root, were compared between the two groups. A per kamagra gel srbija patient composite endpoint was also analysed. Patients who used losartan during the entire follow-up period showed a reduced number of events compared with the control group and exhibited a significantly lower number of deaths (0 vs.

5) and aortic dissections (3 vs. 11). They also experienced a non-significant lower number of elective aortic root replacement (10 vs. 13), reoperation (1 vs.

2), and vascular graft implantation beyond the aortic root (0 vs. 3) (Figure 2). These results remained similar when corrected for age and beta-blocker use in a multivariate analysis.Van Andel et al. Conclude that these results suggest a clinical benefit of combined losartan and beta-blocker treatment in patients with MFS.

The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Guillaume Jondeau from the Hôpital Bichat in Paris, France.12 Jondeau and colleagues hope that a forthcoming meta-analysis combining all of the randomized studies already published or unpublished will confirm the early results of this study.The issue continues with the Special Article ‘Recommendations for participation in competitive sport in adolescent and adult athletes with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD). Position statement of the Sport Cardiology &. Exercise Section of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC), The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Working Group on Adult Congenital Heart Disease, and the Sports Cardiology, Physical Activity and Prevention Working Group of The Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC)’ by Werner Budts from the Catholic University Leuven in Belgium and colleagues.13 The authors note that improved clinical care has led to an increase in the number of ACHD patients engaging in leisure time and competitive sports activities. Although the benefits of exercise in patients with ACHD are well established, there is a low but appreciable risk of exercise-related complications.

Published exercise recommendations for individuals with ACHD are predominantly centred on anatomic lesions, hampering an individualized approach to exercise advice in this heterogeneous population. This document presents an update of the recommendations for competitive sports participation in athletes with cardiovascular disease. It introduces an approach which is based on assessment of haemodynamic, electrophysiological, and functional parameters, rather than anatomical lesions. The recommendations provide a comprehensive assessment algorithm which allows for patient-specific assessment and risk stratification of athletes with ACHD who wish to participate in competitive sports.Finally, this issue also contains the Special Article ‘Recommendations for advance care planning in adults with congenital heart disease.

A position paper from the ESC Working Group of Adult Congenital Heart Disease, the Association of Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (ACNAP), the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC), and the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD)’ by Markus Schwerzmann from the University of Bern in Switzerland and colleagues.14 The authors remind us that survival prospects in ACHD, although improved in recent decades, still remain below expectations for the general population. Patients and their loved ones benefit from preparation for both unexpected and predictable deaths, sometimes preceded by a prolonged period of declining health. Hence, advance care planning (ACP) is an integral part of comprehensive care in those with ACHD. This position paper summarizes evidence regarding benefits of and patients’ preferences for ACP and provides practical advice regarding the implementation of ACP processes within clinical ACHD practice.

They suggest that ACP be delivered as a structured process across different stages, with content dependent upon the anticipated disease progression. They also acknowledge potential barriers to initiate ACP discussions and emphasize the importance of a sensitive and situation-specific communication style. Conclusions presented in this paper reflect agreed expert opinions, and include both patient and provider perspectives.The editors hope that this issue of the European Heart Journal will be of interest to its readers.With thanks to Amelia Meier-Batschelet, Johanna Huggler, and Martin Meyer for help with compilation of this article. References1Warnes CA.

Adult congenital heart disease. The challenges of a lifetime. Eur Heart J 2017;38:2041–2047.2Baumgartner H, De Backer J, Babu-Narayan SV, Budts W, Chessa M, Diller GP, Lung B, Kluin J, Lang IM, Meijboom F, Moons P, Mulder BJM, Oechslin E, Roos-Hesselink JW, Schwerzmann M, Sondergaard L, Zeppenfeld K. 2020 ESC Guidelines for the management of adult congenital heart disease.

Eur Heart J 2020;doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa554.3Baumgartner H, Budts W, Chessa M, Deanfield J, Eicken A, Holm J, Iserin L, Meijboom F, Stein J, Szatmari A, Trindade PT, Walker F. Recommendations for organization of care for adults with congenital heart disease and for training in the subspecialty of ‘Grown-up Congenital Heart Disease’ in Europe. A position paper of the Working Group on Grown-up Congenital Heart Disease of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2014;35:686–690.4Moons P, Meijboom FJ, Baumgartner H, Trindade PT, Huyghe E, Kaemmerer H.

