Propecia pill cost

On 22nd propecia pill cost September 2020 the UK Government announced new lockdown restrictions to supress the hair loss treatment propecia, with some areas of England having more restrictive lockdown guidance. Students in a number of cities have been confined to their halls of residences after outbreaks of hair loss treatment and in Manchester security guards were preventing students leaving the buildings. The scientific community are, unsurprisingly, divided over the question propecia pill cost of how far lockdowns should extend.1 Monday 21st September 2020 saw the publication of two open letter to the UK government and Chief Medical Officers. One group, Sunetra Gupta et al,2 argued for a selective lockdown targeting the most vulnerable.

The other, headed by Trisha Greenhalgh, arguing that attempts to suppress the propecia should operate across the whole community.3 As we enter propecia pill cost what appears to be a second wave of hair loss treatment s and accompanying lockdown measures, ethical debates over the appropriateness and extent of such measures are critical.Julian Savulescu and James Cameron4 in their article on lockdown of the elderly and why this is not ageist, put forward the case that, ‘an appropriate approach may be to lift the general lockdown but implement selective isolation of the elderly.’ Their central claim is that selective isolation of the elderly is to be preferred to imposing lockdown on all members of society. The aim of lockdown, restricting movement and key activities, is designed to reduce the number of deaths from hair loss treatment and also to prevent the healthcare system from becoming overwhelmed. As the elderly are at significantly more risk of having severe propecia pill cost cases of hair loss treatment and therefore more likely to place demands on healthcare services, they are clearly prime candidates for lockdown measures, measures that will not only benefit them but the whole of society. This is not ageist as they point out that differential treatment is not always discrimination if there is a morally relevant reason for the differential treatment.

The morally relevant reason in this case is that the elderly, and other groups who may be vulnerable to hair loss treatment, are at greater risk of adverse effects from hair loss treatment and consequently more likely to burden the heath service if they get propecia pill cost hair loss treatment. Even if this is discrimination they claim that it would be proportionate, as it benefits both the elderly and the wider population. Savulescu and Cameron argue that to require everyone to be lockdown is the levelling down of equality – propecia pill cost that is. €˜In order for there to be equality, people who could be better off are made worse off in order to achieve equality.’ And in their view such levelling down is ‘morally repugnant’ and unethical.In his response to Savulescu and Cameron, Jonathan Hughes5 takes issue with their claim that general lockdown measures that affect all members of society equally are a form of levelling down of equality.

Hughes argues that the claim that the levelling down of equality is always unethical can be challenged, but his main argument is that ‘the choice to maintain a general lockdown, rather than easing it for the young while maintaining it for the elderly, is not an instance of levelling down.’ For selective lockdown of the elderly to be an instance of levelling down of equality, it would have to make everyone else worse off with no additional benefit to the elderly. However, Hughes argues propecia pill cost that a general lockdown does produce benefits or reduce burdens for the elderly and hence is not the levelling down of equality. General lockdown will result in lower levels in the wider population and thus the elderly are less likely to contract hair loss treatment. Even during lockdown many elderly people have carers or service providers visiting them to perform caring responsibilities and with lower general propecia pill cost rates these visits are less likely to result in the spread of .

Hence, the elderly are less likely to become a burden on the health service and lower levels of will mean an easing of lockdown for everyone sooner. €˜These considerations demonstrate that maintaining a general lockdown in preference to selective lockdown of the propecia pill cost elderly and vulnerable need not only equalise the burdens by making the young and healthy worse off, but can benefit the elderly in absolute as well as relative terms.’5As both Savulescu and Cameron, and Hughes note there is an issue of proportionality that needs to be considered. Savulescu and Cameron give three reasons why the selective lockdown of the elderly, the restriction of their liberty, is proportionate. The benefits to others are propecia pill cost significant.

The restriction will produce benefit for the elderly. And finally, propecia pill cost this is the option that results in the least amount of liberty restriction. Hughes also points out, as do Savulescu and Cameron, that the harms to the elderly due to lockdown might be greater than for other groups, and therefore a general lockdown could be justified on the grounds of Parfit’s Priority View, that benefiting the worse off is more important.This raises the problem of how we determine who is worse off in this scenario, as both sets of authors point out that the elderly may have fewer social networks and hence be more socially isolated and find lockdown particularly hard. Further, if they only have a limited time to live, lockdown may present a relatively greater loss.

However, the young, who are facing huge disruption to their social development, their education and a curbing of their freedoms and life choices at critical junctures (ie, going to University and being away from home for the first time), may want to argue that they propecia pill cost are much more greatly harmed than the elderly. These potential inter-generational trade-offs need to be debated, and Stephen John argues we need to think about lockdown in terms of intergenerational justice. He argues age is a relevant categorization for discussing lockdown policies in relation to hair loss treatment, as it is generally ‘an propecia pill cost epistemically robust category, which can be operationalized.’3 and has particular significance for the aetiology of hair loss treatment. As John observes, ‘However we approach the ethics of lockdown, we need to do ethical work in deciding how to describe the effects of lockdown in the first place.

In turn, I want to suggest that this process is an important, although easily overlooked site of ethical and political contestation.’6 The effects of the hair loss treatment response on those who are likely to suffer less from the disease, the younger generation, and on those whose non-hair loss treatment healthcare has been suspended, according to some, are likely to outweigh the harms caused by hair loss treatment itself.7 Hence, describing the effects of hair loss treatment and propecia pill cost lockdown policies is no simple task.Elsewhere in this issue the Editor’s Choice article, Protecting health privacy even when privacy8 is lost by T.J. Kasperbauer considers the ethical and regulatory issues raised by the flow and sharing of data in modern healthcare. He points out that the predominant model of safeguarding the privacy of healthcare data is one of information control, that is propecia pill cost an attempt to limit access to personal health data. However, limiting access has important implications for developments in healthcare such as leaning health systems and precision medicine, initiatives that require a large amount of health data.

Limiting access could make many data-linkage schemes unfeasible in practice propecia pill cost. Such uses of data have the potential to make significant contributions to improving healthcare, both in terms of developing new treatments and at an organisational level, re-designing patient pathways and utilising healthcare resources more effectively.9 As an alternative to a control view of privacy, he suggests three measures that could be instituted to enable greater sharing of data, ‘such that pervasive data sharing would not automatically entail a loss of privacy.’ These are. Data obfuscation, this is making the data obscure so it is not possible to make inferences about individuals. Penalisation of propecia pill cost data misuse.

