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The American Rescue Plan Act (or American Rescue Plan), signed into law by President lowest price cialis Biden on March 11, provided many types of relief to Americans from the economic ravages of the erectile dysfunction treatment cialis. Among them, the American Rescue Plan (ARP) put the “affordable” in “Affordable Care Act” for millions of Americans. Did lowest price cialis ARP make coverage more affordable at all income levels?.

The American Rescue Plan increased premium subsidies at all income levels for health plans sold in the ACA marketplaces, reducing the percentage of income that enrollees have to pay for the “benchmark” plan in their area – that is, the second-cheapest Silver plan. At incomes up to 150% of lowest price cialis the Federal Poverty Level ($19,140 for an individual, $39,300 for a family of four), the benchmark plan is free, and from 150% up to 200% FPL ($25,520 for an individual, $52,440 for family of four), benchmark Silver costs no more than 2% of family income. Silver plans at these income levels come with strong cost-sharing reduction (CSR) that reduces deductibles and out-of-pocket costs.

Weaker CSR lowest price cialis is available up to 250% FPL. At the other end of the income scale – 400% FPL or higher ($51,040 for an individual, $104,800 for a family of four) – no citizen or legally present noncitizen who lacks access to other affordable insurance (e.g., from an employer or Medicare) will pay more than 8.5% of income for benchmark Silver. The ARP removed the ACA’s notorious subsidy cliff, which denied lowest price cialis subsidies to applicants with incomes over 400% FPL.

In the in-between income brackets, the percentage of income required for a benchmark Silver plan has also been sharply reduced. See this lowest price cialis post for illustrations of how ARP will reduce premiums for people at various income levels. The American Rescue Plan also effectively made free high-CSR Silver plans free to anyone who received any unemployment insurance compensation in 2021 and lacked access to other affordable insurance.

The ARP subsidy boosts are temporary, lowest price cialis running through 2022. But Democrats are widely expected to make them permanent in subsequent legislation. That’s the first and most basic item on their healthcare agenda, fulfilling a core promise President Biden made during the 2020 campaign.

ARP subsidies make it a great time to buy new health lowest price cialis coverage The ARP subsidy increases should induce millions of uninsured Americans who have been under the impression that health insurance is unaffordable to take a second look. According to estimates by the Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), as of 2020, only about half of those who were eligible for marketplace subsidies and in need of insurance were enrolled. KFF estimates lowest price cialis that 11 million uninsured Americans are eligible for premium subsidies in the marketplace – including 3.5 million with incomes over 400% FPL who were ineligible prior to the ARP.

How affordable is affordable?. According to KFF, 6 million uninsured people are lowest price cialis eligible for free plans. It’s true that for most of these (4.7 million), the free plan would be Bronze, with deductibles averaging in the $7,000 range.

But for many of those eligible for free Bronze plans, Silver – and in some cases Gold plans – are available at very low cost lowest price cialis or even no cost at all. For solo enrollees in the 150-200% FPL income range (topping out at $25,520), benchmark Silver (with strong CSR) can’t cost more than $43 per month. In many cases, the cheapest lowest price cialis Silver plan costs considerably less than the benchmark.

And in about 20% of all U.S. Counties, the lowest price cialis cheapest Gold plan is cheaper than the cheapest Silver. That’s a valuable discount at incomes above 200% FPL, where CSR, which attaches only to Silver plans, is weak (in the 200-250% FPL income range) or not available (at incomes above 250% FPL).

Biden administration opens the doors and sounds the horn Prior to the American Rescue Plan’s passage – beginning on February 15 – the Biden administration opened an emergency special enrollment period (SEP), extending until August 15 in the 36 states that lowest price cialis use the federal ACA exchange, HealthCare.gov. The 15 state-run exchanges (including Washington, D.C.) followed suit, though the terms and length of the state SEPs vary somewhat. (See SEP deadlines for each exchange here.) The SEP offered by HealthCare.gov and in most states is akin to the annual open enrollment period.

Anyone who lowest price cialis lacks insurance can enroll. Normally, a person seeking coverage outside of open enrollment has to apply for a personal SEP and document a qualifying “life change,” such as loss of employer-sponsored insurance. After the ARP’s passage, HealthCare.gov further opened the SEP to enable current enrollees to switch plans – for example, lowest price cialis to upgrade from Bronze to Silver in light of the enriched subsidies.

The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) also earmarked $50 million to advertise the SEP. The upgraded subsidies, retroactive to January 1, went live on HealthCare.gov on April 1, and on state-based marketplaces in subsequent weeks lowest price cialis. All in all, doors to coverage for the uninsured were flung significantly wider this spring – and remain open.

Many consumers are capitalizing on the SEP and ARP The emergency SEP and upgraded subsidies lowest price cialis are having an impact. On May 6, CMS announced that new plan selections from February 15 through April 30 in 36 HealthCare.gov states was just shy of 940,000 – almost quadruple enrollment in the same period in 2019, the last “normal” year. (In 2020, the cialis also stimulated increased enrollment, totaling 391,000 in the same time period.) A large percentage of new enrollees were apparently low-income and accessing lowest price cialis free or near-free Silver plans with strong CSR, as the median deductible for new enrollees was just $50.

As of June 5, SEP enrollment in HealthCare.gov states had topped 1 million, and marketplace coverage is now at an all-time high. Including lowest price cialis the 15 state-based marketplaces raises the SEP enrollment total this spring to 1.5 million, according to Charles Gaba’s estimate. The percentage of subsidy-eligible potential enrollees who actually do enroll may now be closer to 60% than the roughly 50% that KFF estimates indicate in 2020.

How lowest price cialis might enrollment be boosted further?. But millions still aren’t on board Despite the substantial gains achieved in recent months, some 10 million of the still-uninsured are likely eligible for marketplace subsidies, and another 6 to 7 million eligible for Medicaid, according to KFF estimates. Since the ACA’s programs were first implemented in 2014, many of the uninsured have claimed that they found coverage unaffordable, While some may have balked at subsidized premiums and available plans’ out-of-pocket costs, a lack of knowledge about what’s on offer has always been a major factor.

In 2020, only 32% of people surveyed by KFF knew that the lowest price cialis ACA was still law. The Trump administration didn’t make it easier for consumers, cutting federal funding for enrollment assistance by nonprofit “navigators” by 84%, from a peak of $63 million in 2016 to $10 million by 2018, and cutting advertising by 90%. Navigator organizations, established by the ACA lowest price cialis to be nerve centers in a constellation of nonprofit assistor groups, have operated on shoestrings since fall 2017, cutting back on outreach events, offices throughout their states, and in-person as opposed to phone or video assistance.

The Biden administration threw a quick $2.5 million to navigators this spring – which doesn’t go far – and has allocated $80 million for navigators in the 36 states using HealthCare.gov for 2022. (Navigator funding is drawn from user fees charged to participating insurers, so the 15 states that run their own exchanges lowest price cialis have their own funding base for enrollment assistance). A KFF analysis suggests that the $80 million allocation for 2022 may be too modest.

Trump administration underspending of the user fee revenue has left some $1.2 billion available lowest price cialis to the Biden administration to boost enrollment efforts. Promising strategies to boost enrollment Going forward, further innovation might boost marketplace enrollment. Maryland, which has a state-based marketplace, has pioneered an enrollment jump-start tied to tax filing, whereby the uninsured whose reported income and insurance status indicate they are eligible for subsidized coverage can check a box on their tax return and receive information about lowest price cialis their likely eligibility for “free or low cost coverage.” Colorado will debut a similar program next year.

On a national level, aligning the annual open enrollment period with tax filing season and porting information on the tax return to a marketplace application could streamline the enrollment process. Tax preparers could be a powerful resource to encourage enrollment and assist in the often lowest price cialis complex application process. Integrating enrollment with tax preparation could also take some of the diceyness out of the income estimate that determines subsidy size.

Switching the OE period would entail a messy transition, as plans not resetting on January 1 as in the past would create lowest price cialis problems with deductibles and out-of-pocket caps. An alternative would be to mirror Maryland and offer the uninsured an easy-to-obtain SEP at tax time. The ARP hasn’t helped everyone It should be acknowledged that the ARP did not ease the plight of poor and near-poor uninsured people in the 12 states that to date have refused to enact the ACA Medicaid expansion (or, in the case of Wisconsin, enact a more limited expansion).

As first enacted, the ACA lowest price cialis offered Medicaid to all citizens and most legally present non-citizens whose household income was below 138% FPL. In 2012, the Supreme Court made that expansion optional for states. In states that refused to expand eligibility – including high-population states Texas and lowest price cialis Florida – most adult residents with incomes below 100% FPL are eligible neither for Medicaid nor for marketplace subsidies.

The ARP provided new financial enticements for the holdout states to implement the expansion, but offered no immediate relief to an estimate 2 million people in this “coverage gap.” The ARP also did not fix the “family glitch,” which puts health coverage out of reach for several million Americans. If an employee lowest price cialis has access to a comprehensive employer-sponsored health plan that meets the ACA affordability standard for single coverage, the other family members are not eligible for subsidies in the exchange — regardless of how much they have to pay to join the employer-sponsored plan. Bottom line While more remains to be done to make affordable coverage more universally available, comprehensive and easy to obtain, it’s fair to say that most Americans who lack coverage at present can find a health plan (marketplace or Medicaid) that’s worth having at a price they can afford.

If you are uninsured, check out your options on HealthCare.gov or your state exchange or use this lowest price cialis site’s free quote tool. You can also get a subsidy estimate by using this ACA subsidy calculator. More likely than not, lowest price cialis you will be pleasantly surprised.

Andrew Sprung is a freelance writer who blogs about politics and healthcare policy at xpostfactoid. His articles about lowest price cialis the Affordable Care Act have appeared in publications including The American Prospect, Health Affairs, The Atlantic and The New Republic. He is the winner of the National Institute of Health Care Management’s 2016 Digital Media Award.

He holds a Ph.D lowest price cialis. In English literature from the University of Rochester.For millions of Americans who don’t have access to employer-sponsored or government-run health insurance, the American Rescue Plan (ARP) does a lot to make health coverage more affordable this year. Premium subsidies are larger, and more people will qualify for premium-free plans, including anyone receiving unemployment compensation at any point in 2021.If you’re currently uninsured or enrolled in something like a short-term plan or health care sharing ministry plan and you’ve become eligible for premium subsidies as a result of the ARP, it’s likely an obvious choice to enroll in a plan through the marketplace in your state as soon as possible.

And there’s a erectile dysfunction treatment/ARP enrollment window that continues through August 15 in most states, making it easy to enroll in a new plan and take advantage of the new subsidies.But if you’re already enrolled in an ACA-compliant plan, or even a grandmothered or grandfathered major medical plan, you’ll have to decide whether you want to make a plan change during the erectile dysfunction treatment/ARP enrollment lowest price cialis window. And depending on the circumstances, it might not be an easy decision.Are out-of-pocket costs you’ve paid making you think twice?. Unlike plan changes made during open enrollment, plan changes made during the erectile dysfunction treatment/ARP enrollment window lowest price cialis will take effect mid-year.

And for people who have already paid some or all of their deductible and out-of-pocket costs this year, that adds an extra layer of complication to the switch-or-not decision.Use our updated subsidy calculator to estimate how much you can save on your 2021 health insurance premiums.Normally, the general rule of thumb is that if you switch to a new plan mid-year, you’re going to be starting over at $0 on the new plan’s deductible and out-of-pocket expenses. (These are called accumulators, since it’s a running total of the expenses you’ve accumulated lowest price cialis toward your out-of-pocket maximum). For someone whose accumulators have already amounted to a sizable sum of money this year, having to start over at $0 in the middle of the year could be a deal-breaker.Are ARP’s higher subsidies worth it?.

But 2021 is not a lowest price cialis normal year. The ARP has made significant changes to subsidy amounts and eligibility, and a lot of people will find that switching plans enables them to best take advantage of the enhanced subsidies. For example:A person who previously enrolled off-exchange in order to take advantage of the “Silver switch” approach to cost-sharing reduction funding, and who is now eligible for a premium subsidy in the exchange.A person who enrolled in a Bronze plan during open enrollment but is now eligible for a $0 premium or low-premium Silver or Gold plan (depending on location) due to income or unemployment compensation.A person who was eligible for cost-sharing reductions but selected a Bronze or Gold plan during open enrollment because the Silver plans were lowest price cialis too expensive, but who can now afford the Silver plan due to the extra subsidies (cost-sharing reductions are only available on Silver plans)If you switch plans, will you have to start over at zero?.