Structure and activities of adult congenital heart disease programmes in Europe. Eur Heart J 2010;31:1305–1310.5Freisinger E, Gerß J, Makowski L, Marschall U, Reinecke H, Baumgartner H, Koeppe J, Diller G-P. Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis including more than 44 000 patients.

Eur Heart J 2020;41:4168–4177.6Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Diener HC, Hacke W, Oldgren J, Sinnaeve P, Camm AJ, Kirchhof P. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association practical guide on the use of non-vitamin-K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Executive summary. Eur Heart J 2017;38:2137–2149.7Hindricks G, Potpara T, Dagres N, Arbelo E, Bax JJ, Blomström-Lundqvist C, Boriani G, Castella M, Dan GA, Dilaveris PE, Fauchier L, Filippatos G, Kalman JM, La Meir M, Lane DA, Lebeau JP, Lettino M, Lip GYH, Pinto FJ, Thomas GN, Valgimigli M, Van Gelder IC, Van Putte BP, Watkins CL.

2020 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with the European Association of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur Heart J 2020;41:XXX–XXX.8Konstantinides SV, Meyer G, Becattini C, Bueno H, Geersing GJ, Harjola VP, Huisman MV, Humbert M, Jennings CS, Jiménez D, Kucher N, Lang IM, Lankeit M, Lorusso R, Mazzolai L, Meneveau N, F NÁ, Prandoni P, Pruszczyk P, Righini M, Torbicki A, Van Belle E, Zamorano JL. 2019 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism developed in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society (ERS). Eur Heart J 2020;41:543–603.9Verhamme P, Budts W, Van de Werf F.

Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Quod non?. Eur Heart J 2020;41:4178–4180.10Groenink M, den Hartog AW, Franken R, Radonic T, de Waard V, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den Berg MP, Spijkerboer AM, Marquering HA, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJ. Losartan reduces aortic dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome.

A randomized controlled trial. Eur Heart J 2013;34:3491–3500.11van Andel MM, Indrakusuma R, Jalalzadeh H, Balm R, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den Berg MP, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJM, de Waard V, Groenink M. Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre randomized controlled COMPARE trial.

Eur Heart J 2020;41:4181–4187.12Jondeau G, Milleron O, Boileau C. Marfan sartan saga, episode X. Eur Heart J 2020;41:4188–4190.13Budts W, Pieles GE, Roos-Hesselink JW, Sanz de la Garza M, D’Ascenzi F, Giannakoulas G, Müller J, Oberhoffer R, Ehringer-Schetitska D, Herceg-Cavrak V, Gabriel H, Corrado D, van Buuren F, Niebauer J, Börjesson M, Caselli S, Fritsch P, Pelliccia A, Heidbuchel H, Sharma S, Stuart AG, Papadakis M. Recommendations for participation in competitive sport in adolescent and adult athletes with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD).

Position statement of the Sports Cardiology &. Exercise Section of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC), the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Working Group on Adult Congenital Heart Disease and the Sports Cardiology, Physical Activity and Prevention Working Group of the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). Eur Heart J 2020;41:4191–4199.14Schwerzmann M, Goossens E, Galle go P, Kovacs AH, Moons P, Swan L, Tobler D, de Stoutz N, Gabriel H, Greutmann M, Roos-Hesselink JW, Sobanski PZ, Thomet C. Recommendations for advance care planning in adults with congenital heart disease.

A position paper from the ESC Working Group of Adult Congenital Heart Disease, the Association of Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (ACNAP), the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC), and the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD). Eur Heart J 2020;41:4200–4210. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

© The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com..