And transparency, making any access to our data transparent so that it discourages inappropriate data use and we can see who has accessed our data. There are trade-offs and difficulties with all these suggestions as Kasperbauer notes and although changing laws around privacy is possibly the most important and most effective of these measures it is also the most difficult.The value of big data sets rests on their size and propecia pill cost comprehensiveness, my desire to keep my health data private and opt out of big data initiatives can comprise their success. Therefore, we need to explore ways of balancing individual concerns over privacy, with using data for the greater good, and how to address possible tensions between the two.10 How policy makers and healthcare systems will manage information privacy will be a growing issue and is another example, along with the hair loss treatment propecia,11 of how we are increasingly thinking about ethical issues at a community, rather than an individual, level and in wider global contexts. In a more connected bioethics, concepts such as propecia pill cost justice and more community-based values such as stewardship, solidarity and reciprocity are likely to become key tools to frame these debates.12hair loss treatment continues to dominate 2020 and is likely to be a feature of our lives for some time to come.

Given this, how should health systems respond ethically to the persistent challenges of responding to the ongoing impact of the propecia?. Relatedly, what ethical values should underpin the resetting of health services after the propecia pill cost initial wave, knowing that local spikes and further waves now seem inevitable?. In this editorial, we outline some of the ethical challenges confronting those running health services as they try to resume non-hair loss treatment-related services, and the downstream ethical implications these have for healthcare professionals’ day-to-day decision making. This is a phase of recovery, resumption and renewal propecia pill cost.

A form of reset for health services.1 This reset phase will define the ‘new normal' for healthcare delivery, and it offers an opportunity to reimagine and change services for the better. There are difficulties, however, healthcare systems are already weakened by austerity and the first wave of hair loss treatment and remain under stress as the propecia continues. The reset period is operating alongside, rather than at the end, of the propecia and this creates difficult ethical choices.Ethical propecia pill cost challenges of resetBalancing the greater good with individual carepropecias—and public health emergencies more generally—reinforce approaches to ethics that emphasise or derive from the interests of communities, rather than those grounded in the claims of the autonomous individual. The response has been to draw on more public health focused ethics, ‘if demand outstrips the ability to deliver to existing standards, more strictly utilitarian considerations will have to be applied, and decisions about how to meet the individual's need will give way to decisions about how to maximise overall benefit’.2 Alongside this, effective control of propecias requires that we all adopt strategies to reduce disease transmission such as the lockdown measures instituted by governments worldwide.

Individual liberties are curtailed for the greater good.Together, these factors shift the weighting of ethical concepts to emphasise the individual within a community.3 4 For many years, propecia pill cost public health ethicists and practitioners have drawn attention to the importance of the health of the whole community5 and the broader determinants of health, including the built environment and the way that society is structured.6 7 Public health emergencies, such as hair loss treatment, demonstrate our mutual dependencies and highlight the need to prioritise the interests of the community. The difficulty of balancing these tensions between the interests of the ‘wider community’ and the patient as the ‘first concern’ has been well rehearsed. In the propecia pill cost reset period, how to further the public good is contested. Should health services prioritise the response to hair loss treatment.

Or should we now be trying to give equal or propecia pill cost greater priority to providing non-hair loss treatment services?. It has been argued that the response to hair loss treatment will produce much greater detrimental effects on population health than the disease itself, including the impact of those who need healthcare for non-hair loss treatment conditions not receiving treatment.8 9 Thus, in the current propecia, how to promote the public good is by no means clear and which wider community’s interests should be prioritised needs careful ethical consideration.Attention also needs to be paid to relationships between healthcare professionals and patients, as elements of non-verbal communication are inhibited by wearing masks. The calming and reassuring gesture of touch is prohibited or distorted by the use of personal protective propecia pill cost equipment (PPE). And patients have to attend appointments on their own without any support, no matter how difficult or traumatic the consultation is expected to be.10 This raises important ethical questions about how the demands of control should be balanced against the need for personalised, dignified and supportive care.

Responding to these competing demands can result in moral distress for healthcare professionals who feel ill-prepared or unable to pursue ethically appropriate actions.11 hair loss treatment has created new and uncertain circumstances that continue to disrupt our understandings of what ‘good care’ looks like and, in so doing, shifts the underpinning values or assumptions on which care is based, raising new ethical considerations for day-to-day decision making.Resource allocationResource allocation is a perennial problem in health systems and the persistence of hair loss treatment will magnify concerns about National Health Service (NHS) resources long after the first wave. With the suspension of many non-hair loss treatment services from propecia pill cost March 2020 in the UK, the backlog of demand for non-hair loss treatment services has grown, and the pressures on healthcare services are even greater. At the same time, healthcare is necessarily less efficient because of hair loss treatment control precautions. Each healthcare interaction takes longer because of the time it takes to clean equipment and the treatment area, don and doff PPE, and patients cannot be left waiting in shared rooms but must be tightly scheduled.In the first wave of the propecia, the analysis focused on resource allocation between patients with hair loss treatment.12 In propecia pill cost this reset period, attention must now turn to how to allocate resources between those with hair loss treatment and all other patients, including those whose conditions are not life-threatening and these kinds of decisions need focused ethical scrutiny.What should be done?.

Guidance on ethical responses for the acute phase of a propecia is readily available.13 This is not the case when considering how health systems ought to reset in the immediate aftermath of a propecia or other public health emergency. We are at a juncture where the challenges brought on by the response to hair loss treatment are forcing the re-evaluation of traditional clinical ethical approaches propecia pill cost. The theoretical basis is shifting to give greater weight to the interests of the community as a whole. For example, the principle of justice may need to be given greater prominence, as well as a more self-conscious and widespread inclusion of values such as solidarity and reciprocity in decision making at both individual propecia pill cost and organisational levels.14The propecia has also highlighted how longstanding health, housing, financial and racial inequalities interact with the hair loss treatment propecia, exacting a disproportionate impact on those already facing disadvantage and discrimination.15 In the healthcare context, an additional dimension to this is the disproportionate impact of hair loss treatment on healthcare workers from Black, Asian and minority ethnic communities.16 As Richard Horton has argued, hair loss treatment is not a propecia it is a syndemic.

Seeing hair loss treatment as a syndemic directs the focus towards the social and biological interactions that increase someone’s susceptibility to worse health outcomes.17 Consequently, in the reset phase, ethical decision making must pay more attention to the interaction between hair loss treatment and longstanding health and socioeconomic inequalities.The speed of response necessary for the first wave of the hair loss treatment propecia meant that decisions were made with little public scrutiny or consultation.18 But this approach cannot be justified in the reset period. The statutory, and ethical, obligation to maintain public involvement in decisions relating to service provision was reiterated by NHS England in March 2020.19 And this obligation extends to the scrutiny of the ethical values and arguments that underpin—implicitly or explicitly—the ways that propecia pill cost services are reconfigured and the decisions about which patients and staff will bear the costs of reconfiguration.The transition through repeated waves of hair loss treatment, while not just re-establishing but also resetting NHS services, will require new ways of thinking about how to integrate public health, organisational and systems-based approaches with clinical ethics. All health systems need to think about which ethical considerations are important in the reset period, which values and interests should take precedence, and how competing interests can and should be managed. These matters deserve more explicit consideration in ethical and practitioner literature and much wider public consultation..