The good news is that many states, state-run marketplaces, and insurers have taken action to ensure that accumulators will transfer to a new plan. (In virtually all cases, this lowest price cialis does have to be a new plan with the same insurer — if you switch to a different insurance company, you’ll almost certainly have to start over at $0 on your accumulators.)HealthCare.gov is the exchange/marketplace that’s used in 36 states. Its official position is that “any consumer who selects a new plan may have their accumulators, such as deductibles, reset to zero.” But insurance commissioners in some of those states have stepped in to require insurers to transfer accumulators, and in other states, all of the insurers have voluntarily agreed to do so.

Washington, DC, and 14 states have state-run marketplaces, and several lowest price cialis of them have announced that insurers will transfer accumulators.Which states are helping with accumulators?. We’ve combed through communications from state-run marketplaces and state insurance commissioners to see which ones have issued guidance on this. But regardless of where you live, your best bet is to reach out to your insurance company before you make a plan change.

Find out exactly how they’re handling accumulators during this enrollment window, and if they are transferring accumulators to new plans, make sure that you adhere to whatever requirements they may have in place.That said, here’s what we found in terms of how states and state-run marketplaces are addressing accumulators and mid-year plan changes in 2021.States where all accumulators will transfer as long as your lowest price cialis old and new plans are offered by the same insurance companyIn some cases, these accumulator transfer rules only apply when switching from off-exchange to on-exchange. In other cases, they apply to any plan changes, including from one exchange plan to another:ColoradoDistrict of Columbia – The marketplace has confirmed that all accumulators will transfer.Idaho – Idaho only allowed people to switch to a plan offered by their current insurer, unless they had a qualifying event. Note that Idaho’s erectile dysfunction treatment/ARP enrollment window ended April 30, which is much earlier than the rest of the country.Maryland lowest price cialis – Plan changes are limited to upgrades, but the marketplace confirmed that accumulators will transfer.Massachusetts — All insurers have agreed to transfer accumulators for people switching from off-exchange to on-exchange plansMichigan – Deductibles will transfer, although some insurers will only allow this if you’re upgrading your plan.

(Two insurers are allowing deductible transfers even if you’re switching from a different insurer’s plan.)Minnesota – Minnesota is currently not allowing marketplace enrollees to switch plans during the erectile dysfunction treatment/ARP enrollment window, although this may change within the next several weeks. So for now, the accumulator transfers lowest price cialis only apply to people switching from an off-exchange plan to an on-exchange plan. All four of the insurers that offer both on-exchange and off-exchange plans have agreed to transfer accumulators to the on-exchange plans.New HampshireNew MexicoNew YorkTennesseeVermont – Like Minnesota, Vermont is currently only allowing people to switch from off-exchange (full-cost individual direct enrollment) to on-exchange plans.

Accumulators will transfer for those plan changes.West Virginia — The WV Office of the Insurance Commissioner confirmed that both insurers are transferring accumulators, with the exception of a transfer between an HSA-qualified plan and a non-HSA-qualified plan (mainly due to IRS regulations for how HSA-qualified plans must handle out-of-pocket costs).Wisconsin – Covering Wisconsin, a nonprofit enrollment assistance organization, notes that accumulators will not transfer if people select a plan from a different insurer, which is to be expected.In some states, rules are slightly more complicatedAlaska – Deductibles will reset to $0 if a policyholder is switching from off-exchange to on-exchange (or vice-versa), but will not reset if the move is from one exchange plan to another, with the same insurer.California – The marketplace has confirmed that insurers will transfer accumulators for plan holders switching from an off-exchange plan to an on-exchange plan or from one exchange plan to another, as long as they stay with the same insurance company and the same type of managed care plan (ie, HMO to HMO, or PPO to PPO).New Jersey – Deductibles will transfer, possibly even to a new insurer (which is lowest price cialis fairly unique. We aren’t aware of this elsewhere, other than the two Michigan insurers that are offering it). But additional out-of-pocket spending will not transfer to the new plan.States where the official word is that ‘it depends’Several states have addressed accumulator transfers so that consumers know to be aware of them, but are leaving the lowest price cialis decision up to the insurers.

In these states (listed below), some or all of the insurers may be offering accumulator transfers, but consumers should definitely ask their insurer how this will work before making the decision to switch plans.ConnecticutNevadaOhioMontanaNorth Dakota — the ND Insurance Department is recommending that consumers reach out to their insurance company to see how this is being handled.Oregon — As of April, the state was still working with insurers to sort out an approach for people switching from off-exchange to on-exchange, but according to OregonHealthCare.gov, accumulators will not transfer when a person switches from one marketplace plan to anotherPennsylvaniaRhode Island – There are two insurers that offer plans in Rhode Island’s marketplace. One has agreed to transfer accumulators and one has not, but the marketplace is still lowest price cialis working to address this and it’s possible both insurers could end up allowing accumulators to transfer.WashingtonStates where the official word is that accumulators will not transferSome states have fairly clearly indicated that insurers will not transfer accumulators if policyholders make a plan change. But even in these states, it’s still worth checking with a specific insurer to see what approach they’re taking, as some are still developing their approach during this unique time.IllinoisVirginiaWhat if my state’s not listed?.

Insurance departments in the rest of the states haven’t put out any official guidance or bulletins regarding accumulator transfers, although these may still be lowest price cialis forthcoming as the erectile dysfunction treatment/ARP window progresses. Keep in mind that it will be July in most states before the ARP’s benefits are available for people receiving unemployment compensation in 2021, so this is still very much a work in progress and likely to evolve over time.States that have not yet issued specific guidance or clarified insurers positions on accumulator transfers include:AlabamaArizonaArkansasDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMississippiMissouriNebraskaNorth CarolinaOklahomaSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTexasUtahWyomingIf you’re in one of these states, your insurer may or may not be transferring accumulators when enrollees switch to a new plan in 2021. If you’ve had significant out-of-pocket medical spending so far this year, be sure to reach out to your insurer to see how they’re handling this.

And if a representative tells you that accumulators will transfer, it’s a good idea to lowest price cialis get confirmation in writing.And if your insurer initially says no, keep asking over the coming days and weeks. We’ve seen some insurers start to offer accumulator transfers after initially stating that they didn’t plan to do so, and it’s possible that other insurers might follow suit.To switch or not to switch?. So what should you do if you’ve already spent some lowest price cialis money out-of-pocket this year, and you’re going to have to start over at $0 on a new plan?.

Maybe you’re enrolled in a grandmothered or grandfathered plan and your insurer simply doesn’t offer plans for sale in the marketplace. Depending on where you live, this might also be the case if you have an ACA-compliant off-exchange plan, as not all off-exchange insurers sell plans in the exchange lowest price cialis. And as noted above, it might also be the case even if you want to transfer from one ACA-compliant plan to another.

(But check with both the lowest price cialis insurer and the insurance department in your state before giving up on accumulator transfers in that situation.)Really, it just comes down to the math. Will the amount you’re going to save due to premium tax credit (and possibly cost-sharing reductions, if you’re eligible for them and switching to a Silver plan) offset the loss you’ll take by having to start over at $0 on your deductible and out-of-pocket exposure?. If you haven’t spent much this lowest price cialis year, the answer is probably Yes.

If you’ve already met your maximum out-of-pocket for the year, it’s probably going to be a tougher decision.But don’t assume that it’s not worth your while. Depending on the circumstances (especially if you were previously impacted by the “subsidy cliff” and are newly eligible for subsidies), your new subsidies might be worth more than you’d be giving up by having to start over with new out-of-pocket costs.And if you’re part of the way toward meeting your deductible on a Bronze plan and are newly eligible for a free or very low-cost Silver plan that includes cost-sharing reductions, you might find that the new plan ultimately saves you lowest price cialis money in out-of-pocket costs for the rest of the year, even if your accumulators don’t transfer.Louise Norris is an individual health insurance broker who has been writing about health insurance and health reform since 2006. She has written dozens of opinions and educational pieces about the Affordable Care Act for healthinsurance.org.

Her state health insurance marketplace updates are regularly cited by media who cover health reform and by other health insurance experts..

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Dropping dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in favor of aspirin alone at 1 month after how to make cialis work better drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation for stable coronary disease patients was not worse than longer DAPT regimens, a trial suggested.The 1-year composite of cardiac death, nonfatal MI, target-vessel revascularization, cerebrovascular accident, or major bleeding occurred in 5.9% of people treated with the short DAPT regimen after getting the BioFreedom polymer-free DES compared with 6.5% of people who got 6 to 12 months of DAPT after getting a durable-polymer BioMatrix or Ultimaster DES.That absolute 0.7% difference between groups met criteria for non-inferiority, reported Myeong-Ki Hong, MD, PhD, of Severance Cardiovascular Hospital in Seoul, South Korea, at the American Heart Association (AHA) virtual meeting.The same was true in a landmark analysis looking at events after 1 month and for all secondary endpoints.A subgroup analysis suggested that the short DAPT regimen might not be safe in patients who had presented with acute coronary syndrome (primary composite event rate 7.2% vs 5.1% with longer DAPT, HR 1.43, P=0.013 for interaction), albeit based on relatively few events in the 3,020-patient randomized trial.The multicenter, open-label trial included patients who presented for elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) both with and without high bleeding risk. Acute MI, complex lesions, and cardiogenic shock were exclusion criteria.It's the first randomized trial to support the safety of a 1-month DAPT regimen after stenting low-risk patients, noted AHA session discussant Róisín Colleran, MB BCh, of the Cardiovascular Research Institute Dublin.Aspirin monotherapy is cheaper and has fewer off-target side effects than ticagrelor (Brilinta), as well as less variation how to make cialis work better in treatment response than clopidogrel (Plavix) for P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy, she noted.However, none of the stents tested in the trial are approved for use in the U.S. Interpretation of the results was also complicated by the mix of stent types, with different strut thicknesses across the three used, and the range of longer DAPT used as a comparator, she added."It will be important now to see if this how to make cialis work better might be a class effect that can be extended to other more widely used stents in this country," commented B. Hadley Wilson, how to make cialis work better MD, of Sanger Heart &.

Vascular Institute-Charlotte in North Carolina and a spokesperson for the American College of Cardiology."Is it related to this being a polymer-free stent, or is it just the design of all these late-generation stents are so much better now that you can how to make cialis work better have shorter DAPT as a class effect?. " he posited in an interview with MedPage Today.Evidence is accruing for shorter DAPT regimens, as each stent would need safety data to how to make cialis work better provide the FDA to get an indication for it, which the Resolute Onyx drug eluting stent recently did for 1-month DAPT for high bleeding risk patients.However, the trend has been to drop aspirin rather than the more potent antiplatelet agent, noted Roxana Mehran, MD, of Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City."At the moment we have a lot of data, especially with the LEADERS FREE evaluation in 1-month DAPT, as well as the ONYX ONE, and most recently on the Xience 28-days and 90-days evaluation...showing really really good results as far as the hard endpoints," she told MedPage Today.Hong and colleagues study was fairly small for looking at hard clinical endpoints, she added."I believe we are moving toward, if we're looking at stent-related complications in elective PCI for stable coronary disease, that we can go even shorter," she said. However, "we shouldn't be so cavalier about applying these to every single patient," she argued, especially high-risk patients like smokers or those with diabetes, multivessel disease, or acute coronary syndrome.For such patients with low bleeding risk, "I still would like to give them either a dual antiplatelet therapy or a TWILIGHT type of strategy how to make cialis work better after PCI, which is ticagrelor monotherapy," she said.Longer duration antiplatelet use may have some benefit beyond just the stent-related complications, as suggested in the DAPT trial showing that an extended duration of DAPT for as much as 30 months after DES implantation held benefit. Disclosures Mehran disclosed relevant relationships with Applied Therapeutics, Claret Medical, Elixir Medical, STEL, ControlRad, Janssen Scientific Affairs, Boston Scientific, California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, American College of Cardiology, and American Medical Association.Colleran and Wilson disclosed no relevant relationships with industry.South Korea managed to avoid a nationwide lockdown and extensive travel restrictions by devising a comprehensive public health strategy early in the erectile dysfunction treatment outbreak, as well as voluntary social distancing measures, an expert said here.Youngmee Jee, MD, PhD, of the Center for Immunology and Pathology at the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Cheongju, described the country's erectile dysfunction treatment strategy at a clinical symposium focused on erectile dysfunction treatment at the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) virtual meeting.In her talk, Jee used terms also employed by the Trump administration, such as a "whole of government approach," and emphasized the role of "public and private partnerships." Data as of November 15 shows South Korea with a case fatality rate how to make cialis work better of 1.7% versus the U.S.

With a 2.3% case fatality rate."All important actions were taken before how to make cialis work better the World Health Organization [WHO] declared" the erectile dysfunction treatment outbreak a public health emergency of international concern on January 30, she said, noting emergency use authorization of diagnostic kits in early February after a meeting with pharmaceutical companies on January 27 when there were only four cases in the country.Jee explained how South Korea was able to keep society open through 4Ts. Test, trace, treat, and transparency.By early February, there was a rapid how to make cialis work better expansion of testing labs, with turnaround time in 24 hours, as well as "need-based free testing of asymptomatic people" in the large city of Seoul. A smart tracking system significantly how to make cialis work better reduced time for epidemiological investigation. They even overhauled hospitals, with designated infectious disease hospitals for how to make cialis work better erectile dysfunction treatment and community treatment centers for mild cases.