As a kamagra online canada world-leading authority on adult congenital heart disease (ACHD), Professor Michael A. Gatzoulis believes the field is a success story of modern medicine with an ever-increasing number of patients able to reach and enjoy adulthood, including those with complex disease who previously had a guarded prognosis.Yet he also concedes there is still a long way to go to improve the care for this group of patients with life-long disease. In addition to more evidence-based practice kamagra online canada for this global disease affecting approximately 1% of new-borns, he advocates a personalized ACHD approach with patient education and empowerment at its heart, and better use of technology.A Consultant Cardiologist at the Royal Brompton &. Harefield NHS Trust in London, and the Academic Head of ACHD and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH), his key objective has been ‘to promote the needs of patients with congenital heart disease, including delivery of best care, translation research, training, and education’.Prof. Gatzoulis was born into an ‘open-minded and supportive’ medical family in Drama, a city in the north-east of Greece, where his older brother Konstantinos—currently Professor of Cardiology at the University of Athens—and younger sister Thalia (now a successful artist) also studied medicine.

His father, Athanasios, was a paediatrician.‘I was very rebellious as a teenager’, he recalled, ‘my old friends hardly kamagra online canada recognize me now’. Indeed, he failed to enter the Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki at the first attempt but was accepted the following year in 1977. Following graduation and his national service as a soldier and a year’s provincial service as a young kamagra online canada doctor, he left his homeland for London in 1987 ‘for a new challenge’, securing a paediatric Senior House Officer role working long hours. €˜I liked the environment and the responsibility, though in the beginning it was challenging. For the first few months I was coming home totally exhausted, but it got better, and I have no regrets’.With an interest in the heart, he felt the natural next step was paediatric cardiology, so he seized the opportunity when consultant paediatric cardiologist Dr Michael Rigby asked him to join the Royal Brompton Hospital in 1992 (Figure 1).

Figure 1Royal Brompton kamagra online canada Hospital, South Block, Circa 1880.Figure 1Royal Brompton Hospital, South Block, Circa 1880.With his PhD mentor there, Prof. Andrew Redington, he began studying the right ventricle (RV) in adult patients with Tetralogy of Fallot, which led to several important publications.Right ventricular diastolic function, he added, was linked for the first time to arrhythmia and propensity to sudden cardiac death, the ‘mechano-electric concept’, which had implications on prognostication and led to a proactive approach towards pulmonary valve replacement (Figure 2).1 Figure 2ECG with broad QRS complex and a CMR of a dilated RV with pulmonary regurgitation (PR). ECG with broad QRS complex and 1st degree heart block of a patient with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot presenting kamagra online canada with sustained VT. Note QRS >. 180 ms.

Composite shows cardiac MRI from the patient with (A) kamagra online canada and (B) moderate to severe pulmonary regurgitation, (C) marked dilatation and some hypertrophy of the right ventricle with secondary tricuspid regurgitation and (D) Right pulmonary artery (RPA) stenosis at the site of a previous Blalock–Taussig Shunt. Patient underwent surgical PV implantation, relief of RPA stenosis, and AICD implantation.Figure 2ECG with broad QRS complex and a CMR of a dilated RV with pulmonary regurgitation (PR). ECG with broad QRS complex and 1st degree heart block of kamagra online canada a patient with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot presenting with sustained VT. Note QRS >. 180 ms.

Composite shows cardiac MRI from the patient with (A) and (B) moderate to severe pulmonary regurgitation, (C) marked dilatation and some hypertrophy of the right ventricle with secondary tricuspid regurgitation and (D) Right pulmonary artery kamagra online canada (RPA) stenosis at the site of a previous Blalock–Taussig Shunt. Patient underwent surgical PV implantation, relief of RPA stenosis, and AICD implantation.‘It was a golden era for paediatric cardiology at the Brompton’, said Prof. Gatzoulis, ‘and I could clearly see that ACHD was an area of growth and need’.Having completed his post-graduate training in kamagra online canada London by the end of 1996, and smitten by clinical research, he decided not to go back to Greece but moved instead to Canada to work with Gary Webb at the Toronto General Hospital.Returning to London in 1999, he became head of the GUCH (Grown-up CHD) unit at Royal Brompton Hospital, succeeding Prof. Jane Somerville, to run and expand one of the world’s largest ACHD clinical, training and research programmes.Today, Prof. Gatzoulis is the academic head of the Adult Congenital Heart Centre and the Centre for Pulmonary Hypertension and clinical lead for ACHD at the Royal Brompton Hospital and a Professor of Cardiology and CHD at the National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London.