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Former Editor-in-Chief of the Postgraduate Medical Journal Dr propecia images Barry Ian Hoffbrand died suddenly on April 24, 2020 at the age of 86.A prominent member of a generation of very bright young doctors at University College Hospital (UCH) in London who went on to distinguished careers, he was much admired for his keen intellect, clinical perception and skills, gentle good humour and kindly nature, combined with a wonderfully sharp intelligence. Professor Dame Jane Dacre remembered him as ‘a kind, witty, clever man, and a great physician’.He was born in Bradford, West Yorkshire, to Philip Hoffbrand, a bespoke tailor, and Minnie (née Freedman), both from Jewish families from Eastern Europe. After Bradford Grammar School, he went up to read medicine from 1952 to 1956 at The Queen’s College, Oxford, where he was a keen member of the college cricket team—the Quondams propecia images.

He was pleased to feature in the 1950s on the silver Quondams Cup. Clinical training on a Goldsmid scholarship followed from 1956 to 1958 at UCH Medical School, London, where he was awarded prizes in clinical pathology and haematology. His postgraduate propecia images medical training was mainly at UCH, where he was house physician to Max (later Lord) Rosenheim, after an initial 6 months at St Luke’s Hospital, Bradford.

He also spent a year as senior research fellow from 1967 to 1968 at the Cardiovascular Research Institute, at the University of California Medical Center in San Francisco. Barry’s research on cardiovascular physiology lead to a DM in 1971 from Oxford University.Barry was appointed in 1970 as a consultant physician at the Whittington Hospital and honorary senior clinical lecturer at UCH Medical School, with interests in general and …INTRODUCTIONAs cardiac arrest occurs in around 20% of the patients with severe hair loss treatment, a large number of them will require immediate resuscitative efforts.1 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in hair loss treatment propecia has become a source of speculation and debate worldwide. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) resuscitating this subset of patients are subject to fears and enormous mental stress pertaining to risk of transmission, breach in personal protective equipment (PPE), unsure effectiveness of PPE and nevertheless bleak propecia images positive outcomes in patients despite best resuscitative measures.2 CPR, which is conventionally deemed to be life-saving for patients, appears as an aerosol-generating procedure risking lives of HCPs caring for patients with hair loss treatment.

Protected code blue algorithm has been formulated to address both performer and patient safety.3POCUS-INTEGRATED CPR. WHY THE NEED IN hair loss treatment? propecia images. Danilo Buonsenso and colleagues have described hair loss treatment era as demanding less stethoscope and more ultrasound usage in clinical practice.4 PPE is now an essential measure for HCP protection, and goggles used as a part of PPE are associated with fogging and poor visibility.

This coupled with the inability to confirm endotracheal tube position with stethoscope due to poor accessibility in PPE, increases the risk of oesophageal intubation, re-intubation attempts, aerosol generation and thus HCP exposure. Bedside ultrasound could propecia images act as visual stethoscope in the described scenario. Sono-CPR in hair loss treatment can help intervene quickly in treatable cases and reduce the time spent by HCP in futile resuscitative efforts.

Reduced time spent equates to reduced duration of aerosol exposure and thus reduced risk of transmission. Various algorithms are propecia images described for sono-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (sono-CPR) during cardiac arrest, but none are discussed to address patients with hair loss treatment.5 It would hence be wise to integrate bedside point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in the code blue algorithm.HOW THE BEDSIDE TOOL HELPS?. Hypoxemia and respiratory failure attribute over 80% aetiology of cardiac arrest in patients with hair loss treatment.1 Prioritising oxygenation and ventilation using definitive airway and use of high-efficiency particulate air filters reduces airborne transmission, thereby making early intubation the dictum of resuscitation.3 Considering poor visualisation due to fogging with the goggles and face shield, inability to use stethoscope and lack of availability of end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) in resource constraint settings, ultrasound-guided real-time intubation by trained HCP or endotracheal tube (ETT) placement confirmation post intubation could prove beneficial.

Confirming ETT placement and direct visualisation of oesophagal lumen can be done using a linear ultrasound probe.6 In cases of oesophageal intubation, tissue-air hyperechoic lines are visualised in both trachea and oesophagus, referred to as ‘double-track sign’.State of hypercoagulability and myocardial dysfunction exist in patients with hair loss treatment, hence increasing the likelihood of myocardial infarction or pulmonary thromboembolism as aetiologies of cardiac arrest.7 Regional wall motion abnormality, dilated right atrium or right ventricle, plethoric inferior vena cava are easily identified by goal-directed echocardiography propecia images. Pneumothorax has been reported in patients with hair loss treatment, and ultrasound can identify absence of lung sliding, helping in quick needle thoracocentesis in arrest and peri-arrest cases. Few cases of cardiac tamponade owing to myopericarditis have also been reported and bedside ultrasound can help diagnose and perform pericardiocentesis in such patients.Literature suggests that the chances of Return Of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) and survival to hospital admission at 24 hours is better in patients with baseline cardiac activity rather than no baseline cardiac activity.

In patients with no baseline cardiac activity on arrival, one can withhold CPR, thereby protecting the HCP in this resource-intensive, aerosol-generating futile resuscitative effort.8 Asystole could be the disguised entity of fine ventricular fibrillation, which can be confirmed by propecia images fibrillatory cardiac activity on transthoracic echocardiography and can be defibrillated, thereby increasing the chances of earlier ROSC.9POCUS-INTEGRATED CPR. THE PROPOSED ALGORITHMCPR is a chaotic scenario, and to prevent added chaos, there is a need for a well-trained ultrasound performer placed in an appropriate area (figure 1). Intubating room needs to consist of minimal necessary number of HCPs, and all of them should be equipped with full PPE.

Ultrasound device could be a potential fomite facilitating cross-transmission and requires adequate propecia images protection of machine and its components with a transparent cover, sheet or bag. When unavailable, low-level disinfectant solution should be used between each patient.Proposed algorithm for integration of POCUS during CPR in patients with hair loss treatment with team dynamics. The illustration is propecia images original work of the authors Dr Brunda RL and colleagues.

CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation. HCP, healthcare professional. POCUS, point-of-care propecia images ultrasound.

PPE, personal protective equipment. RA, right atrium. RV, right propecia images ventricle.

VF, ventricular fibrillation. USG, ultrasonography." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Proposed algorithm for integration of POCUS during CPR in patients with hair loss treatment with team dynamics. The illustration is original propecia images work of the authors Dr Brunda RL and colleagues.

CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation. HCP, healthcare professional propecia images. POCUS, point-of-care ultrasound.

PPE, personal protective equipment. RA, right propecia images atrium. RV, right ventricle.