The "transparency" consisted of twice daily press briefings.However, Jee added there is easy access to medical services for everyone in South Korea, with 95% of private hospitals operating within National Health Insurance, and with a high number of hospital beds (12.27 per 1,000 people in 2017).She noted how South Korea learned from the lessons of the MERS outbreak, and the government "changed their testing and tracing services" after that.Key to the country's success was buy-in from the public to these public health how to make cialis work better strategies. The public was expected to abide by a code of conduct, including staying away from "enclosed, crowded spaces with poor ventilation." They were advised to how to make cialis work better avoid the three Cs. Crowded places, close-contact settings, and confined and enclosed spaces.Mask wearing was advised not only for indoor settings, but outdoor settings where how to make cialis work better it was impossible to keep a 2-m (about 6 ft.) distance. The country also recommended avoiding activities in public that cannot be done with a mask on, such as eating, singing, and cheering out loud.There were no widespread how to make cialis work better travel restrictions, but the country tested all incoming travelers, including asymptomatic people, and even if the results were negative, all travelers were required to quarantine for 14 days, as of April 1.Jee described how social distancing measures were dictated by numbers of cases, which included detailed recommendations for gatherings, sporting events, schools, and companies.

The country also implemented enhanced prevention measures, including a ban on gatherings of 50 people or more indoors and 100 or more outside.Twelve types of high-risk facilities were subject to this ban on gatherings, including how to make cialis work better bars, clubs, gyms, performance halls, and buffet restaurants. Distribution and logistics centers were exempt, because they were "essential industrial facilities," she said.Jee said South Korea's next steps include how to adjust phased social distancing in various situations to "balance public health and economic/societal impact" until herd immunity can be achieved through vaccination how to make cialis work better. The country also plans to how to make cialis work better invest further in medical resources, infrastructure, and training. Molly Walker is an associate editor, who covers infectious diseases for MedPage Today how to make cialis work better.

She has a passion for evidence, data and public how to make cialis work better health. Follow.

Dropping dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in favor of aspirin alone at 1 month after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation for stable coronary disease patients was not worse than longer DAPT regimens, a trial suggested.The 1-year composite of cardiac death, nonfatal MI, target-vessel revascularization, cerebrovascular accident, or major bleeding occurred in 5.9% of people treated with the short DAPT regimen after getting the BioFreedom polymer-free DES compared with cheap cialis 6.5% of people who got 6 to 12 months of DAPT after getting a durable-polymer BioMatrix or Ultimaster DES.That absolute 0.7% difference between groups met criteria for non-inferiority, reported Myeong-Ki Hong, MD, PhD, of Severance Cardiovascular Hospital in Seoul, South Korea, at the American Heart Association (AHA) virtual meeting.The same was true lowest price cialis in a landmark analysis looking at events after 1 month and for all secondary endpoints.A subgroup analysis suggested that the short DAPT regimen might not be safe in patients who had presented with acute coronary syndrome (primary composite event rate 7.2% vs 5.1% with longer DAPT, HR 1.43, P=0.013 for interaction), albeit based on relatively few events in the 3,020-patient randomized trial.The multicenter, open-label trial included patients who presented for elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) both with and without high bleeding risk. Acute MI, complex lesions, and cardiogenic shock were exclusion criteria.It's the first randomized trial to support the safety lowest price cialis of a 1-month DAPT regimen after stenting low-risk patients, noted AHA session discussant Róisín Colleran, MB BCh, of the Cardiovascular Research Institute Dublin.Aspirin monotherapy is cheaper and has fewer off-target side effects than ticagrelor (Brilinta), as well as less variation in treatment response than clopidogrel (Plavix) for P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy, she noted.However, none of the stents tested in the trial are approved for use in the U.S. Interpretation of the results was lowest price cialis also complicated by the mix of stent types, with different strut thicknesses across the three used, and the range of longer DAPT used as a comparator, she added."It will be important now to see if this might be a class effect that can be extended to other more widely used stents in this country," commented B. Hadley Wilson, lowest price cialis MD, of Sanger Heart &.

Vascular Institute-Charlotte in North Carolina and a spokesperson for the American College lowest price cialis of Cardiology."Is it related to this being a polymer-free stent, or is it just the design of all these late-generation stents are so much better now that you can have shorter DAPT as a class effect?. " he posited in an interview with MedPage Today.Evidence is accruing for shorter DAPT regimens, as each stent would need safety data to provide the FDA to get an indication for it, which the Resolute Onyx drug eluting stent recently did for 1-month DAPT for high bleeding risk patients.However, the trend has been to drop aspirin rather than the more potent antiplatelet agent, noted Roxana Mehran, MD, of Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City."At the moment we have a lot of data, especially with the LEADERS FREE evaluation in 1-month DAPT, as well as the ONYX ONE, lowest price cialis and most recently on the Xience 28-days and 90-days evaluation...showing really really good results as far as the hard endpoints," she told MedPage Today.Hong and colleagues study was fairly small for looking at hard clinical endpoints, she added."I believe we are moving toward, if we're looking at stent-related complications in elective PCI for stable coronary disease, that we can go even shorter," she said. However, "we shouldn't be so cavalier about applying these to every single patient," lowest price cialis she argued, especially high-risk patients like smokers or those with diabetes, multivessel disease, or acute coronary syndrome.For such patients with low bleeding risk, "I still would like to give them either a dual antiplatelet therapy or a TWILIGHT type of strategy after PCI, which is ticagrelor monotherapy," she said.Longer duration antiplatelet use may have some benefit beyond just the stent-related complications, as suggested in the DAPT trial showing that an extended duration of DAPT for as much as 30 months after DES implantation held benefit. Disclosures Mehran disclosed relevant relationships with Applied Therapeutics, Claret Medical, Elixir Medical, STEL, ControlRad, Janssen Scientific Affairs, Boston Scientific, California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, American College of Cardiology, and American Medical Association.Colleran and Wilson disclosed no relevant relationships with industry.South Korea managed to avoid a nationwide lockdown and extensive travel restrictions by devising a comprehensive public health strategy early in the erectile dysfunction treatment outbreak, as well as voluntary social distancing measures, an expert said here.Youngmee Jee, MD, PhD, of the Center for Immunology and Pathology at the Korea lowest price cialis Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Cheongju, described the country's erectile dysfunction treatment strategy at a clinical symposium focused on erectile dysfunction treatment at the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) virtual meeting.In her talk, Jee used terms also employed by the Trump administration, such as a "whole of government approach," and emphasized the role of "public and private partnerships." Data as of November 15 shows South Korea with a case fatality rate of 1.7% versus the U.S.

With a 2.3% case fatality rate."All important actions were taken before the World Health Organization [WHO] declared" the erectile dysfunction treatment outbreak a public health emergency of international concern on January 30, she said, noting emergency use authorization of diagnostic kits in early February after lowest price cialis a meeting with pharmaceutical companies on January 27 when there were only four cases in the country.Jee explained how South Korea was able to keep society open through 4Ts. Test, trace, treat, and transparency.By early February, there was a rapid expansion of testing labs, with turnaround time in 24 hours, as well as "need-based free testing of asymptomatic people" lowest price cialis in the large city of Seoul. A smart tracking system significantly lowest price cialis reduced time for epidemiological investigation. They even overhauled hospitals, with designated infectious disease hospitals for read erectile dysfunction treatment lowest price cialis and community treatment centers for mild cases.

The "transparency" consisted of twice daily press briefings.However, Jee added there is lowest price cialis easy access to medical services for everyone in South Korea, with 95% of private hospitals operating within National Health Insurance, and with a high number of hospital beds (12.27 per 1,000 people in 2017).She noted how South Korea learned from the lessons of the MERS outbreak, and the government "changed their testing and tracing services" after that.Key to the country's success was buy-in from the public to these public health strategies. The public was expected to abide by a code of conduct, including staying away from "enclosed, crowded spaces with poor ventilation." They were advised to avoid the three lowest price cialis Cs. Crowded places, close-contact settings, and confined and enclosed spaces.Mask wearing was advised not only for indoor settings, but outdoor settings where lowest price cialis it was impossible to keep a 2-m (about 6 ft.) distance. The country also recommended avoiding activities in public that cannot be done with a mask on, such as eating, singing, and cheering out loud.There were no widespread travel restrictions, but the country tested all incoming travelers, including asymptomatic people, and even if the results were negative, all travelers were required to quarantine for 14 days, as of April 1.Jee lowest price cialis described how social distancing measures were dictated by numbers of cases, which included detailed recommendations for gatherings, sporting events, schools, and companies.

The country also implemented enhanced prevention measures, including a ban on gatherings of 50 people or more indoors and 100 lowest price cialis or more outside.Twelve types of high-risk facilities were subject to this ban on gatherings, including bars, clubs, gyms, performance halls, and buffet restaurants. Distribution and logistics centers were exempt, because they were "essential industrial facilities," she said.Jee said South Korea's next steps include how to adjust phased social distancing in various situations to lowest price cialis "balance public health and economic/societal impact" until herd immunity can be achieved through vaccination. The country lowest price cialis also plans to invest further in medical resources, infrastructure, and training. Molly Walker is an associate lowest price cialis editor, who covers infectious diseases for MedPage Today.

She has a lowest price cialis passion for evidence, data and public health. Follow.

What if I miss a dose?

If you miss a dose, you may take it when you remember but do not take more than one dose per day.

Get a prescription for cialis

Medicaid beneficiaries in nursing homes, waiver programs, or managed long get a prescription for cialis Renova online purchase term care have $0 co-pays). Full Extra Help beneficiaries who hit the catastrophic coverage limit have $0 co-pays. See current co-pay levels here. Partial Extra Help get a prescription for cialis.

Beneficiaries between 135%-150% FPL receive "partial" Extra Help, which limits the Part D deductible to $89 (2020 figure - click here for updated chart). Sets sliding scale fees for monthly premiums. And limits co-pays to 15%, until the beneficiary reaches the catastrophic coverage limit, at which point co-pays are limited to a $8.95 maximum (2020 or see get a prescription for cialis current amount here) or 5% of the drug cost, whichever is greater. 2) Facilitated enrollment into a Part D plan Extra Help recipients who aren’t already enrolled in a Part D plan and don’t want to choose one on their own will be automatically enrolled into a benchmark plan by CMS.

This facilitated enrollment ensures that Extra Help recipients have Part D coverage. However, the downside to facilitated enrollment is that the plan may not be the best “fit” for the beneficiary, if it doesn’t cover all his/her get a prescription for cialis drugs, assesses a higher tier level for covered drugs than other comparable plans, and/or requires the beneficiary to go through administrative hoops like prior authorization, quantity limits and/or step therapy. Fortunately, Extra Help recipients can always enroll in a new plan … see #3 below. 3) Continuous special enrollment period Extra Help recipients have a continuous special enrollment period, meaning that they can switch plans at any time.

They are get a prescription for cialis not “locked into” the annual open enrollment period (October 15-December 7). NOTE. This changed in 2019. Starting in 2019, those with Extra Help get a prescription for cialis will no longer have a continuous enrollment period.

Instead, Extra Help recipients will be eligible to enroll no more than once per quarter for each of the first three quarters of the year. 4) No late enrollment penalty Non LIS beneficiaries generally face a premium penalty (higher monthly premium) if they delayed their enrollment into Part D, meaning that they didn’t enroll when they were initially eligible and didn’t have “creditable coverage.” Extra Help recipients do not have to worry about this problem – the late enrollment penalty provision does not apply to LIS beneficiaries. 1) For “deemed” beneficiaries (Medicaid/Medicare Savings get a prescription for cialis Program recipients). Extra Help status lasts at least until the end of the current calendar year, even if the individual loses their Medicaid or Medicare Savings Program coverage during that year.

Individuals who receive Medicaid or a Medicare Savings Program any month between July and December keep their LIS status for the remainder of that calendar year and the following year. Getting Medicaid coverage for even just a short period of time (ie, meeting a spenddown for just one month) can help get a prescription for cialis ensure that the individual obtains Extra Help coverage for at least 6 months, and possibly as long as 18 months. TIP. People with a high spend-down who want to receive Medicaid for just one month in order to get Extra Help for 6-18 months can use past medical bills to meet their spend-down for that one month.