Together with his colleagues, he looks after more than kamagra online canada 10 000 ACHD and 1000 PAH patients, including those with the greatest disease complexity.Among his influences was his father, ‘an amazing person ahead of his time’, who after a successful career as a paediatrician retired at 60 and embarked on a new calling on nature preservation and community work. Prof. Redington taught him how kamagra online canada to conduct and report research, while Dr Webb was inspiring with his ‘inclusivity and painstaking work on databases’. But he also reflects on the influence of obstetrician Prof. Phil Steer from the Chelsea &.

Westminster Hospital, ‘for his patient-centred holistic approach and team building, while maintaining academic rigour and output’.Prof kamagra online canada. Gatzoulis’ research focus has been on mechanisms and prevention of heart failure (HF) and sudden cardiac death in CHD and the treatment of PAH. He said kamagra online canada. €˜We have improved the outlook for CHD patients a great deal, but for the most part we have not fixed it’. Prof.

Gatzoulis recalls how kamagra online canada Prof. Andrew Coats, then head of research at the Royal Brompton, was supportive of his early descriptive work on heart failure markers and exercise intolerance in ACHD, which have now become standard practice (Figure 3). €˜Our work reinforced that we have not cured CHD and at the same time we have opened new therapeutic opportunities’. Figure 3Heart failure and transplantation teams from kamagra online canada the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust at their regular Multi-disciplinary Team (MDT) meeting at the Brompton site.Figure 3Heart failure and transplantation teams from the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust at their regular Multi-disciplinary Team (MDT) meeting at the Brompton site.The Brompton’s designation as a national centre for ACHD and PAH in 2002 was a significant step forward, delivering greater patient numbers for his team to understand the pathophysiology and try novel therapies. €˜Patients with Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES), the extreme end of the CHD-PAH spectrum, were either neglected or mismanaged by dogma and we have done a lot of work on pathophysiology of their condition and advanced therapies (Figure 4), which has transformed their lives and relevant practice’.

Figure 4Peripheral kamagra online canada cyanosis in a patient with ES PDA, Graph showing improved 6 minute-walk-distance (MWD) and survival from disease targeting therapy (DTT), Composite Figure. Right panel. Peripheral cyanosis. Only possible diagnosis is a Patent Ductus Arteriosus kamagra online canada and Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES. Take the patient’s socks off).

Left panel kamagra online canada. (A, B) Improvement on pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRi) and the 6 MWD in patients with ES after 16 weeks of Bosentan therapy versus placebo, BREATHE 5 study, (C) Improvement in symptoms and QoL after 16 weeks of intention to treat patients with ES with iron supplementation and (D) Survival benefit of patients with ES on PAH advanced therapies. From Gatzoulis et al. IJC 2014, permission granted.Figure 4Peripheral cyanosis in a patient with ES PDA, Graph showing improved 6 minute-walk-distance (MWD) kamagra online canada and survival from disease targeting therapy (DTT), Composite Figure. Right panel.

Peripheral cyanosis kamagra online canada. Only possible diagnosis is a Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES. Take the patient’s socks off). Left panel kamagra online canada. (A, B) Improvement on pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRi) and the 6 MWD in patients with ES after 16 weeks of Bosentan therapy versus placebo, BREATHE 5 study, (C) Improvement in symptoms and QoL after 16 weeks of intention to treat patients with ES with iron supplementation and (D) Survival benefit of patients with ES on PAH advanced therapies.

From Gatzoulis kamagra online canada et al. IJC 2014, permission granted. Figure 5Paul Wood Textbook cover ‘Diseases of the Heart and Circulation’.Figure 5Paul Wood Textbook cover ‘Diseases of the Heart and Circulation’.He believes his original work on pulmonary regurgitation/right ventricular function, with his serendipitous ECG observations, the mechano-electric concept, together with the groundwork on HF and the clinical trials on PAH in the context of CHD, as among his most important.Asked how he thinks his work has advanced the field, Prof. Gatzoulis replied kamagra online canada. €˜There was a major impact from our research on ACHD practice with our proactive approach.