VF, ventricular fibrillation. USG, ultrasonography.When a patient experiences cardiac arrest, there is a need propecia images for HCPs with full PPE to check pulse and begin CPR as per standard guidelines. After 2 min of CPR, if there is no ROSC, during the 10 second pause for rhythm assessment, a trained HCP can perform POCUS in a stepwise manner.

Each step needs to be performed individually during 10 second pause without prolonging delay between chest propecia images compressions and compromising the quality of CPR. Any treatable aetiology identified during the algorithm requires immediate intervention.Step 1. Assess cardiac activity—Sub-xiphoid view can be procured and cardiac activity assessed.

If absent, consider termination of efforts, and if present, resuscitative efforts can be continued.After repeating 2 min cycle of CPR, if there has been no ROSC, consider hypoxic aetiology as the cause of arrest in patients with hair loss treatment and intubate without propecia images delay. Withholding chest compressions during intubation is recommended.3Step 2. Assess ETT placement—At the level of thyroid gland, above the suprasternal notch, place ultrasound probe transversely and visualise the oesophagus.10 If the posterior wall of oesophagus is obscured by a dark acoustic shadow or if there is ‘double-track’ sign, consider failed endotracheal intubation and perform immediate re-intubation.Step 3.

Assess lung for pneumothorax—Assess lung sliding, and if absent look for ‘stratosphere sign’ in M-mode of ultrasound.10 If detected, perform immediate needle propecia images thoracocentesis.Step 4. Assess for Cardiac etiology of arrest—Obtain sub-xiphoid window preferably, and look for the presence of cardiac tamponade, chamber dilatation or collapse, regional wall motion abnormality and cardiac contractility.Availability of trained personnel and smaller portable ultrasound devices makes its use during cardiac arrest plausible.CPR with the help of POCUS could thus prove to improve chances of ROSC and also reduced transmission to HCP by early identification, treatment of reversible causes and avoidance of prolonged efforts. Sono-CPR appears to be more HCP-friendly than prolonged blind CPR and necessitates its utility in the era of hair loss treatment addressing performer safety as well as patient safety..

Former Editor-in-Chief of the Postgraduate Medical Journal Dr Barry Ian Hoffbrand died suddenly on April 24, 2020 at the age of 86.A prominent member of a generation of very bright young doctors at University College Hospital propecia pill cost https://leipzigtrails.de/cialis-comprare-online/ (UCH) in London who went on to distinguished careers, he was much admired for his keen intellect, clinical perception and skills, gentle good humour and kindly nature, combined with a wonderfully sharp intelligence. Professor Dame Jane Dacre remembered him as ‘a kind, witty, clever man, and a great physician’.He was born in Bradford, West Yorkshire, to Philip Hoffbrand, a bespoke tailor, and Minnie (née Freedman), both from Jewish families from Eastern Europe. After Bradford propecia pill cost Grammar School, he went up to read medicine from 1952 to 1956 at The Queen’s College, Oxford, where he was a keen member of the college cricket team—the Quondams. He was pleased to feature in the 1950s on the silver Quondams Cup.

Clinical training on a Goldsmid scholarship followed from 1956 to 1958 at UCH Medical School, London, where he was awarded prizes in clinical pathology and haematology. His postgraduate medical training was propecia pill cost mainly at UCH, where he was house physician to Max (later Lord) Rosenheim, after an initial 6 months at St Luke’s Hospital, Bradford. He also spent a year as senior research fellow from 1967 to 1968 at the Cardiovascular Research Institute, at the University of California Medical Center in San Francisco. Barry’s research on cardiovascular physiology lead to a DM in 1971 from Oxford University.Barry was appointed in 1970 as a consultant physician at the Whittington Hospital and honorary senior clinical lecturer at UCH Medical School, with interests in general and …INTRODUCTIONAs cardiac arrest occurs in around 20% of the patients with severe hair loss treatment, a large number of them will require immediate resuscitative efforts.1 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in hair loss treatment propecia has become a source of speculation and debate worldwide.

Healthcare professionals (HCPs) resuscitating this subset of patients are subject to fears and enormous mental stress pertaining to risk of transmission, breach in personal protective equipment (PPE), propecia pill cost unsure effectiveness of PPE and nevertheless bleak positive outcomes in patients despite best resuscitative measures.2 CPR, which is conventionally deemed to be life-saving for patients, appears as an aerosol-generating procedure risking lives of HCPs caring for patients with hair loss treatment. Protected code blue algorithm has been formulated to address both performer and patient safety.3POCUS-INTEGRATED CPR. WHY THE propecia pill cost NEED IN hair loss treatment?. Danilo Buonsenso and colleagues have described hair loss treatment era as demanding less stethoscope and more ultrasound usage in clinical practice.4 PPE is now an essential measure for HCP protection, and goggles used as a part of PPE are associated with fogging and poor visibility.

This coupled with the inability to confirm endotracheal tube position with stethoscope due to poor accessibility in PPE, increases the risk of oesophageal intubation, re-intubation attempts, aerosol generation and thus HCP exposure. Bedside ultrasound could act as propecia pill cost visual stethoscope in the described scenario. Sono-CPR in hair loss treatment can help intervene quickly in treatable cases and reduce the time spent by HCP in futile resuscitative efforts. Reduced time spent equates to reduced duration of aerosol exposure and thus reduced risk of transmission.

Various algorithms are described for sono-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (sono-CPR) during cardiac arrest, but none are discussed to address patients with hair loss treatment.5 It would hence be wise to integrate bedside point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) propecia pill cost in the code blue algorithm.HOW THE BEDSIDE TOOL HELPS?. Hypoxemia and respiratory failure attribute over 80% aetiology of cardiac arrest in patients with hair loss treatment.1 Prioritising oxygenation and ventilation using definitive airway and use of high-efficiency particulate air filters reduces airborne transmission, thereby making early intubation the dictum of resuscitation.3 Considering poor visualisation due to fogging with the goggles and face shield, inability to use stethoscope and lack of availability of end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) in resource constraint settings, ultrasound-guided real-time intubation by trained HCP or endotracheal tube (ETT) placement confirmation post intubation could prove beneficial. Confirming ETT placement and direct visualisation of oesophagal lumen can be done using a linear ultrasound probe.6 In cases of oesophageal intubation, tissue-air hyperechoic lines are visualised in both trachea and oesophagus, referred to as ‘double-track sign’.State of hypercoagulability and myocardial dysfunction exist in patients with hair loss treatment, hence increasing propecia pill cost the likelihood of myocardial infarction or pulmonary thromboembolism as aetiologies of cardiac arrest.7 Regional wall motion abnormality, dilated right atrium or right ventricle, plethoric inferior vena cava are easily identified by goal-directed echocardiography. Pneumothorax has been reported in patients with hair loss treatment, and ultrasound can identify absence of lung sliding, helping in quick needle thoracocentesis in arrest and peri-arrest cases.