There are different rules for using past paid medical bills verses past get a prescription for cialis unpaid medical bills. For information see Spend down training materials. Individuals who are losing their deemed status at the end of a calendar year because they are no longer receiving Medicaid or the Medicare Savings Program should be notified in advance by SSA, and given an opportunity to file an Extra Help application through SSA. 2) For “non-deemed” beneficiaries (those who filed get a prescription for cialis their LIS applications through SSA) Non-deemed beneficiaries retain their LIS status until/unless SSA does a redetermination and finds the individual ineligible for Extra Help.

There are no reporting requirements per se in the Extra Help program, but beneficiaries must respond to SSA’s redetermination request. What to do if the Part D plan doesn't know that someone has Extra Help Sometimes there are lengthy delays between the date that someone is approved for Medicaid or a Medicare Savings Program and when that information is formally conveyed to the Part D plan by CMS. As get a prescription for cialis a practical matter, this often results in beneficiaries being charged co-pays, premiums and/or deductibles that they can't afford and shouldn't have to pay. To protect LIS beneficiaries, CMS has a "Best Available Evidence" policy which requires plans to accept alternative forms of proof of someone's LIS status and adjust the person's cost-sharing obligation accordingly.

LIS beneficiaries who are being charged improperly should be sure to contact their plan and provide proof of their LIS status. If the plan still won't recognize their LIS status, the get a prescription for cialis person or their advocate should file a complaint with the CMS regional office. The federal regulations governing the Low Income Subsidy program can be found at 42 CFR Subpart P (sections 423.771 through 423.800). Also, CMS provides detailed guidance on the LIS provisions in chapter 13 of its Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Manual.

This article was authored by the Empire Justice Center.Medicare Savings Programs (MSPs) pay for the monthly Medicare Part B premium for low-income get a prescription for cialis Medicare beneficiaries and qualify enrollees for the "Extra Help" subsidy for Part D prescription drugs. There are three separate MSP programs, the Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB) Program, the Specified Low Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB) Program and the Qualified Individual (QI) Program, each of which is discussed below. Those in QMB receive additional subsidies for Medicare costs. See 2019 Fact Sheet on MSP get a prescription for cialis in NYS by Medicare Rights Center ENGLISH SPANISH State law.

§ 367-a(3)(a), (b), and (d). 2020 Medicare 101 Basics for New York State - 1.5 hour webinar by Eric Hausman, sponsored by NYS Office of the Aging TOPICS COVERED IN THIS ARTICLE 1. No Asset Limit 1A. Summary Chart of MSP Programs 2.

Income Limits &. Rules and Household Size 3. The Three MSP Programs - What are they and how are they Different?. 4.

FOUR Special Benefits of MSP Programs. Back Door to Extra Help with Part D MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B - and allow enrollment in Part B year-round outside of the short Annual Enrollment Period No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover Payment of Expenses Paid by MSP Food Stamps/SNAP not reduced by Decreased Medical Expenses when Enroll in MSP - at least temporarily 5. Enrolling in an MSP - Automatic Enrollment &. Applications for People who Have Medicare What is Application Process?.

6. Enrolling in an MSP for People age 65+ who Do Not Qualify for Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" 7. What Happens After MSP Approved - How Part B Premium is Paid 8 Special Rules for QMBs - How Medicare Cost-Sharing Works 1. NO ASSET LIMIT!.

Since April 1, 2008, none of the three MSP programs have resource limits in New York -- which means many Medicare beneficiaries who might not qualify for Medicaid because of excess resources can qualify for an MSP. 1.A. SUMMARY CHART OF MSP BENEFITS QMB SLIMB QI-1 Eligibility ASSET LIMIT NO LIMIT IN NEW YORK STATE INCOME LIMIT (2020) Single Couple Single Couple Single Couple $1,064 $1,437 $1,276 $1,724 $1,436 $1,940 Federal Poverty Level 100% FPL 100 – 120% FPL 120 – 135% FPL Benefits Pays Monthly Part B premium?. YES, and also Part A premium if did not have enough work quarters and meets citizenship requirement.

See “Part A Buy-In” YES YES Pays Part A &. B deductibles &. Co-insurance YES - with limitations NO NO Retroactive to Filing of Application?. Yes - Benefits begin the month after the month of the MSP application.

18 NYCRR §360-7.8(b)(5) Yes – Retroactive to 3rd month before month of application, if eligible in prior months Yes – may be retroactive to 3rd month before month of applica-tion, but only within the current calendar year. (No retro for January application). See GIS 07 MA 027. Can Enroll in MSP and Medicaid at Same Time?.

YES YES NO!. Must choose between QI-1 and Medicaid. Cannot have both, not even Medicaid with a spend-down. 2.

INCOME LIMITS and RULES Each of the three MSP programs has different income eligibility requirements and provides different benefits. The income limits are tied to the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). 2019 FPL levels were released by NYS DOH in GIS 20 MA/02 - 2020 Federal Poverty Levels -- Attachment II and have been posted by Medicaid.gov and the National Council on Aging and are in the chart below. NOTE.

There is usually a lag in time of several weeks, or even months, from January 1st of each year until the new FPLs are release, and then before the new MSP income limits are officially implemented. During this lag period, local Medicaid offices should continue to use the previous year's FPLs AND count the person's Social Security benefit amount from the previous year - do NOT factor in the Social Security COLA (cost of living adjustment). Once the updated guidelines are released, districts will use the new FPLs and go ahead and factor in any COLA. See 2019 Fact Sheet on MSP in NYS by Medicare Rights Center ENGLISH SPANISH Income is determined by the same methodology as is used for determining in eligibility for SSI The rules for counting income for SSI-related (Aged 65+, Blind, or Disabled) Medicaid recipients, borrowed from the SSI program, apply to the MSP program, except for the new rules about counting household size for married couples.

367-a(3)(c)(2), NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7, 89-ADM-7 p.7. Gross income is counted, although there are certain types of income that are disregarded. The most common income disregards, also known as deductions, include. (a) The first $20 of your &.

Your spouse's monthly income, earned or unearned ($20 per couple max). (b) SSI EARNED INCOME DISREGARDS. * The first $65 of monthly wages of you and your spouse, * One-half of the remaining monthly wages (after the $65 is deducted). * Other work incentives including PASS plans, impairment related work expenses (IRWEs), blind work expenses, etc.

For information on these deductions, see The Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities (MBI-WPD) and other guides in this article -- though written for the MBI-WPD, the work incentives apply to all Medicaid programs, including MSP, for people age 65+, disabled or blind. (c) monthly cost of any health insurance premiums but NOT the Part B premium, since Medicaid will now pay this premium (may deduct Medigap supplemental policies, vision, dental, or long term care insurance premiums, and the Part D premium but only to the extent the premium exceeds the Extra Help benchmark amount) (d) Food stamps not counted. You can get a more comprehensive listing of the SSI-related income disregards on the Medicaid income disregards chart. As for all benefit programs based on financial need, it is usually advantageous to be considered a larger household, because the income limit is higher.

The above chart shows that Households of TWO have a higher income limit than households of ONE. The MSP programs use the same rules as Medicaid does for the Disabled, Aged and Blind (DAB) which are borrowed from the SSI program for Medicaid recipients in the “SSI-related category.” Under these rules, a household can be only ONE or TWO. 18 NYCRR 360-4.2. See DAB Household Size Chart.

Married persons can sometimes be ONE or TWO depending on arcane rules, which can force a Medicare beneficiary to be limited to the income limit for ONE person even though his spouse who is under 65 and not disabled has no income, and is supported by the client applying for an MSP. EXAMPLE. Bob's Social Security is $1300/month. He is age 67 and has Medicare.

His wife, Nancy, is age 62 and is not disabled and does not work. Under the old rule, Bob was not eligible for an MSP because his income was above the Income limit for One, even though it was well under the Couple limit. In 2010, NYS DOH modified its rules so that all married individuals will be considered a household size of TWO. DOH GIS 10 MA 10 Medicare Savings Program Household Size, June 4, 2010.

This rule for household size is an exception to the rule applying SSI budgeting rules to the MSP program. Under these rules, Bob is now eligible for an MSP. When is One Better than Two?. Of course, there may be couples where the non-applying spouse's income is too high, and disqualifies the applying spouse from an MSP.

In such cases, "spousal refusal" may be used SSL 366.3(a). (Link is to NYC HRA form, can be adapted for other counties). 3. The Three Medicare Savings Programs - what are they and how are they different?.

1. Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB). The QMB program provides the most comprehensive benefits. Available to those with incomes at or below 100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), the QMB program covers virtually all Medicare cost-sharing obligations.

Part B premiums, Part A premiums, if there are any, and any and all deductibles and co-insurance. QMB coverage is not retroactive. The program’s benefits will begin the month after the month in which your client is found eligible. ** See special rules about cost-sharing for QMBs below - updated with new CMS directive issued January 2012 ** See NYC HRA QMB Recertification form ** Even if you do not have Part A automatically, because you did not have enough wages, you may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In Program, in which people eligible for QMB who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium (Materials by the Medicare Rights Center).

2. Specifiedl Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB). For those with incomes between 100% and 120% FPL, the SLMB program will cover Part B premiums only. SLMB is retroactive, however, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months.

3. Qualified Individual (QI-1). For those with incomes between 120% and 135% FPL, and not receiving Medicaid, the QI-1 program will cover Medicare Part B premiums only. QI-1 is also retroactive, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months.

However, QI-1 retroactive coverage can only be provided within the current calendar year. (GIS 07 MA 027) So if you apply in January, you get no retroactive coverage. Q-I-1 recipients would be eligible for Medicaid with a spend-down, but if they want the Part B premium paid, they must choose between enrolling in QI-1 or Medicaid. They cannot be in both.

It is their choice. DOH MRG p. 19. In contrast, one may receive Medicaid and either QMB or SLIMB.

4. Four Special Benefits of MSPs (in addition to NO ASSET TEST). Benefit 1. Back Door to Medicare Part D "Extra Help" or Low Income Subsidy -- All MSP recipients are automatically enrolled in Extra Help, the subsidy that makes Part D affordable.

They have no Part D deductible or doughnut hole, the premium is subsidized, and they pay very low copayments. Once they are enrolled in Extra Help by virtue of enrollment in an MSP, they retain Extra Help for the entire calendar year, even if they lose MSP eligibility during that year. The "Full" Extra Help subsidy has the same income limit as QI-1 - 135% FPL. However, many people may be eligible for QI-1 but not Extra Help because QI-1 and the other MSPs have no asset limit.

People applying to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help might be rejected for this reason. Recent (2009-10) changes to federal law called "MIPPA" requires the Social Security Administration (SSA) to share eligibility data with NYSDOH on all persons who apply for Extra Help/ the Low Income Subsidy. Data sent to NYSDOH from SSA will enable NYSDOH to open MSP cases on many clients. The effective date of the MSP application must be the same date as the Extra Help application.

Signatures will not be required from clients. In cases where the SSA data is incomplete, NYSDOH will forward what is collected to the local district for completion of an MSP application. The State implementing procedures are in DOH 2010 ADM-03. Also see CMS "Dear State Medicaid Director" letter dated Feb.

18, 2010 Benefit 2. MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B Generally one must enroll in Part B within the strict enrollment periods after turning age 65 or after 24 months of Social Security Disability. An exception is if you or your spouse are still working and insured under an employer sponsored group health plan, or if you have End Stage Renal Disease, and other factors, see this from Medicare Rights Center. If you fail to enroll within those short periods, you might have to pay higher Part B premiums for life as a Late Enrollment Penalty (LEP).

Also, you may only enroll in Part B during the Annual Enrollment Period from January 1 - March 31st each year, with Part B not effective until the following July. Enrollment in an MSP automatically eliminates such penalties... For life.. Even if one later ceases to be eligible for the MSP.

AND enrolling in an MSP will automatically result in becoming enrolled in Part B if you didn't already have it and only had Part A. See Medicare Rights Center flyer. Benefit 3. No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover MSP Benefits Paid Generally speaking, states may place liens on the Estates of deceased Medicaid recipients to recover the cost of Medicaid services that were provided after the recipient reached the age of 55.

Since 2002, states have not been allowed to recover the cost of Medicare premiums paid under MSPs. In 2010, Congress expanded protection for MSP benefits. Beginning on January 1, 2010, states may not place liens on the Estates of Medicaid recipients who died after January 1, 2010 to recover costs for co-insurance paid under the QMB MSP program for services rendered after January 1, 2010. The federal government made this change in order to eliminate barriers to enrollment in MSPs.

See NYS DOH GIS 10-MA-008 - Medicare Savings Program Changes in Estate Recovery The GIS clarifies that a client who receives both QMB and full Medicaid is exempt from estate recovery for these Medicare cost-sharing expenses. Benefit 4. SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits not reduced despite increased income from MSP - at least temporarily Many people receive both SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits and MSP. Income for purposes of SNAP/Food Stamps is reduced by a deduction for medical expenses, which includes payment of the Part B premium.