A lot of the recent focus of mainstream cardiology—for example, the right ventricle, the pulmonary vascular bed, and even transaortic valve implantation (TAVI)—relate to original research or innovations kamagra online canada originating from CHD.‘Overall, we have made progress, but we cannot be complacent. There is clearly more to do. More evidence is needed to inform our practice and we must work more collaboratively to achieve this. CHD is kamagra online canada a very heterogeneous disease. And we are not doing a good enough job in empowering patients to lead independent and full lives.‘Now is the time to move to a more patient-centred, holistic approach, where we are truly the patient’s advocate.

Education is central to this and merits further investment.2 Better use of technology, including Artificial Intelligence3 and remote monitoring are also due and have come kamagra online canada to the fore due to the self-isolation protocols of the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra'.Prof. Gatzoulis is particularly proud of the 150+ ACHD Fellows that trained with him at the Brompton. €˜The number one asset for me is the patient, but number two—and close behind—are the Fellows who come to train with us in ACHD. The fact is that I learn from them—and from the patients—more than they learn kamagra online canada from me!. The ACHD Fellows are now all over the world practising ACHD and I am immensely proud of them’.A former president of the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease, a council member of the ACHD WG of the ESC, and recipient of multiple awards including the prestigious Aristotle Medal for the Year for Science and Politics (2019), he is the author of over 380 peer-reviewed publications, edited or co-edited 10 cardiology textbooks, is an incoming Deputy Editor of the EHJ, Associate Editor of the International Journal of Cardiology and is launching a new journal with a CHD and PAH focus.A father of two teenage boys, away from medicine he enjoys tennis, watersports and cycling, food markets/cooking/restaurants, museums/arts, and travel.Advice he would give young researchers as they set out on a path toward success within the field is.

€˜Pursue your dreams and seek the right environment kamagra online canada. Work hard and stay close to the patient and to your research, and do not be put off by obstacles’.Prof. Gatzoulis, as one of the leading pioneers, points to future challenges in the ‘continuously evolving cardiovascular subspecialty’ of ACHD. Understanding better kamagra online canada the late course of the disease. Optimizing therapies.

Ensuring patient access to tertiary care. Training of the new generation of professionals to serve ACHD patients kamagra online canada. And securing resources (Figure 5).4‘Visionary heads of cardiology always had space for this unique cardiovascular subspecialty for the wealth of its anatomic spectrum, the intriguing physiology, the wonderful clinical signs and the deserving patients. The examples are multiple, from the late Paul Wood at the Brompton, to Eugene Braunwald kamagra online canada in Boston, to Pavlos Toutouzas in Athens and many others.‘The number of adult ACHD patients has long exceeded the number of children with CHD’, he said, ‘yet the provision of care for the former is lacking. Furthermore, patients and their families have not been educated and empowered enough regarding their CHD, lifestyle issues and outlook and, yet they navigate their lives with a positive attitude, despite uncertainty, multiple operations, and physical disability in some.

For me, the patients are the true heroes in this journey, and a daily inspiration’. ReferencesReferences are available as supplementary material at European Heart Journal online.Conflict of kamagra online canada interest. None declared. Published on kamagra online canada behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

© The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please kamagra online canada email. Journals.permissions@oup.com. For the podcast associated with this article, please visit https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/pages/Podcasts.This is a Focus Issue on congenital heart disease (CHD). The population of adults with CHD has risen dramatically over the last 60 years, in large part due to the success of cardiac surgery and paediatric cardiac care kamagra online canada. In most western civilizations, >85% of babies born with CHD can now be expected to survive to adulthood.

Almost 1 in 100 babies are born with CHD, and the adult population of patients in Europe is estimated at 2.3 million and in the USA at >1 million, both outnumbering the paediatric CHD population.1,2 This leads to unique challenges that the surgical and medical community, together with the patients themselves, face.3,4 Some have largely been overcome, while others remain to be solved. In addition, there are unexpected new kamagra online canada challenges which have emerged. This issue addresses some of these challenges regarding treatment, participation in competitive sports, and advance care planning in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD).The first contribution is a clinical research article entitled ‘Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of kamagra online canada a nationwide analysis including more than 44 000 patients’ by Gerhard-Paul Diller from the University Hopital Münster in Germany and colleagues.5 Although the use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is well established in patients with atrial fibrillation and pulmonary thrombo-embolism,6–8 their value in patients with ACHD is still largely unexplored. The authors evaluated the use of NOACs compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in ACHD patients and assessed the outcome in a nationwide analysis.