Few cases of cardiac tamponade owing to myopericarditis have also been reported and bedside ultrasound can help diagnose and perform pericardiocentesis in such patients.Literature suggests that the chances of Return Of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) and survival to hospital admission at 24 hours is better in patients with baseline cardiac activity rather than no baseline cardiac activity. In patients with no baseline cardiac activity on arrival, one can withhold CPR, thereby protecting the HCP in this resource-intensive, aerosol-generating futile resuscitative effort.8 Asystole could be the disguised entity of fine ventricular fibrillation, which can be confirmed by fibrillatory cardiac activity on transthoracic echocardiography and can be defibrillated, thereby propecia pill cost increasing the chances of earlier ROSC.9POCUS-INTEGRATED CPR. THE PROPOSED ALGORITHMCPR is a chaotic scenario, and to prevent added chaos, there is a need for a well-trained ultrasound performer placed in an appropriate area (figure 1). Intubating room needs to consist of minimal necessary number of HCPs, and all of them should be equipped with full PPE.

Ultrasound device could be propecia pill cost a potential fomite facilitating cross-transmission and requires adequate protection of machine and its components with a transparent cover, sheet or bag. When unavailable, low-level disinfectant solution should be used between each patient.Proposed algorithm for integration of POCUS during CPR in patients with hair loss treatment with team dynamics. The illustration is original work of propecia pill cost the authors Dr Brunda RL and colleagues. CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

HCP, healthcare professional. POCUS, point-of-care propecia pill cost ultrasound. PPE, personal protective equipment. RA, right atrium.

RV, right ventricle propecia pill cost. VF, ventricular fibrillation. USG, ultrasonography." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Proposed algorithm for integration of POCUS during CPR in patients with hair loss treatment with team dynamics. The illustration is original work of the authors Dr Brunda RL and colleagues propecia pill cost.

CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation. HCP, healthcare propecia pill cost professional. POCUS, point-of-care ultrasound. PPE, personal protective equipment.

RA, right propecia pill cost atrium. RV, right ventricle. VF, ventricular fibrillation. USG, ultrasonography.When a patient experiences cardiac arrest, there is a need for HCPs with full PPE to check pulse and propecia pill cost begin CPR as per standard guidelines.

After 2 min of CPR, if there is no ROSC, during the 10 second pause for rhythm assessment, a trained HCP can perform POCUS in a stepwise manner. Each step needs to be performed individually during propecia pill cost 10 second pause without prolonging delay between chest compressions and compromising the quality of CPR. Any treatable aetiology identified during the algorithm requires immediate intervention.Step 1. Assess cardiac activity—Sub-xiphoid view can be procured and cardiac activity assessed.

If absent, consider termination of efforts, and if present, resuscitative efforts can be continued.After repeating 2 min propecia pill cost cycle of CPR, if there has been no ROSC, consider hypoxic aetiology as the cause of arrest in patients with hair loss treatment and intubate without delay. Withholding chest compressions during intubation is recommended.3Step 2. Assess ETT placement—At the level of thyroid gland, above the suprasternal notch, place ultrasound probe transversely and visualise the oesophagus.10 If the posterior wall of oesophagus is obscured by a dark acoustic shadow or if there is ‘double-track’ sign, consider failed endotracheal intubation and perform immediate re-intubation.Step 3. Assess lung for pneumothorax—Assess lung sliding, propecia pill cost and if absent look for ‘stratosphere sign’ in M-mode of ultrasound.10 If detected, perform immediate needle thoracocentesis.Step 4.

Assess for Cardiac etiology of arrest—Obtain sub-xiphoid window preferably, and look for the presence of cardiac tamponade, chamber dilatation or collapse, regional wall motion abnormality and cardiac contractility.Availability of trained personnel and smaller portable ultrasound devices makes its use during cardiac arrest plausible.CPR with the help of POCUS could thus prove to improve chances of ROSC and also reduced transmission to HCP by early identification, treatment of reversible causes and avoidance of prolonged efforts. Sono-CPR appears to be more HCP-friendly than prolonged blind CPR and necessitates its utility in the era of hair loss treatment addressing performer safety as well as patient safety..

What should I watch for while taking Propecia?

Do not donate blood until at least 6 months after your final dose of finasteride. This will prevent giving finasteride to a pregnant female through a blood transfusion.

Contact your prescriber or health care professional if there is no improvement in your symptoms. You may need to take finasteride for 6 to 12 months to get the best results.

Women who are pregnant or may get pregnant must not handle broken or crushed finasteride tablets; the active ingredient could harm the unborn baby. If a pregnant woman comes into contact with broken or crushed finasteride tablets she should check with her prescriber or health care professional. Exposure to whole tablets is not expected to cause harm as long as they are not swallowed.

Finasteride can interfere with PSA laboratory tests for prostate cancer. If you are scheduled to have a lab test for prostate cancer, tell your prescriber or health care professional that you are taking finasteride.

Does propecia really cause depression

How to cite propecia online canadian pharmacy this does propecia really cause depression article:Singh OP. Psychiatry research in India. Closing the research gap does propecia really cause depression. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:615-6Research is an important aspect of the growth and development of medical science.

Research in India in general and medical research in particular is always being criticized for lack of innovation does propecia really cause depression and originality required for the delivery of health services suitable to Indian conditions. Even the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) which is a centrally funded frontier organization for conducting medical research couldn't avert criticism. It has been criticized heavily for not producing quality research papers which are pioneering, ground breaking, or pragmatic solutions for health issues plaguing India. In the words of a leading daily, The ICMR could not even list one practical application of its hundreds of research papers published in various national and international research journals which helped cure any disease, or diagnose it with better accuracy or in does propecia really cause depression less time, or even one new basic, applied or clinical research or innovation that opened a new frontier of scientific knowledge.[1]This clearly indicates that the health research output of ICMR is not up to the mark and is not commensurate with the magnitude of the disease burden in India.

According to the 12th Plan Report, the country contributes to a fifth of the world's share of diseases. The research conducted elsewhere may not be does propecia really cause depression generalized to the Indian population owing to differences in biology, health-care systems, health practices, culture, and socioeconomic standards. Questions which are pertinent and specific to the Indian context may not be answered and will remain understudied. One of the vital elements in improving this situation is the need for relevant research base that would equip policymakers to take informed health policy decisions.The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare in the 100th report on Demand for Grants (2017–2018) of the Department of Health Research observed that “the biomedical research output needs to be augmented substantially to cater to the health challenges faced by the country.”[1]Among the various reasons, lack of fund, infrastructure, and resources is the prime cause which is glaringly evident from the inadequate budget allocation for biomedical research.