Since approval for an MSP means that the client no longer pays for the Part B premium, his/her SNAP/Food Stamps income goes up, so their SNAP/Food Stamps go down. Here are some protections. Do these individuals have to report to their SNAP worker that their out of pocket medical costs have decreased?. And will the household see a reduction in their SNAP benefits, since the decrease in medical expenses will increase their countable income?.

The good news is that MSP households do NOT have to report the decrease in their medical expenses to the SNAP/Food Stamp office until their next SNAP/Food Stamp recertification. Even if they do report the change, or the local district finds out because the same worker is handling both the MSP and SNAP case, there should be no reduction in the household’s benefit until the next recertification. New York’s SNAP policy per administrative directive 02 ADM-07 is to “freeze” the deduction for medical expenses between certification periods. Increases in medical expenses can be budgeted at the household’s request, but NYS never decreases a household’s medical expense deduction until the next recertification.

Most elderly and disabled households have 24-month SNAP certification periods. Eventually, though, the decrease in medical expenses will need to be reported when the household recertifies for SNAP, and the household should expect to see a decrease in their monthly SNAP benefit. It is really important to stress that the loss in SNAP benefits is NOT dollar for dollar. A $100 decrease in out of pocket medical expenses would translate roughly into a $30 drop in SNAP benefits.

See more info on SNAP/Food Stamp benefits by the Empire Justice Center, and on the State OTDA website. Some clients will be automatically enrolled in an MSP by the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) shortly after attaining eligibility for Medicare. Others need to apply. The 2010 "MIPPA" law introduced some improvements to increase MSP enrollment.

See 3rd bullet below. Also, some people who had Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare have special procedures to have their Part B premium paid before they enroll in an MSP. See below. WHO IS AUTOMATICALLY ENROLLED IN AN MSP.

Clients receiving even $1.00 of Supplemental Security Income should be automatically enrolled into a Medicare Savings Program (most often QMB) under New York State’s Medicare Savings Program Buy-in Agreement with the federal government once they become eligible for Medicare. They should receive Medicare Parts A and B. Clients who are already eligible for Medicare when they apply for Medicaid should be automatically assessed for MSP eligibility when they apply for Medicaid. (NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 and GIS 05 MA 033).

Clients who apply to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help, but are rejected, should be contacted &. Enrolled into an MSP by the Medicaid program directly under new MIPPA procedures that require data sharing. Strategy TIP. Since the Extra Help filing date will be assigned to the MSP application, it may help the client to apply online for Extra Help with the SSA, even knowing that this application will be rejected because of excess assets or other reason.

SSA processes these requests quickly, and it will be routed to the State for MSP processing. Since MSP applications take a while, at least the filing date will be retroactive. Note. The above strategy does not work as well for QMB, because the effective date of QMB is the month after the month of application.

As a result, the retroactive effective date of Extra Help will be the month after the failed Extra Help application for those with QMB rather than SLMB/QI-1. Applying for MSP Directly with Local Medicaid Program. Those who do not have Medicaid already must apply for an MSP through their local social services district. (See more in Section D.

Below re those who already have Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare. If you are applying for MSP only (not also Medicaid), you can use the simplified MSP application form (theDOH-4328(Rev. 8/2017-- English) (2017 Spanish version not yet available). Either application form can be mailed in -- there is no interview requirement anymore for MSP or Medicaid.

See 10 ADM-04. Applicants will need to submit proof of income, a copy of their Medicare card (front &. Back), and proof of residency/address. See the application form for other instructions.

One who is only eligible for QI-1 because of higher income may ONLY apply for an MSP, not for Medicaid too. One may not receive Medicaid and QI-1 at the same time. If someone only eligible for QI-1 wants Medicaid, s/he may enroll in and deposit excess income into a pooled Supplemental Needs Trust, to bring her countable income down to the Medicaid level, which also qualifies him or her for SLIMB or QMB instead of QI-1. Advocates in NYC can sign up for a half-day "Deputization Training" conducted by the Medicare Rights Center, at which you'll be trained and authorized to complete an MSP application and to submit it via the Medicare Rights Center, which submits it to HRA without the client having to apply in person.

Enrolling in an MSP if you already have Medicaid, but just become eligible for Medicare Those who, prior to becoming enrolled in Medicare, had Medicaid through Affordable Care Act are eligible to have their Part B premiums paid by Medicaid (or the cost reimbursed) during the time it takes for them to transition to a Medicare Savings Program. In 2018, DOH clarified that reimbursement of the Part B premium will be made regardless of whether the individual is still in a Medicaid managed care (MMC) plan. GIS 18 MA/001 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare ( PDF) provides, "Due to efforts to transition individuals who gain Medicare eligibility and who require LTSS, individuals may not be disenrolled from MMC upon receipt of Medicare. To facilitate the transition and not disadvantage the recipient, the Medicaid program is approving reimbursement of Part B premiums for enrollees in MMC." The procedure for getting the Part B premium paid is different for those whose Medicaid was administered by the NYS of Health Exchange (Marketplace), as opposed to their local social services district.

The procedure is also different for those who obtain Medicare because they turn 65, as opposed to obtaining Medicare based on disability. Either way, Medicaid recipients who transition onto Medicare should be automatically evaluated for MSP eligibility at their next Medicaid recertification. NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 Individuals can also affirmatively ask to be enrolled in MSP in between recertification periods. IF CLIENT HAD MEDICAID ON THE MARKETPLACE (NYS of Health Exchange) before obtaining Medicare.

IF they obtain Medicare because they turn age 65, they will receive a letter from their local district asking them to "renew" Medicaid through their local district. See 2014 LCM-02. Now, their Medicaid income limit will be lower than the MAGI limits ($842/ mo reduced from $1387/month) and they now will have an asset test. For this reason, some individuals may lose full Medicaid eligibility when they begin receiving Medicare.

People over age 65 who obtain Medicare do NOT keep "Marketplace Medicaid" for 12 months (continuous eligibility) See GIS 15 MA/022 - Continuous Coverage for MAGI Individuals. Since MSP has NO ASSET limit. Some individuals may be enrolled in the MSP even if they lose Medicaid, or if they now have a Medicaid spend-down. If a Medicare/Medicaid recipient reports income that exceeds the Medicaid level, districts must evaluate the person’s eligibility for MSP.

08 OHIP/ADM-4 ​If you became eligible for Medicare based on disability and you are UNDER AGE 65, you are entitled to keep MAGI Medicaid for 12 months from the month it was last authorized, even if you now have income normally above the MAGI limit, and even though you now have Medicare. This is called Continuous Eligibility. EXAMPLE. Sam, age 60, was last authorized for Medicaid on the Marketplace in June 2016.

He became enrolled in Medicare based on disability in August 2016, and started receiving Social Security in the same month (he won a hearing approving Social Security disability benefits retroactively, after first being denied disability). Even though his Social Security is too high, he can keep Medicaid for 12 months beginning June 2016. Sam has to pay for his Part B premium - it is deducted from his Social Security check. He may call the Marketplace and request a refund.

This will continue until the end of his 12 months of continues MAGI Medicaid eligibility. He will be reimbursed regardless of whether he is in a Medicaid managed care plan. See GIS 18 MA/001 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare (PDF) When that ends, he will renew Medicaid and apply for MSP with his local district. Individuals who are eligible for Medicaid with a spenddown can opt whether or not to receive MSP.

(Medicaid Reference Guide (MRG) p. 19). Obtaining MSP may increase their spenddown. MIPPA - Outreach by Social Security Administration -- Under MIPPA, the SSA sends a form letter to people who may be eligible for a Medicare Savings Program or Extra Help (Low Income Subsidy - LIS) that they may apply.

The letters are. · Beneficiary has Extra Help (LIS), but not MSP · Beneficiary has no Extra Help (LIS) or MSP 6. Enrolling in MSP for People Age 65+ who do Not have Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" Seniors WITHOUT MEDICARE PART A or B -- They may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In program, in which people eligible for QMB who are age 65+ who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll in Part A, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium. See Step-by-Step Guide by the Medicare Rights Center).

This guide explains the various steps in "conditionally enrolling" in Part A at the SSA office, which must be done before applying for QMB at the Medicaid office, which will then pay the Part A premium. See also GIS 04 MA/013. In June, 2018, the SSA revised the POMS manual procedures for the Part A Buy-In to to address inconsistencies and confusion in SSA field offices and help smooth the path for QMB enrollment. The procedures are in the POMS Section HI 00801.140 "Premium-Free Part A Enrollments for Qualified Medicare BenefiIaries." It includes important clarifications, such as.

SSA Field Offices should explain the QMB program and conditional enrollment process if an individual lacks premium-free Part A and appears to meet QMB requirements. SSA field offices can add notes to the “Remarks” section of the application and provide a screen shot to the individual so the individual can provide proof of conditional Part A enrollment when applying for QMB through the state Medicaid program. Beneficiaries are allowed to complete the conditional application even if they owe Medicare premiums. In Part A Buy-in states like NYS, SSA should process conditional applications on a rolling basis (without regard to enrollment periods), even if the application coincides with the General Enrollment Period.

(The General Enrollment Period is from Jan 1 to March 31st every year, in which anyone eligible may enroll in Medicare Part A or Part B to be effective on July 1st). 7. What happens after the MSP approval - How is Part B premium paid For all three MSP programs, the Medicaid program is now responsible for paying the Part B premiums, even though the MSP enrollee is not necessarily a recipient of Medicaid. The local Medicaid office (DSS/HRA) transmits the MSP approval to the NYS Department of Health – that information gets shared w/ SSA and CMS SSA stops deducting the Part B premiums out of the beneficiary’s Social Security check.

SSA also refunds any amounts owed to the recipient. (Note. This process can take awhile!. !.

!. ) CMS “deems” the MSP recipient eligible for Part D Extra Help/ Low Income Subsidy (LIS). ​Can the MSP be retroactive like Medicaid, back to 3 months before the application?. ​The answer is different for the 3 MSP programs.

QMB -No Retroactive Eligibility – Benefits begin the month after the month of the MSP application. 18 NYCRR § 360-7.8(b)(5) SLIMB - YES - Retroactive Eligibility up to 3 months before the application, if was eligible This means applicant may be reimbursed for the 3 months of Part B benefits prior to the month of application. QI-1 - YES up to 3 months but only in the same calendar year. No retroactive eligibility to the previous year.

7. QMBs -Special Rules on Cost-Sharing. QMB is the only MSP program which pays not only the Part B premium, but also the Medicare co-insurance. However, there are limitations.

First, co-insurance will only be paid if the provide accepts Medicaid. Not all Medicare provides accept Medicaid. Second, under recent changes in New York law, Medicaid will not always pay the Medicare co-insurance, even to a Medicaid provider. But even if the provider does not accept Medicaid, or if Medicaid does not pay the full co-insurance, the provider is banned from "balance billing" the QMB beneficiary for the co-insurance.

Click here for an article that explains all of these rules.

SSA will forward your Extra Help application data to the New York State Department of lowest price cialis Health, who will use that data to assess your eligibility for MSP. Individuals who apply for LIS through SSA and those who are deemed into LIS should receive written confirmation of their Extra Help status through SSA. Of course, individuals who apply for LIS through SSA and are found ineligible are also entitled to a written notice and have appeal rights. Benefits of Extra Help 1) Assistance with Part D cost-sharing The Extra Help program provides a subsidy which covers most (but not all) of beneficiary’s lowest price cialis cost sharing obligations.

Extra Help beneficiaries do not have to worry about hitting the “donut hole” – the LIS subsidy continues to cover them through the donut hole and into catastrophic coverage. Full Extra Help. LIS beneficiaries with incomes up to 135% FPL are generally eligible for "full" Extra Help -- meaning they pay no Part D deductible, no charge for monthly premiums up to the benchmark amount, and fixed, relatively low co-pays (between $1.30 and $8.95 for 2020 depending on the lowest price cialis person's income level and the tier category of the drug. Medicaid beneficiaries in nursing homes, waiver programs, or managed long term care have $0 co-pays).

Full Extra Help beneficiaries who hit the catastrophic coverage limit have $0 co-pays. See current co-pay levels here lowest price cialis. Partial Extra Help. Beneficiaries between 135%-150% FPL receive "partial" Extra Help, which limits the Part D deductible to $89 (2020 figure - click here for updated chart).

Sets sliding lowest price cialis scale fees for monthly premiums. And limits co-pays to 15%, until the beneficiary reaches the catastrophic coverage limit, at which point co-pays are limited to a $8.95 maximum (2020 or see current amount here) or 5% of the drug cost, whichever is greater. 2) Facilitated enrollment into a Part D plan Extra Help recipients who aren’t already enrolled in a Part D plan and don’t want to choose one on their own will be automatically enrolled into a benchmark plan by CMS. This facilitated enrollment ensures that Extra lowest price cialis Help recipients have Part D coverage.