Using data from one of Germany’s largest health insurers, all ACHD patients treated with VKAs or NOACs were identified and changes in prescription patterns assessed. Furthermore, the association between anticoagulation regimen and complications including kamagra online canada mortality was studied. About 44 000 ACHD patients were included. Between 2005 and 2018, the use of oral anticoagulants in those with ACHD increased from 6.3% kamagra online canada to 12.4%. Since NOACs became available their utilization has increased continually, accounting for 45% of prescribed anticoagulants in ACHD patients in 2018.

ACHD patients on NOACs had higher thrombo-embolic events (3.8% vs. 2.8%), major cardiovascular events kamagra online canada (7.8% vs. 6.0%), bleeding rates (11.7% vs. 9.0%), and all-cause mortality (4.0% kamagra online canada vs. 2.8%.

All P <. 0.05) after 1 year of kamagra online canada therapy compared with VKAs. After comprehensive adjustment for patient characteristics, NOACs were still associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular events [hazard ratio (HR) 1.22] and increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.43) during long-term follow-up (Figure 1). Figure kamagra online canada 1Upper panel. Increased use of (novel) oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease over time.

The figure displays the annual prescription of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients between 2005 and 2018 covering 521 493 patient-years in a total cohort size of n = 44 097 ACHD patients. The proportion of ACHD patients on kamagra online canada oral anticoagulation increased from 6.3% in 2005 to 12.8% in 2018. Vitamin K antagonists were supplemented but also increasingly replaced by novel oral anticoagulants, with the latter accounting for 45% of all oral anticoagulants prescribed in 2018. The numbers over the bars represent the proportion of ACHD patients on oral anticoagulation during the respective year, while the white numbers represent the percentage of anticoagulated patients receiving novel oral anticoagulants. Lower panel kamagra online canada.

Results of the adjusted multivariable time-dependent Cox regression analysis. The figure illustrates vitamin K antagonists were superior to novel oral anticoagulants regarding all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events and bleeding, whereas no statistical difference could be kamagra online canada established for thromboembolic events (from Freisinger E, Gerβ J, Makowski L, Marschall U, Reinecke H, Baumgartner H, Koeppe J, Diller G-P. Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis including more than 44 000 patients. See pages kamagra online canada 4168–4177).Figure 1Upper panel.

Increased use of (novel) oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease over time. The figure displays the annual prescription of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in adults kamagra online canada with congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients between 2005 and 2018 covering 521 493 patient-years in a total cohort size of n = 44 097 ACHD patients. The proportion of ACHD patients on oral anticoagulation increased from 6.3% in 2005 to 12.8% in 2018. Vitamin K antagonists were supplemented but also increasingly replaced by novel oral anticoagulants, with the latter accounting for 45% of all oral anticoagulants prescribed in 2018. The numbers over the bars represent the kamagra online canada proportion of ACHD patients on oral anticoagulation during the respective year, while the white numbers represent the percentage of anticoagulated patients receiving novel oral anticoagulants.

Lower panel. Results of the kamagra online canada adjusted multivariable time-dependent Cox regression analysis. The figure illustrates vitamin K antagonists were superior to novel oral anticoagulants regarding all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events and bleeding, whereas no statistical difference could be established for thromboembolic events (from Freisinger E, Gerβ J, Makowski L, Marschall U, Reinecke H, Baumgartner H, Koeppe J, Diller G-P. Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis kamagra online canada including more than 44 000 patients.

See pages 4168–4177).The authors conclude that despite the lack of prospective studies in ACHD patients, NOACs are increasingly replacing VKAs and now account for almost half of all oral anticoagulant prescriptions. In particularly, NOACs were associated with excess long-term risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality in this nationwide analysis, emphasizing the need for prospective studies before solid recommendations kamagra online canada for their use in ACHD patients can be provided. The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Frans Van de Werf from KU Leuven in Belgium and colleagues.9 They note that while awaiting the results of controlled studies, it is wise to use VKAs as the standard anticoagulant therapy in ACHD patients and consider NOACs for selected cases after consultation with a multidisciplinary team. Figure 2Event free survival. Time = 0 refers to kamagra online canada the date of randomization.