While ICMR has a budget of 232 million dollars per year on health does propecia really cause depression research, it is zilch in comparison to the annual budget expenditure of the National Institute of Health, USA, on biomedical research which is 32 billion dollars.The lacuna of quality research is not merely due to lack of funds. There are other important issues which need to be considered and sorted out to end the status quo. Some of the factors which need our immediate attention are:Lack of research training and teachingImproper allocation of research facilitiesLack of information about research work happening globallyLack of promotion, motivation, commitment, and passion in the field of researchClinicians being overburdened with patientsLack of collaboration between medical colleges and established research institutesLack of continuity of research in successive batches of postgraduate (PG) students, leading to wastage of previous research and resourcesDifficulty in the application of basic biomedical research into pragmatic intervention solutions due to lack of interdisciplinary technological support/collaboration between basic does propecia really cause depression scientists, clinicians, and technological experts.Majority of the biomedical research in India are conducted in medical institutions. The majority of these are done as thesis submission for fulfillment of the requirement of PG degree.

From 2015 onward, publication of papers had does propecia really cause depression been made an obligatory requirement for promotion of faculty to higher posts. Although it offered a unique opportunity for training of residents and stimulus for research, it failed to translate into production of quality research work as thesis was limited by time and it had to be done with other clinical and academic duties.While the top four medical colleges, namely AIIMS, New Delhi. PGIMER, Chandigarh. CMC, Vellore does propecia really cause depression.

And SGIMS, Lucknow are among the top ten medical institutions in terms of publication in peer-reviewed journals, around 332 (57.3%) medical colleges have no research paper published in a decade between 2004 and 2014.[2]The research in psychiatry is realistically dominated by major research institutes which are doing commendable work, but there is a substantial lack of contemporary research originating from other centers. Dr. Chittaranjan Andrade (NIMHANS, Bengaluru) and Dr. K Jacob (CMC, Vellore) recently figured in the list of top 2% psychiatry researchers in the world from India in psychiatry.[3] Most of the research conducted in the field of psychiatry are limited to caregivers' burden, pathways of care, and other topics which can be done in limited resources available to psychiatry departments.

While all these areas of work are important in providing proper care and treatment, there is overabundance of research in these areas.The Government of India is aggressively looking forward to enhancing the quality of research and is embarking on an ambitious project of purchasing all major journals and providing free access to universities across the country. The India Genome Project started in January, 2020, is a good example of collaboration. While all these actions are laudable, a lot more needs to be done. Following are some measures which will reduce the gap:Research proposals at the level of protocol can be guided and mentored by institutes.

Academic committees of different zones and journals can help in this endeavorBreaking the cubicles by establishing a collaboration between medical colleges and various institutes. While there is a lack of resources available in individual departments, there are universities and institutes with excellent infrastructure. They are not aware of the requirements of the field of psychiatry and research questions. Creation of an alliance will enhance the quality of research work.

Some of such institutes include Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru. CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi. And National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, KalyaniInitiation and establishment of interactive and stable relationships between basic scientists and clinical and technological experts will enhance the quality of research work and will lead to translation of basic biomedical research into real-time applications. For example, work on artificial intelligence for mental health.

Development of Apps by IITs. Genome India Project by the Government of India, genomic institutes, and social science and economic institutes working in the field of various aspects of mental healthUtilization of underutilized, well-equipped biotechnological labs of nonmedical colleges for furthering biomedical researchMedical colleges should collaborate with various universities which have labs providing testing facilities such as spectroscopy, fluoroscopy, gamma camera, scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and photoacoustic imagingCreating an interactive, interdepartmental, intradepartmental, and interinstitutional partnershipBy developing a healthy and ethical partnership with industries for research and development of new drugs and interventions.Walking the talk – the psychiatric fraternity needs to be proactive and rather than lamenting about the lack of resource, we should rise to the occasion and come out with innovative and original research proposals. With the implementation of collaborative approach, we can not only enhance and improve the quality of our research but to an extent also mitigate the effects of resource crunch and come up as a leader in the field of biomedical research. References 1.2.Nagoba B, Davane M.

Current status of medical research in India. Where are we?. Walawalkar Int Med J 2017;4:66-71. 3.Ioannidis JP, Boyack KW, Baas J.

Updated science-wide author databases of standardized citation indicators. PLoS Biol 2020;18:e3000918. Correspondence Address:Dr. Om Prakash SinghAA 304, Ashabari Apartments, O/31, Baishnabghata, Patuli Township, Kolkata - 700 094, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support.

None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI. 10.4103/indianjpsychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_1362_2Abstract Background. The burden of mental illness among the scheduled tribe (ST) population in India is not known clearly.Aim.

The aim was to identify and appraise mental health research studies on ST population in India and collate such data to inform future research.Materials and Methods. Studies published between January 1980 and December 2018 on STs by following exclusion and inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Quality of the included studies was assessed using an appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies and Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme.

Studies were summarized and reported descriptively.Results. Thirty-two relevant studies were found and included in the review. Studies were categorized into the following three thematic areas. Alcohol and substance use disorders, common mental disorders and sociocultural aspects, and access to mental health-care services.

Sociocultural factors play a major role in understanding and determining mental disorders.Conclusion. This study is the first of its kind to review research on mental health among the STs. Mental health research conducted among STs in India is limited and is mostly of low-to-moderate quality. Determinants of poor mental health and interventions for addressing them need to be studied on an urgent basis.Keywords.

India, mental health, scheduled tribesHow to cite this article:Devarapalli S V, Kallakuri S, Salam A, Maulik PK. Mental health research on scheduled tribes in India. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:617-30 Introduction Mental health is a highly neglected area particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from community-based studies showed that about 10% of people suffer from common mental disorders (CMDs) such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.[1] A systematic review of epidemiological studies between 1960 and 2009 in India reported that about 20% of the adult population in the community are affected by psychiatric disorders in the community, ranging from 9.5 to 103/1000 population, with differences in case definitions, and methods of data collection, accounting for most of the variation in estimates.[2]The scheduled tribes (ST) population is a marginalized community and live in relative social isolation with poorer health indices compared to similar nontribal populations.[3] There are an estimated 90 million STs or Adivasis in India.[4] They constitute 8.6% of the total Indian population.

The distribution varies across the states and union territories of India, with the highest percentage in Lakshadweep (94.8%) followed by Mizoram (94.4%). In northeastern states, they constitute 65% or more of the total population.[5] The ST communities are identified as culturally or ethnographically unique by the Indian Constitution. They are populations with poorer health indicators and fewer health-care facilities compared to non-ST rural populations, even when within the same state, and often live in demarcated geographical areas known as ST areas.[4]As per the National Family Health Survey, 2015–2016, the health indicators such as infant mortality rate (IMR) is 44.4, under five mortality rate (U5MR) is 57.2, and anemia in women is 59.8 for STs – one of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic groups in India, which are worse compared to other populations where IMR is 40.7, U5MR is 49.7, and anemia in women among others is 53.0 in the same areas.[6] Little research is available on the health of ST population. Tribal mental health is an ignored and neglected area in the field of health-care services.