However, the downside to facilitated enrollment is that the plan may not be the best “fit” for the beneficiary, if it doesn’t cover all his/her drugs, assesses a higher tier level for covered drugs than other comparable plans, and/or requires the beneficiary to go through administrative hoops like prior authorization, quantity limits and/or step therapy. Fortunately, Extra Help recipients can always enroll in a new plan … see #3 below. 3) Continuous special enrollment lowest price cialis period Extra Help recipients have a continuous special enrollment period, meaning that they can switch plans at any time. They are not “locked into” the annual open enrollment period (October 15-December 7).

NOTE. This lowest price cialis changed in 2019. Starting in 2019, those with Extra Help will no longer have a continuous enrollment period. Instead, Extra Help recipients will be eligible to enroll no more than once per quarter for each of the first three quarters of the year.

4) No late enrollment penalty Non LIS beneficiaries generally face a premium penalty lowest price cialis (higher monthly premium) if they delayed their enrollment into Part D, meaning that they didn’t enroll when they were initially eligible and didn’t have “creditable coverage.” Extra Help recipients do not have to worry about this problem – the late enrollment penalty provision does not apply to LIS beneficiaries. 1) For “deemed” beneficiaries (Medicaid/Medicare Savings Program recipients). Extra Help status lasts at least until the end of the current calendar year, even if the individual loses their Medicaid or Medicare Savings Program coverage during that year. Individuals who receive Medicaid or a Medicare Savings Program any month between July and December keep their LIS status for the remainder of lowest price cialis that calendar year and the following year.

Getting Medicaid coverage for even just a short period of time (ie, meeting a spenddown for just one month) can help ensure that the individual obtains Extra Help coverage for at least 6 months, and possibly as long as 18 months. TIP. People with a high spend-down who want to receive Medicaid for just one month in order to get Extra Help lowest price cialis for 6-18 months can use past medical bills to meet their spend-down for that one month. There are different rules for using past paid medical bills verses past unpaid medical bills.

For information see Spend down training materials. Individuals who are losing their deemed status at the end of a calendar year because they are no longer receiving lowest price cialis Medicaid or the Medicare Savings Program should be notified in advance by SSA, and given an opportunity to file an Extra Help application through SSA. 2) For “non-deemed” beneficiaries (those who filed their LIS applications through SSA) Non-deemed beneficiaries retain their LIS status until/unless SSA does a redetermination and finds the individual ineligible for Extra Help. There are no reporting requirements per se in the Extra Help program, but beneficiaries must respond to SSA’s redetermination request.

What to do if the Part D lowest price cialis plan doesn't know that someone has Extra Help Sometimes there are lengthy delays between the date that someone is approved for Medicaid or a Medicare Savings Program and when that information is formally conveyed to the Part D plan by CMS. As a practical matter, this often results in beneficiaries being charged co-pays, premiums and/or deductibles that they can't afford and shouldn't have to pay. To protect LIS beneficiaries, CMS has a "Best Available Evidence" policy which requires plans to accept alternative forms of proof of someone's LIS status and adjust the person's cost-sharing obligation accordingly. LIS beneficiaries who are being charged improperly should be sure to contact their plan and provide lowest price cialis proof of their LIS status.

If the plan still won't recognize their LIS status, the person or their advocate should file a complaint with the CMS regional office. The federal regulations governing the Low Income Subsidy program can be found at 42 CFR Subpart P (sections 423.771 through 423.800). Also, CMS provides detailed guidance on the LIS provisions in lowest price cialis chapter 13 of its Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Manual. This article was authored by the Empire Justice Center.Medicare Savings Programs (MSPs) pay for the monthly Medicare Part B premium for low-income Medicare beneficiaries and qualify enrollees for the "Extra Help" subsidy for Part D prescription drugs.

There are three separate MSP programs, the Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB) Program, the Specified Low Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB) Program and the Qualified Individual (QI) Program, each of which is discussed below. Those in QMB receive additional subsidies for Medicare costs lowest price cialis. See 2019 Fact Sheet on MSP in NYS by Medicare Rights Center ENGLISH SPANISH State law. N.Y.

Soc. Serv. L. § 367-a(3)(a), (b), and (d).

2020 Medicare 101 Basics for New York State - 1.5 hour webinar by Eric Hausman, sponsored by NYS Office of the Aging TOPICS COVERED IN THIS ARTICLE 1. No Asset Limit 1A. Summary Chart of MSP Programs 2. Income Limits &.

Rules and Household Size 3. The Three MSP Programs - What are they and how are they Different?. 4. FOUR Special Benefits of MSP Programs.

Back Door to Extra Help with Part D MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B - and allow enrollment in Part B year-round outside of the short Annual Enrollment Period No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover Payment of Expenses Paid by MSP Food Stamps/SNAP not reduced by Decreased Medical Expenses when Enroll in MSP - at least temporarily 5. Enrolling in an MSP - Automatic Enrollment &. Applications for People who Have Medicare What is Application Process?. 6.

Enrolling in an MSP for People age 65+ who Do Not Qualify for Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" 7. What Happens After MSP Approved - How Part B Premium is Paid 8 Special Rules for QMBs - How Medicare Cost-Sharing Works 1. NO ASSET LIMIT!. Since April 1, 2008, none of the three MSP programs have resource limits in New York -- which means many Medicare beneficiaries who might not qualify for Medicaid because of excess resources can qualify for an MSP.

1.A. SUMMARY CHART OF MSP BENEFITS QMB SLIMB QI-1 Eligibility ASSET LIMIT NO LIMIT IN NEW YORK STATE INCOME LIMIT (2020) Single Couple Single Couple Single Couple $1,064 $1,437 $1,276 $1,724 $1,436 $1,940 Federal Poverty Level 100% FPL 100 – 120% FPL 120 – 135% FPL Benefits Pays Monthly Part B premium?. YES, and also Part A premium if did not have enough work quarters and meets citizenship requirement. See “Part A Buy-In” YES YES Pays Part A &.

B deductibles &. Co-insurance YES - with limitations NO NO Retroactive to Filing of Application?. Yes - Benefits begin the month after the month of the MSP application. 18 NYCRR §360-7.8(b)(5) Yes – Retroactive to 3rd month before month of application, if eligible in prior months Yes – may be retroactive to 3rd month before month of applica-tion, but only within the current calendar year.

(No retro for January application). See GIS 07 MA 027. Can Enroll in MSP and Medicaid at Same Time?. YES YES NO!.

Must choose between QI-1 and Medicaid. Cannot have both, not even Medicaid with a spend-down. 2. INCOME LIMITS and RULES Each of the three MSP programs has different income eligibility requirements and provides different benefits.

The income limits are tied to the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). 2019 FPL levels were released by NYS DOH in GIS 20 MA/02 - 2020 Federal Poverty Levels -- Attachment II and have been posted by Medicaid.gov and the National Council on Aging and are in the chart below. NOTE. There is usually a lag in time of several weeks, or even months, from January 1st of each year until the new FPLs are release, and then before the new MSP income limits are officially implemented.

During this lag period, local Medicaid offices should continue to use the previous year's FPLs AND count the person's Social Security benefit amount from the previous year - do NOT factor in the Social Security COLA (cost of living adjustment). Once the updated guidelines are released, districts will use the new FPLs and go ahead and factor in any COLA. See 2019 Fact Sheet on MSP in NYS by Medicare Rights Center ENGLISH SPANISH Income is determined by the same methodology as is used for determining in eligibility for SSI The rules for counting income for SSI-related (Aged 65+, Blind, or Disabled) Medicaid recipients, borrowed from the SSI program, apply to the MSP program, except for the new rules about counting household size for married couples. N.Y.

Soc. Serv. L. 367-a(3)(c)(2), NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7, 89-ADM-7 p.7.

Gross income is counted, although there are certain types of income that are disregarded. The most common income disregards, also known as deductions, include. (a) The first $20 of your &. Your spouse's monthly income, earned or unearned ($20 per couple max).

(b) SSI EARNED INCOME DISREGARDS. * The first $65 of monthly wages of you and your spouse, * One-half of the remaining monthly wages (after the $65 is deducted). * Other work incentives including PASS plans, impairment related work expenses (IRWEs), blind work expenses, etc. For information on these deductions, see The Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities (MBI-WPD) and other guides in this article -- though written for the MBI-WPD, the work incentives apply to all Medicaid programs, including MSP, for people age 65+, disabled or blind.

(c) monthly cost of any health insurance premiums but NOT the Part B premium, since Medicaid will now pay this premium (may deduct Medigap supplemental policies, vision, dental, or long term care insurance premiums, and the Part D premium but only to the extent the premium exceeds the Extra Help benchmark amount) (d) Food stamps not counted. You can get a more comprehensive listing of the SSI-related income disregards on the Medicaid income disregards chart. As for all benefit programs based on financial need, it is usually advantageous to be considered a larger household, because the income limit is higher. The above chart shows that Households of TWO have a higher income limit than households of ONE.

The MSP programs use the same rules as Medicaid does for the Disabled, Aged and Blind (DAB) which are borrowed from the SSI program for Medicaid recipients in the “SSI-related category.” Under these rules, a household can be only ONE or TWO. 18 NYCRR 360-4.2. See DAB Household Size Chart. Married persons can sometimes be ONE or TWO depending on arcane rules, which can force a Medicare beneficiary to be limited to the income limit for ONE person even though his spouse who is under 65 and not disabled has no income, and is supported by the client applying for an MSP.

EXAMPLE. Bob's Social Security is $1300/month. He is age 67 and has Medicare. His wife, Nancy, is age 62 and is not disabled and does not work.

Under the old rule, Bob was not eligible for an MSP because his income was above the Income limit for One, even though it was well under the Couple limit. In 2010, NYS DOH modified its rules so that all married individuals will be considered a household size of TWO. DOH GIS 10 MA 10 Medicare Savings Program Household Size, June 4, 2010. This rule for household size is an exception to the rule applying SSI budgeting rules to the MSP program.

Under these rules, Bob is now eligible for an MSP. When is One Better than Two?. Of course, there may be couples where the non-applying spouse's income is too high, and disqualifies the applying spouse from an MSP. In such cases, "spousal refusal" may be used SSL 366.3(a).

(Link is to NYC HRA form, can be adapted for other counties). 3. The Three Medicare Savings Programs - what are they and how are they different?. 1.

Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB). The QMB program provides the most comprehensive benefits. Available to those with incomes at or below 100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), the QMB program covers virtually all Medicare cost-sharing obligations. Part B premiums, Part A premiums, if there are any, and any and all deductibles and co-insurance.

QMB coverage is not retroactive. The program’s benefits will begin the month after the month in which your client is found eligible. ** See special rules about cost-sharing for QMBs below - updated with new CMS directive issued January 2012 ** See NYC HRA QMB Recertification form ** Even if you do not have Part A automatically, because you did not have enough wages, you may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In Program, in which people eligible for QMB who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium (Materials by the Medicare Rights Center). 2.

Specifiedl Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB). For those with incomes between 100% and 120% FPL, the SLMB program will cover Part B premiums only. SLMB is retroactive, however, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months. 3.

Qualified Individual (QI-1). For those with incomes between 120% and 135% FPL, and not receiving Medicaid, the QI-1 program will cover Medicare Part B premiums only. QI-1 is also retroactive, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months. However, QI-1 retroactive coverage can only be provided within the current calendar year.

(GIS 07 MA 027) So if you apply in January, you get no retroactive coverage. Q-I-1 recipients would be eligible for Medicaid with a spend-down, but if they want the Part B premium paid, they must choose between enrolling in QI-1 or Medicaid. They cannot be in both. It is their choice.

DOH MRG p. 19. In contrast, one may receive Medicaid and either QMB or SLIMB. 4.

Four Special Benefits of MSPs (in addition to NO ASSET TEST). Benefit 1. Back Door to Medicare Part D "Extra Help" or Low Income Subsidy -- All MSP recipients are automatically enrolled in Extra Help, the subsidy that makes Part D affordable. They have no Part D deductible or doughnut hole, the premium is subsidized, and they pay very low copayments.

Once they are enrolled in Extra Help by virtue of enrollment in an MSP, they retain Extra Help for the entire calendar year, even if they lose MSP eligibility during that year. The "Full" Extra Help subsidy has the same income limit as QI-1 - 135% FPL. However, many people may be eligible for QI-1 but not Extra Help because QI-1 and the other MSPs have no asset limit. People applying to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help might be rejected for this reason.

Recent (2009-10) changes to federal law called "MIPPA" requires the Social Security Administration (SSA) to share eligibility data with NYSDOH on all persons who apply for Extra Help/ the Low Income Subsidy. Data sent to NYSDOH from SSA will enable NYSDOH to open MSP cases on many clients. The effective date of the MSP application must be the same date as the Extra Help application. Signatures will not be required from clients.