The dotted line indicates the end of the initial COMPARE trial period. CI, confidence kamagra online canada interval. HR, hazard ratio (from van Andel MM, Indrakusuma R, Jalalzadeh H, Balm R, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den Berg MP, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJM, de Waard V, Groenink M. Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre kamagra online canada randomized controlled COMPARE trial.

See pages 4181–4187).Figure 2Event free survival. Time = 0 refers to the date of randomization kamagra online canada. The dotted line indicates the end of the initial COMPARE trial period. CI, confidence interval. HR, hazard ratio (from van Andel MM, Indrakusuma R, Jalalzadeh H, Balm R, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van kamagra online canada den Berg MP, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJM, de Waard V, Groenink M.

Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre randomized controlled kamagra online canada COMPARE trial. See pages 4181–4187).The COMPARE trial showed a small but significant beneficial effect of 3-year losartan treatment on aortic root dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS).10 However, no significant effect was found on clinical endpoints, possibly due to a short follow-up period. In a clinical research manuscript entitled ‘Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre randomized controlled COMPARE trial’, Mitzi van Andel from the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands and colleagues investigate the long-term clinical outcomes after losartan treatment.11 In the original COMPARE study (inclusion 2008–2009), 233 adult patients kamagra online canada with MFS were randomly allocated to either the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan on top of regular treatment (beta-blockers in 71% of the patients) or no additional medication.

After the COMPARE trial period of 3 years, study subjects chose to continue their losartan medication or not. In a median follow-up period of 8 years, 75 patients continued losartan medication, whereas 78 patients, originally allocated to the control group, never used losartan after inclusion. No differences existed between baseline characteristics of the two groups except for age kamagra online canada at inclusion and beta-blocker use (losartan 81%, control 64%). Clinical endpoints, defined as all-cause mortality, aortic dissection/rupture, elective aortic root replacement, reoperation, and vascular graft implantation beyond the aortic root, were compared between the two groups. A per patient composite endpoint was also analysed kamagra online canada.

Patients who used losartan during the entire follow-up period showed a reduced number of events compared with the control group and exhibited a significantly lower number of deaths (0 vs. 5) and aortic dissections (3 vs. 11). They also experienced a non-significant lower number of elective aortic root replacement (10 vs. 13), reoperation (1 vs.

2), and vascular graft implantation beyond the aortic root (0 vs. 3) (Figure 2). These results remained similar when corrected for age and beta-blocker use in a multivariate analysis.Van Andel et al. Conclude that these results suggest a clinical benefit of combined losartan and beta-blocker treatment in patients with MFS. The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Guillaume Jondeau from the Hôpital Bichat in Paris, France.12 Jondeau and colleagues hope that a forthcoming meta-analysis combining all of the randomized studies already published or unpublished will confirm the early results of this study.The issue continues with the Special Article ‘Recommendations for participation in competitive sport in adolescent and adult athletes with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD).

Position statement of the Sport Cardiology &. Exercise Section of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC), The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Working Group on Adult Congenital Heart Disease, and the Sports Cardiology, Physical Activity and Prevention Working Group of The Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC)’ by Werner Budts from the Catholic University Leuven in Belgium and colleagues.13 The authors note that improved clinical care has led to an increase in the number of ACHD patients engaging in leisure time and competitive sports activities. Although the benefits of exercise in patients with ACHD are well established, there is a low but appreciable risk of exercise-related complications. Published exercise recommendations for individuals with ACHD are predominantly centred on anatomic lesions, hampering an individualized approach to exercise advice in this heterogeneous population. This document presents an update of the recommendations for competitive sports participation in athletes with cardiovascular disease.

It introduces an approach which is based on assessment of haemodynamic, electrophysiological, and functional parameters, rather than anatomical lesions. The recommendations provide a comprehensive assessment algorithm which allows for patient-specific assessment and risk stratification of athletes with ACHD who wish to participate in competitive sports.Finally, this issue also contains the Special Article ‘Recommendations for advance care planning in adults with congenital heart disease. A position paper from the ESC Working Group of Adult Congenital Heart Disease, the Association of Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (ACNAP), the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC), and the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD)’ by Markus Schwerzmann from the University of Bern in Switzerland and colleagues.14 The authors remind us that survival prospects in ACHD, although improved in recent decades, still remain below expectations for the general population. Patients and their loved ones benefit from preparation for both unexpected and predictable deaths, sometimes preceded by a prolonged period of declining health. Hence, advance care planning (ACP) is an integral part of comprehensive care in those with ACHD.