Further, little data are available about the burden of mental disorders among the tribal communities. Health research on tribal populations is poor, globally.[7] Irrespective of the data available, it is clear that they have worse health indicators and less access to health facilities.[8] Even less is known about the burden of mental disorders in ST population. It is also found that the traditional livelihood system of the STs came into conflict with the forces of modernization, resulting not only in the loss of customary rights over the livelihood resources but also in subordination and further, developing low self-esteem, causing great psychological stress.[4] This community has poor health infrastructure and even less mental health resources, and the situation is worse when compared to other communities living in similar areas.[9],[10]Only 15%–25% of those affected with mental disorders in LMICs receive any treatment for their mental illness,[11] resulting in a large “treatment gap.”[12] Treatment gaps are more in rural populations,[13] especially in ST communities in India, which have particularly poor infrastructure and resources for health-care delivery in general, and almost no capacity for providing mental health care.[14]The aim of this systematic review was to explore the extent and nature of mental health research on ST population in India and to identify gaps and inform future research. Materials and Methods Search strategyWe searched major databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar) and made hand searches from January 1980 to December 2018 to identify relevant literature.

Hand search refers to searching through medical journals which are not indexed in the major electronic databases such as Embase, for instance, searching for Indian journals in IndMed database as most of these journals are not available in major databases. Physical search refers to searching the journals that were not available online or were not available online during the study years. We used relevant Medical Subject Heading and key terms in our search strategy, as follows. €œMental health,” “Mental disorders,” “Mental illness,” “Psychiatry,” “Scheduled Tribe” OR “Tribe” OR “Tribal Population” OR “Indigenous population,” “India,” “Psych*” (Psychiatric, psychological, psychosis).Inclusion criteriaStudies published between January 1980 and December 2018 were included.

Studies on mental disorders were included only when they focused on ST population. Both qualitative and quantitative studies on mental disorders of ST population only were included in the analysis.Exclusion criteriaStudies without any primary data and which are merely overviews and commentaries and those not focused on ST population were excluded from the analysis.Data management and analysisTwo researchers (SD and SK) initially screened the title and abstract of each record to identify relevant papers and subsequently screened full text of those relevant papers. Any disagreements between the researchers were resolved by discussion or by consulting with an adjudicator (PKM). From each study, data were extracted on objectives, study design, study population, study duration, interventions (if applicable), outcomes, and results.

Quality of the included studies was assessed, independently by three researchers (SD, SK, and AS), using Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP).[15] After a thorough qualitative assessment, all quantitative data were generated and tabulated. A narrative description of the studies is provided in [Table 1] using some broad categories. Results Search resultsOur search retrieved 2306 records (which included hand-searched articles), of which after removing duplicates, title and abstracts of 2278 records were screened. Of these, 178 studies were deemed as potentially relevant and were reviewed in detail.

Finally, we excluded 146 irrelevant studies and 32 studies were included in the review [Figure 1].Quality of the included studiesSummary of quality assessment of the included studies is reported in [Table 2]. Overall, nine studies were of poor quality, twenty were of moderate quality, and three studies were of high quality. The CASP shows that out of the 32 studies, the sample size of 21 studies was not representative, sample size of 7 studies was not justified, risk factors were not identified in 28 studies, methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them in 24 studies, and nonresponse reasons were not addressed in 24 studies. The most common reasons for studies to be of poor-quality included sample size not justified.

Sample is not representative. Nonresponse not addressed. Risk factors not measured correctly. And methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them.

Studies under the moderate quality did not have a representative sample. Non-responders categories was not addressed. Risk factors were not measured correctly. And methods used were not sufficiently described to allow the study to be replicated by other researchers.The included studies covered three broad categories.

Alcohol and substance use disorders, CMD (depression, anxiety, stress, and suicide risk), socio-cultural aspects, and access to mental health services.Alcohol and substance use disordersFive studies reviewed the consumption of alcohol and opioid. In an ethnographic study conducted in three western districts in Rajasthan, 200 opium users were interviewed. Opium consumption was common among both younger and older males during nonharvest seasons. The common causes for using opium were relief of anxiety related to crop failure due to drought, stress, to get a high, be part of peers, and for increased sexual performance.[16]In a study conducted in Arunachal Pradesh involving a population of more than 5000 individuals, alcohol use was present in 30% and opium use in about 5% adults.[17] Contrary to that study, in Rajasthan, the prevalence of opium use was more in women and socioeconomic factors such as occupation, education, and marital status were associated with opium use.[16] The prevalence of opium use increased with age in both sexes, decreased with increasing education level, and increased with employment.

It was observed that wages were used to buy opium. In the entire region of Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, female substance users were almost half of the males among ST population.[17] Types of substance used were tobacco, alcohol, and opium. Among tobacco users, oral tobacco use was higher than smoking. The prevalence of tobacco use was higher among males, but the prevalence of alcohol use was higher in females, probably due to increased access to homemade rice brew generally prepared by women.

This study is unique in terms of finding a strong association with religion and culture with substance use.[18]Alcohol consumption among Paniyas of Wayanad district in Kerala is perceived as a male activity, with many younger people consuming it than earlier. A study concluded that alcohol consumption among them was less of a “choice” than a result of their conditions operating through different mechanisms. In the past, drinking was traditionally common among elderly males, however the consumption pattern has changed as a significant number of younger men are now drinking. Drinking was clustered within families as fathers and sons drank together.

Alcohol is easily accessible as government itself provides opportunities. Some employers would provide alcohol as an incentive to attract Paniya men to work for them.[19]In a study from Jharkhand, several ST community members cited reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement, as a reason for consuming alcohol. Societal acceptance of drinking alcohol and peer pressure, as well as high emotional problems, appeared to be the major etiology leading to higher prevalence of substance dependence in tribal communities.[20] Another study found high life time alcohol use prevalence, and the reasons mentioned were increased poverty, illiteracy, increased stress, and peer pressure.[21] A household survey from Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh revealed that there was a strong association between opium use and age, occupation, marital status, religion, and ethnicity among both the sexes of STs, particularly among Singhpho and Khamti.[15] The average age of onset of tobacco use was found to be 16.4 years for smoked and 17.5 years for smokeless forms in one study.[22]Common mental disorders and socio-cultural aspectsSuicide was more common among Idu Mishmi in Roing and Anini districts of Arunachal Pradesh state (14.2%) compared to the urban population in general (0.4%–4.2%). Suicides were associated with depression, anxiety, alcoholism, and eating disorders.