In cases where the SSA data is incomplete, NYSDOH will forward what is collected to the local district for completion of an MSP application. The State implementing procedures are in DOH 2010 ADM-03. Also see CMS "Dear State Medicaid Director" letter dated Feb. 18, 2010 Benefit 2.

MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B Generally one must enroll in Part B within the strict enrollment periods after turning age 65 or after 24 months of Social Security Disability. An exception is if you or your spouse are still working and insured under an employer sponsored group health plan, or if you have End Stage Renal Disease, and other factors, see this from Medicare Rights Center. If you fail to enroll within those short periods, you might have to pay higher Part B premiums for life as a Late Enrollment Penalty (LEP). Also, you may only enroll in Part B during the Annual Enrollment Period from January 1 - March 31st each year, with Part B not effective until the following July.

Enrollment in an MSP automatically eliminates such penalties... For life.. Even if one later ceases to be eligible for the MSP. AND enrolling in an MSP will automatically result in becoming enrolled in Part B if you didn't already have it and only had Part A.

See Medicare Rights Center flyer. Benefit 3. No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover MSP Benefits Paid Generally speaking, states may place liens on the Estates of deceased Medicaid recipients to recover the cost of Medicaid services that were provided after the recipient reached the age of 55. Since 2002, states have not been allowed to recover the cost of Medicare premiums paid under MSPs.

In 2010, Congress expanded protection for MSP benefits. Beginning on January 1, 2010, states may not place liens on the Estates of Medicaid recipients who died after January 1, 2010 to recover costs for co-insurance paid under the QMB MSP program for services rendered after January 1, 2010. The federal government made this change in order to eliminate barriers to enrollment in MSPs. See NYS DOH GIS 10-MA-008 - Medicare Savings Program Changes in Estate Recovery The GIS clarifies that a client who receives both QMB and full Medicaid is exempt from estate recovery for these Medicare cost-sharing expenses.

Benefit 4. SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits not reduced despite increased income from MSP - at least temporarily Many people receive both SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits and MSP. Income for purposes of SNAP/Food Stamps is reduced by a deduction for medical expenses, which includes payment of the Part B premium. Since approval for an MSP means that the client no longer pays for the Part B premium, his/her SNAP/Food Stamps income goes up, so their SNAP/Food Stamps go down.

Here are some protections. Do these individuals have to report to their SNAP worker that their out of pocket medical costs have decreased?. And will the household see a reduction in their SNAP benefits, since the decrease in medical expenses will increase their countable income?. The good news is that MSP households do NOT have to report the decrease in their medical expenses to the SNAP/Food Stamp office until their next SNAP/Food Stamp recertification.

Even if they do report the change, or the local district finds out because the same worker is handling both the MSP and SNAP case, there should be no reduction in the household’s benefit until the next recertification. New York’s SNAP policy per administrative directive 02 ADM-07 is to “freeze” the deduction for medical expenses between certification periods. Increases in medical expenses can be budgeted at the household’s request, but NYS never decreases a household’s medical expense deduction until the next recertification. Most elderly and disabled households have 24-month SNAP certification periods.

Eventually, though, the decrease in medical expenses will need to be reported when the household recertifies for SNAP, and the household should expect to see a decrease in their monthly SNAP benefit. It is really important to stress that the loss in SNAP benefits is NOT dollar for dollar. A $100 decrease in out of pocket medical expenses would translate roughly into a $30 drop in SNAP benefits. See more info on SNAP/Food Stamp benefits by the Empire Justice Center, and on the State OTDA website.

Some clients will be automatically enrolled in an MSP by the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) shortly after attaining eligibility for Medicare. Others need to apply. The 2010 "MIPPA" law introduced some improvements to increase MSP enrollment. See 3rd bullet below.

Also, some people who had Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare have special procedures to have their Part B premium paid before they enroll in an MSP. See below. WHO IS AUTOMATICALLY ENROLLED IN AN MSP. Clients receiving even $1.00 of Supplemental Security Income should be automatically enrolled into a Medicare Savings Program (most often QMB) under New York State’s Medicare Savings Program Buy-in Agreement with the federal government once they become eligible for Medicare.

They should receive Medicare Parts A and B. Clients who are already eligible for Medicare when they apply for Medicaid should be automatically assessed for MSP eligibility when they apply for Medicaid. (NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 and GIS 05 MA 033). Clients who apply to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help, but are rejected, should be contacted &.

Enrolled into an MSP by the Medicaid program directly under new MIPPA procedures that require data sharing. Strategy TIP. Since the Extra Help filing date will be assigned to the MSP application, it may help the client to apply online for Extra Help with the SSA, even knowing that this application will be rejected because of excess assets or other reason. SSA processes these requests quickly, and it will be routed to the State for MSP processing.

Since MSP applications take a while, at least the filing date will be retroactive. Note. The above strategy does not work as well for QMB, because the effective date of QMB is the month after the month of application. As a result, the retroactive effective date of Extra Help will be the month after the failed Extra Help application for those with QMB rather than SLMB/QI-1.

Applying for MSP Directly with Local Medicaid Program. Those who do not have Medicaid already must apply for an MSP through their local social services district. (See more in Section D. Below re those who already have Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare.

If you are applying for MSP only (not also Medicaid), you can use the simplified MSP application form (theDOH-4328(Rev. 8/2017-- English) (2017 Spanish version not yet available). Either application form can be mailed in -- there is no interview requirement anymore for MSP or Medicaid. See 10 ADM-04.

Applicants will need to submit proof of income, a copy of their Medicare card (front &. Back), and proof of residency/address. See the application form for other instructions. One who is only eligible for QI-1 because of higher income may ONLY apply for an MSP, not for Medicaid too.

One may not receive Medicaid and QI-1 at the same time. If someone only eligible for QI-1 wants Medicaid, s/he may enroll in and deposit excess income into a pooled Supplemental Needs Trust, to bring her countable income down to the Medicaid level, which also qualifies him or her for SLIMB or QMB instead of QI-1. Advocates in NYC can sign up for a half-day "Deputization Training" conducted by the Medicare Rights Center, at which you'll be trained and authorized to complete an MSP application and to submit it via the Medicare Rights Center, which submits it to HRA without the client having to apply in person. Enrolling in an MSP if you already have Medicaid, but just become eligible for Medicare Those who, prior to becoming enrolled in Medicare, had Medicaid through Affordable Care Act are eligible to have their Part B premiums paid by Medicaid (or the cost reimbursed) during the time it takes for them to transition to a Medicare Savings Program.

In 2018, DOH clarified that reimbursement of the Part B premium will be made regardless of whether the individual is still in a Medicaid managed care (MMC) plan. GIS 18 MA/001 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare ( PDF) provides, "Due to efforts to transition individuals who gain Medicare eligibility and who require LTSS, individuals may not be disenrolled from MMC upon receipt of Medicare. To facilitate the transition and not disadvantage the recipient, the Medicaid program is approving reimbursement of Part B premiums for enrollees in MMC." The procedure for getting the Part B premium paid is different for those whose Medicaid was administered by the NYS of Health Exchange (Marketplace), as opposed to their local social services district. The procedure is also different for those who obtain Medicare because they turn 65, as opposed to obtaining Medicare based on disability.

Either way, Medicaid recipients who transition onto Medicare should be automatically evaluated for MSP eligibility at their next Medicaid recertification. NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 Individuals can also affirmatively ask to be enrolled in MSP in between recertification periods. IF CLIENT HAD MEDICAID ON THE MARKETPLACE (NYS of Health Exchange) before obtaining Medicare. IF they obtain Medicare because they turn age 65, they will receive a letter from their local district asking them to "renew" Medicaid through their local district.

See 2014 LCM-02. Now, their Medicaid income limit will be lower than the MAGI limits ($842/ mo reduced from $1387/month) and they now will have an asset test. For this reason, some individuals may lose full Medicaid eligibility when they begin receiving Medicare. People over age 65 who obtain Medicare do NOT keep "Marketplace Medicaid" for 12 months (continuous eligibility) See GIS 15 MA/022 - Continuous Coverage for MAGI Individuals.

Since MSP has NO ASSET limit. Some individuals may be enrolled in the MSP even if they lose Medicaid, or if they now have a Medicaid spend-down. If a Medicare/Medicaid recipient reports income that exceeds the Medicaid level, districts must evaluate the person’s eligibility for MSP. 08 OHIP/ADM-4 ​If you became eligible for Medicare based on disability and you are UNDER AGE 65, you are entitled to keep MAGI Medicaid for 12 months from the month it was last authorized, even if you now have income normally above the MAGI limit, and even though you now have Medicare.

This is called Continuous Eligibility. EXAMPLE. Sam, age 60, was last authorized for Medicaid on the Marketplace in June 2016. He became enrolled in Medicare based on disability in August 2016, and started receiving Social Security in the same month (he won a hearing approving Social Security disability benefits retroactively, after first being denied disability).

Even though his Social Security is too high, he can keep Medicaid for 12 months beginning June 2016. Sam has to pay for his Part B premium - it is deducted from his Social Security check. He may call the Marketplace and request a refund. This will continue until the end of his 12 months of continues MAGI Medicaid eligibility.

He will be reimbursed regardless of whether he is in a Medicaid managed care plan. See GIS 18 MA/001 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare (PDF) When that ends, he will renew Medicaid and apply for MSP with his local district. Individuals who are eligible for Medicaid with a spenddown can opt whether or not to receive MSP. (Medicaid Reference Guide (MRG) p.

19). Obtaining MSP may increase their spenddown. MIPPA - Outreach by Social Security Administration -- Under MIPPA, the SSA sends a form letter to people who may be eligible for a Medicare Savings Program or Extra Help (Low Income Subsidy - LIS) that they may apply. The letters are.

· Beneficiary has Extra Help (LIS), but not MSP · Beneficiary has no Extra Help (LIS) or MSP 6. Enrolling in MSP for People Age 65+ who do Not have Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" Seniors WITHOUT MEDICARE PART A or B -- They may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In program, in which people eligible for QMB who are age 65+ who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll in Part A, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium. See Step-by-Step Guide by the Medicare Rights Center). This guide explains the various steps in "conditionally enrolling" in Part A at the SSA office, which must be done before applying for QMB at the Medicaid office, which will then pay the Part A premium.

See also GIS 04 MA/013. In June, 2018, the SSA revised the POMS manual procedures for the Part A Buy-In to to address inconsistencies and confusion in SSA field offices and help smooth the path for QMB enrollment. The procedures are in the POMS Section HI 00801.140 "Premium-Free Part A Enrollments for Qualified Medicare BenefiIaries." It includes important clarifications, such as. SSA Field Offices should explain the QMB program and conditional enrollment process if an individual lacks premium-free Part A and appears to meet QMB requirements.

SSA field offices can add notes to the “Remarks” section of the application and provide a screen shot to the individual so the individual can provide proof of conditional Part A enrollment when applying for QMB through the state Medicaid program. Beneficiaries are allowed to complete the conditional application even if they owe Medicare premiums. In Part A Buy-in states like NYS, SSA should process conditional applications on a rolling basis (without regard to enrollment periods), even if the application coincides with the General Enrollment Period. (The General Enrollment Period is from Jan 1 to March 31st every year, in which anyone eligible may enroll in Medicare Part A or Part B to be effective on July 1st).

7. What happens after the MSP approval - How is Part B premium paid For all three MSP programs, the Medicaid program is now responsible for paying the Part B premiums, even though the MSP enrollee is not necessarily a recipient of Medicaid. The local Medicaid office (DSS/HRA) transmits the MSP approval to the NYS Department of Health – that information gets shared w/ SSA and CMS SSA stops deducting the Part B premiums out of the beneficiary’s Social Security check. SSA also refunds any amounts owed to the recipient.

) CMS “deems” the MSP recipient eligible for Part D Extra Help/ Low Income Subsidy (LIS). ​Can the MSP be retroactive like Medicaid, back to 3 months before the application?. ​The answer is different for the 3 MSP programs. QMB -No Retroactive Eligibility – Benefits begin the month after the month of the MSP application.

18 NYCRR § 360-7.8(b)(5) SLIMB - YES - Retroactive Eligibility up to 3 months before the application, if was eligible This means applicant may be reimbursed for the 3 months of Part B benefits prior to the month of application. QI-1 - YES up to 3 months but only in the same calendar year. No retroactive eligibility to the previous year. 7.