This position paper summarizes evidence regarding benefits of and patients’ preferences for ACP and provides practical advice regarding the implementation of ACP processes within clinical ACHD practice. They suggest that ACP be delivered as a structured process across different stages, with content dependent upon the anticipated disease progression. They also acknowledge potential barriers to initiate ACP discussions and emphasize the importance of a sensitive and situation-specific communication style. Conclusions presented in this paper reflect agreed expert opinions, and include both patient and provider perspectives.The editors hope that this issue of the European Heart Journal will be of interest to its readers.With thanks to Amelia Meier-Batschelet, Johanna Huggler, and Martin Meyer for help with compilation of this article. References1Warnes CA.

Adult congenital heart disease. The challenges of a lifetime. Eur Heart J 2017;38:2041–2047.2Baumgartner H, De Backer J, Babu-Narayan SV, Budts W, Chessa M, Diller GP, Lung B, Kluin J, Lang IM, Meijboom F, Moons P, Mulder BJM, Oechslin E, Roos-Hesselink JW, Schwerzmann M, Sondergaard L, Zeppenfeld K. 2020 ESC Guidelines for the management of adult congenital heart disease. Eur Heart J 2020;doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa554.3Baumgartner H, Budts W, Chessa M, Deanfield J, Eicken A, Holm J, Iserin L, Meijboom F, Stein J, Szatmari A, Trindade PT, Walker F.

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Current use and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Results of a nationwide analysis including more than 44 000 patients. Eur Heart J 2020;41:4168–4177.6Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Diener HC, Hacke W, Oldgren J, Sinnaeve P, Camm AJ, Kirchhof P. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association practical guide on the use of non-vitamin-K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Executive summary.

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Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants in adults with congenital heart disease. Quod non?. Eur Heart J 2020;41:4178–4180.10Groenink M, den Hartog AW, Franken R, Radonic T, de Waard V, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den Berg MP, Spijkerboer AM, Marquering HA, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJ. Losartan reduces aortic dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome. A randomized controlled trial.

Eur Heart J 2013;34:3491–3500.11van Andel MM, Indrakusuma R, Jalalzadeh H, Balm R, Timmermans J, Scholte AJ, van den Berg MP, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJM, de Waard V, Groenink M. Long-term clinical outcomes of losartan in patients with Marfan syndrome. Follow-up of the multicentre randomized controlled COMPARE trial. Eur Heart J 2020;41:4181–4187.12Jondeau G, Milleron O, Boileau C. Marfan sartan saga, episode X.

Eur Heart J 2020;41:4188–4190.13Budts W, Pieles GE, Roos-Hesselink JW, Sanz de la Garza M, D’Ascenzi F, Giannakoulas G, Müller J, Oberhoffer R, Ehringer-Schetitska D, Herceg-Cavrak V, Gabriel H, Corrado D, van Buuren F, Niebauer J, Börjesson M, Caselli S, Fritsch P, Pelliccia A, Heidbuchel H, Sharma S, Stuart AG, Papadakis M. Recommendations for participation in competitive sport in adolescent and adult athletes with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD). Position statement of the Sports Cardiology &. Exercise Section of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC), the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Working Group on Adult Congenital Heart Disease and the Sports Cardiology, Physical Activity and Prevention Working Group of the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). Eur Heart J 2020;41:4191–4199.14Schwerzmann M, Goossens E, Galle go P, Kovacs AH, Moons P, Swan L, Tobler D, de Stoutz N, Gabriel H, Greutmann M, Roos-Hesselink JW, Sobanski PZ, Thomet C.

Recommendations for advance care planning in adults with congenital heart disease. A position paper from the ESC Working Group of Adult Congenital Heart Disease, the Association of Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (ACNAP), the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC), and the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD). Eur Heart J 2020;41:4200–4210. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

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