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Credit http://pedrotrotz.com/get-zithromax-prescription-online/ amlodipine cialis. IStock Share Fast Facts New @HopkinsMedicine study finds African-American women with common form of hair loss at increased risk of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet New study in @JAMADerm shows most common form of alopecia (hair loss) in African-American women associated with higher risks of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet In a study of medical records gathered on hundreds of thousands of African-American women, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have evidence that women with a common form of hair loss have an increased chance of developing uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids.In a report on the research, published in the December 27 issue of JAMA Dermatology, the researchers call on physicians who treat women with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) to make patients aware that they may be at increased risk for fibroids and should be screened for the condition, particularly if they have symptoms such as heavy bleeding and pain. CCCA predominantly affects black women and is the most amlodipine cialis common form of permanent alopecia in this population. The excess scar tissue that forms as a result of this type of hair loss may also explain the higher risk for uterine fibroids, which are characterized by fibrous growths in the lining of the womb. Crystal Aguh, M.D., assistant professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, says the scarring associated with CCCA is similar to the scarring associated with excess fibrous tissue elsewhere in the body, a situation that may explain why women with this type of hair loss are at a higher risk for fibroids.People of African descent, she notes, are more prone to develop other disorders of abnormal scarring, termed amlodipine cialis fibroproliferative disorders, such as keloids (a type of raised scar after trauma), scleroderma (an autoimmune disorder marked by thickening of the skin as well as internal organs), some types of lupus and clogged arteries.

During a four-year period from 2013-2017, the researchers analyzed patient data from the Johns Hopkins electronic medical record system (Epic) of 487,104 black women ages 18 and over. The prevalence of those with fibroids was compared in patients with and without CCCA amlodipine cialis. Overall, the researchers found that 13.9 percent of women with CCCA also had a history of uterine fibroids compared to only 3.3 percent of black women without the condition. In absolute numbers, out of the 486,000 women who were reviewed, 16,212 had fibroids.Within that population, 447 had CCCA, of which 62 had fibroids. The findings translate amlodipine cialis to a fivefold increased risk of uterine fibroids in women with CCCA, compared to age, sex and race matched controls.

Aguh cautions that their study does not suggest any cause and effect relationship, or prove a common cause for both conditions. €œThe cause of the link between the two conditions remains unclear,” amlodipine cialis she says. However, the association was strong enough, she adds, to recommend that physicians and patients be made aware of it. Women with this type of scarring alopecia amlodipine cialis should be screened not only for fibroids, but also for other disorders associated with excess fibrous tissue, Aguh says. An estimated 70 percent of white women and between 80 and 90 percent of African-American women will develop fibroids by age 50, according to the NIH, and while CCCA is likely underdiagnosed, some estimates report a prevalence of rates as high as 17 percent of black women having this condition.

The other authors on this paper were Ginette A amlodipine cialis. Okoye, M.D. Of Johns Hopkins and Yemisi Dina of Meharry Medical College.Credit. The New England Journal of Medicine Share Fast Facts This study clears up how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different amlodipine cialis cancer types. - Click to Tweet The number of mutations in a tumor’s DNA is a good predictor of whether it will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors.

- Click to Tweet The “mutational burden,” or the number of mutations present in a tumor’s DNA, is a good predictor of whether that cancer type will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs amlodipine cialis known as checkpoint inhibitors, a new study led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers shows. The finding, published in the Dec. 21 New England Journal of Medicine, could be used to guide future clinical amlodipine cialis trials for these drugs. Checkpoint inhibitors are a relatively new class of drug that helps the immune system recognize cancer by interfering with mechanisms cancer cells use to hide from immune cells. As a result, the drugs cause the immune system to fight cancer in the same way that it would fight an .

These medicines have amlodipine cialis had remarkable success in treating some types of cancers that historically have had poor prognoses, such as advanced melanoma and lung cancer. However, these therapies have had little effect on other deadly cancer types, such as pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma. The mutational burden of certain tumor types has previously been proposed as an explanation for why certain cancers respond better than others to immune checkpoint inhibitors says study leader Mark Yarchoan, amlodipine cialis M.D., chief medical oncology fellow. Work by Dung Le, M.D., associate professor of oncology, and other researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and its Bloomberg~Kimmel Cancer Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy showed that colon cancers that carry a high number of mutations are more likely to respond to checkpoint inhibitors than those that have fewer mutations. However, exactly how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types was amlodipine cialis unclear.

To investigate this question, Yarchoan and colleagues Alexander Hopkins, Ph.D., research fellow, and Elizabeth Jaffee, M.D., co-director of the Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer Clinical Research and Patient Care and associate director of the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute, combed the medical literature for the results of clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors on various different types of cancer. They combined amlodipine cialis these findings with data on the mutational burden of thousands of tumor samples from patients with different tumor types. Analyzing 27 different cancer types for which both pieces of information were available, the researchers found a strong correlation. The higher a cancer type’s mutational burden tends to be, the more likely it is to respond to checkpoint inhibitors. More than half of the differences in how well cancers responded to immune checkpoint inhibitors could be explained amlodipine cialis by the mutational burden of that cancer.

€œThe idea that a tumor type with more mutations might be easier to treat than one with fewer sounds a little counterintuitive. It’s one of those amlodipine cialis things that doesn’t sound right when you hear it,” says Hopkins. €œBut with immunotherapy, the more mutations you have, the more chances the immune system has to recognize the tumor.” Although this finding held true for the vast majority of cancer types they studied, there were some outliers in their analysis, says Yarchoan. For example, Merkel cell cancer, a rare and amlodipine cialis highly aggressive skin cancer, tends to have a moderate number of mutations yet responds extremely well to checkpoint inhibitors. However, he explains, this cancer type is often caused by a cialis, which seems to encourage a strong immune response despite the cancer’s lower mutational burden.

In contrast, the most common type of colorectal cancer has moderate mutational burden, yet responds poorly to checkpoint inhibitors for reasons that are still unclear. Yarchoan notes that these findings could help guide clinical trials to test checkpoint inhibitors on cancer types for which these drugs haven’t yet been tried. Future studies might also focus on finding ways to prompt cancers with low mutational burdens to behave like those with higher mutational burdens so that they will respond better to these therapies. He and his colleagues plan to extend this line of research by investigating whether mutational burden might be a good predictor of whether cancers in individual patients might respond well to this class of immunotherapy drugs. €œThe end goal is precision medicine—moving beyond what’s true for big groups of patients to see whether we can use this information to help any given patient,” he says.

Yarchoan receives funding from the Norman &. Ruth Rales Foundation and the Conquer Cancer Foundation. Through a licensing agreement with Aduro Biotech, Jaffee has the potential to receive royalties in the future..

Credit Get zithromax prescription online lowest price cialis. IStock Share Fast Facts New @HopkinsMedicine study finds African-American women with common form of hair loss at increased risk of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet New study in @JAMADerm shows most common form of alopecia (hair loss) in African-American women associated with higher risks of uterine fibroids - Click to Tweet In a study of medical records gathered on hundreds of thousands of African-American women, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have evidence that women with a common form of hair loss have an increased chance of developing uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids.In a report on the research, published in the December 27 issue of JAMA Dermatology, the researchers call on physicians who treat women with central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) to make patients aware that they may be at increased risk for fibroids and should be screened for the condition, particularly if they have symptoms such as heavy bleeding and pain. CCCA predominantly lowest price cialis affects black women and is the most common form of permanent alopecia in this population.

The excess scar tissue that forms as a result of this type of hair loss may also explain the higher risk for uterine fibroids, which are characterized by fibrous growths in the lining of the womb. Crystal Aguh, M.D., assistant professor of dermatology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, says the scarring associated with CCCA is similar to the scarring associated with excess fibrous tissue elsewhere in the body, a situation that may explain why women with this type of hair loss are at a higher risk for fibroids.People of African descent, she notes, are more prone to develop other disorders of abnormal scarring, termed fibroproliferative disorders, such as keloids (a type of raised scar after trauma), scleroderma (an autoimmune disorder marked by thickening of the skin as well as internal lowest price cialis organs), some types of lupus and clogged arteries. During a four-year period from 2013-2017, the researchers analyzed patient data from the Johns Hopkins electronic medical record system (Epic) of 487,104 black women ages 18 and over.

The prevalence lowest price cialis of those with fibroids was compared in patients with and without CCCA. Overall, the researchers found that 13.9 percent of women with CCCA also had a history of uterine fibroids compared to only 3.3 percent of black women without the condition. In absolute numbers, out of the 486,000 women who were reviewed, 16,212 had fibroids.Within that population, 447 had CCCA, of which 62 had fibroids.

The findings translate to a fivefold increased risk lowest price cialis of uterine fibroids in women with CCCA, compared to age, sex and race matched controls. Aguh cautions that their study does not suggest any cause and effect relationship, or prove a common cause for both conditions. €œThe cause of the link between the two conditions lowest price cialis remains unclear,” she says.

However, the association was strong enough, she adds, to recommend that physicians and patients be made aware of it. Women with this type of scarring alopecia should be screened not only lowest price cialis for fibroids, but also for other disorders associated with excess fibrous tissue, Aguh says. An estimated 70 percent of white women and between 80 and 90 percent of African-American women will develop fibroids by age 50, according to the NIH, and while CCCA is likely underdiagnosed, some estimates report a prevalence of rates as high as 17 percent of black women having this condition.

The other authors on lowest price cialis this paper were Ginette A. Okoye, M.D. Of Johns Hopkins and Yemisi Dina of Meharry Medical College.Credit.

The New England Journal of Medicine Share Fast Facts This study clears up how big an effect the mutational burden has lowest price cialis on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different cancer types. - Click to Tweet The number of mutations in a tumor’s DNA is a good predictor of whether it will respond to a class of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors. - Click to Tweet The “mutational burden,” or the number of mutations present in a tumor’s DNA, is a good predictor of whether that cancer type will respond to a class lowest price cialis of cancer immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors, a new study led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers shows.

The finding, published in the Dec. 21 New lowest price cialis England Journal of Medicine, could be used to guide future clinical trials for these drugs. Checkpoint inhibitors are a relatively new class of drug that helps the immune system recognize cancer by interfering with mechanisms cancer cells use to hide from immune cells.

As a result, the drugs cause the immune system to fight cancer in the same way that it would fight an . These medicines have had remarkable success in treating some types of cancers that historically have had poor prognoses, such as advanced lowest price cialis melanoma and lung cancer. However, these therapies have had little effect on other deadly cancer types, such as pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma.

The mutational burden of certain tumor types has previously been proposed as an explanation for why certain cancers respond better than others to immune checkpoint inhibitors says study leader lowest price cialis Mark Yarchoan, M.D., chief medical oncology fellow. Work by Dung Le, M.D., associate professor of oncology, and other researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and its Bloomberg~Kimmel Cancer Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy showed that colon cancers that carry a high number of mutations are more likely to respond to checkpoint inhibitors than those that have fewer mutations. However, exactly how big an effect the mutational burden has on outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors across many different lowest price cialis cancer types was unclear.

To investigate this question, Yarchoan and colleagues Alexander Hopkins, Ph.D., research fellow, and Elizabeth Jaffee, M.D., co-director of the Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer Clinical Research and Patient Care and associate director of the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute, combed the medical literature for the results of clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors on various different types of cancer. They combined these findings with data on the mutational burden of thousands of tumor samples from patients with different tumor types. Analyzing 27 different cancer types for which both pieces of information were available, the researchers found a strong correlation.

The higher a cancer type’s mutational burden tends to be, the more likely it is to respond to checkpoint inhibitors. More than half of the differences in how well cancers responded to immune checkpoint inhibitors could be explained by the mutational burden of that cancer. €œThe idea that a tumor type with more mutations might be easier to treat than one with fewer sounds a little counterintuitive.

It’s one of those things that doesn’t sound right when you hear it,” says Hopkins. €œBut with immunotherapy, the more mutations you have, the more chances the immune system has to recognize the tumor.” Although this finding held true for the vast majority of cancer types they studied, there were some outliers in their analysis, says Yarchoan. For example, Merkel cell cancer, a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, tends to have a moderate number of mutations yet responds extremely well to checkpoint inhibitors.

However, he explains, this cancer type is often caused by a cialis, which seems to encourage a strong immune response despite the cancer’s lower mutational burden. In contrast, the most common type of colorectal cancer has moderate mutational burden, yet responds poorly to checkpoint inhibitors for reasons that are still unclear. Yarchoan notes that these findings could help guide clinical trials to test checkpoint inhibitors on cancer types for which these drugs haven’t yet been tried.

Future studies might also focus on finding ways to prompt cancers with low mutational burdens to behave like those with higher mutational burdens so that they will respond better to these therapies. He and his colleagues plan to extend this line of research by investigating whether mutational burden might be a good predictor of whether cancers in individual patients might respond well to this class of immunotherapy drugs. €œThe end goal is precision medicine—moving beyond what’s true for big groups of patients to see whether we can use this information to help any given patient,” he says.

Yarchoan receives funding from the Norman &. Ruth Rales Foundation and the Conquer Cancer Foundation. Through a licensing agreement with Aduro Biotech, Jaffee has the potential to receive royalties in the future..