Of all the factors, depression was significantly high in people who attempted suicide.[24] About 5% out of 5007 people from thirty villages comprising ST suffered from CMDs in a study from West Godavari district in rural Andhra Pradesh. CMDs were defined as moderate/severe depression and/or anxiety, stress, and increased suicidal risk. Women had a higher prevalence of depression, but this may be due to the cultural norms, as men are less likely to express symptoms of depression or anxiety, which leads to underreporting. Marital status, education, and age were prominently associated with CMD.[14] In another study, gender, illiteracy, infant mortality in the household, having <3 adults living in the household, large family size with >four children, morbidity, and having two or more life events in the last year were associated with increased prevalence of CMD.[24] Urban and rural ST from the same community of Bhutias of Sikkim were examined, and it was found that the urban population experienced higher perceived stress compared to their rural counterparts.[25] Age, current use of alcohol, poor educational status, marital status, social groups, and comorbidities were the main determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependence in a study from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[22] A study conducted among adolescents in the schools of rural areas of Ranchi district in Jharkhand revealed that about 5% children from the ST communities had emotional symptoms, 9.6% children had conduct problems, 4.2% had hyperactivity, and 1.4% had significant peer problems.[27] A study conducted among the female school teachers in Jharkhand examined the effects of stress, marital status, and ethnicity upon the mental health of school teachers.

The study found that among the three factors namely stress, marital status, and ethnicity, ethnicity was found to affect mental health of the school teachers most. It found a positive relationship between mental health and socioeconomic status, with an inverse relationship showing that as income increased, the prevalence of depression decreased.[28] A study among Ao-Nagas in Nagaland found that 74.6% of the population attributed mental health problems to psycho-social factors and a considerable proportion chose a psychiatrist or psychologist to overcome the problem. However, 15.4% attributed mental disorders to evil spirits. About 47% preferred to seek treatment with a psychiatrist and 25% preferred prayers.

Nearly 10.6% wanted to seek the help of both the psychiatrist and prayer group and 4.4% preferred traditional healers.[28],[29] The prevalence of Down syndrome among the ST in Chikhalia in Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh was higher than that reported in overall India. Three-fourth of the children were the first-born child. None of the parents of children with Down syndrome had consanguineous marriage or a history of Down syndrome, intellectual disability, or any other neurological disorder such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy in preceding generations. It is known that tribal population is highly impoverished and disadvantaged in several ways and suffer proportionately higher burden of nutritional and genetic disorders, which are potential factors for Down syndrome.[30]Access to mental health-care servicesIn a study in Ranchi district of Jharkhand, it was found that most people consulted faith healers rather than qualified medical practitioners.

There are few mental health services in the regions.[31] Among ST population, there was less reliance and belief in modern medicine, and it was also not easily accessible, thus the health-care systems must be more holistic and take care of cultural and local health practices.[32]The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health project was implemented in thirty ST villages in West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. The key objectives were to use task sharing, training of primary health workers, implementing evidence-based clinical decision support tools on a mobile platform, and providing mental health services to rural population. The study included 238 adults suffering from CMD. During the intervention period, 12.6% visited the primary health-care doctors compared to only 0.8% who had sought any care for their mental disorders prior to the intervention.

The study also found a significant reduction in the depression and anxiety scores at the end of intervention and improvements in stigma perceptions related to mental health.[14] A study in Gudalur and Pandalur Taluks of Nilgiri district from Tamil Nadu used low cost task shifting by providing community education and identifying and referring individuals with psychiatric problems as effective strategies for treating mental disorders in ST communities. Through the program, the health workers established a network within the village, which in turn helped the patients to interact with them freely. Consenting patients volunteered at the educational sessions to discuss their experience about the effectiveness of their treatment. Community awareness programs altered knowledge and attitudes toward mental illness in the community.[33] A study in Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, found that the community had been taking responsibility of the patients with the system by providing treatment closer to home without people having to travel long distances to access care.

Expenses were reduced by subsidizing the costs of medicine and ensuring free hospital admissions and referrals to the people.[34] A study on the impact of gender, socioeconomic status, and age on mental health of female factory workers in Jharkhand found that the ST women were more likely to face stress and hardship in life due to diverse economic and household responsibilities, which, in turn, severely affected their mental health.[35] Prevalence of mental health morbidity in a study from the Sunderbans delta found a positive relation with psycho-social stressors and poor quality of life. The health system in that remote area was largely managed by “quack doctors” and faith healers. Poverty, illiteracy, and detachment from the larger community helped reinforce superstitious beliefs and made them seek both mental and physical health care from faith healers.[36] In a study among students, it was found that children had difficulties in adjusting to both ethnic and mainstream culture.[27] Low family income, inadequate housing, poor sanitation, and unhealthy and unhygienic living conditions were some environmental factors contributing to poor physical and mental growth of children. It was observed that children who did not have such risk factors maintained more intimate relations with the family members.

Children belonging to the disadvantaged environment expressed their verbal, emotional need, blame, and harm avoidances more freely than their counterparts belonging to less disadvantaged backgrounds. Although disadvantaged children had poor interfamilial interaction, they had better relations with the members outside family, such as peers, friends, and neighbors.[37] Another study in Jharkhand found that epilepsy was higher among ST patients compared to non-ST patients.[31] Most patients among the ST are irregular and dropout rates are higher among them than the non-ST patients. Urbanization per se exerted no adverse influence on the mental health of a tribal community, provided it allowed preservation of ethnic and cultural practices. Women in the ST communities were less vulnerable to mental illness than men.

This might be a reflection of their increased responsibilities and enhanced gender roles that are characteristic of women in many ST communities.[38] Data obtained using culturally relevant scales revealed that relocated Sahariya suffer a lot of mental health problems, which are partially explained by livelihood and poverty-related factors. The loss of homes and displacement compromise mental health, especially the positive emotional well-being related to happiness, life satisfaction, optimism for future, and spiritual contentment. These are often not overcome even with good relocation programs focused on material compensation and livelihood re-establishment.[39] Discussion This systematic review is to our knowledge the first on mental health of ST population in India. Few studies on the mental health of ST were available.

All attempts including hand searching were made to recover both published peer-reviewed papers and reports available on the website. Though we searched gray literature, it may be possible that it does not capture all articles. Given the heterogeneity of the papers, it was not possible to do a meta-analysis, so a narrative review was done.The quality of the studies was assessed by CASP. The assessment shows that the research conducted on mental health of STs needs to be carried out more effectively.

The above mentioned gaps need to be filled in future research by considering the resources effectively while conducting the studies. Mental and substance use disorders contribute majorly to the health disparities. To address this, one needs to deliver evidence-based treatments, but it is important to understand how far these interventions for the indigenous populations can incorporate cultural practices, which are essential for the development of mental health services.[30] Evidence has shown a disproportionate burden of suicide among indigenous populations in national and regional studies, and a global and systematic investigation of this topic has not been undertaken to date. Previous reviews of suicide epidemiology among indigenous populations have tended to be less comprehensive or not systematic, and have often focused on subpopulations such as youth, high-income countries, or regions such as Oceania or the Arctic.[46] The only studies in our review which provided data on suicide were in Idu Mishmi, an isolated tribal population of North-East India, and tribal communities from Sunderban delta.[24],[37] Some reasons for suicide in these populations could be the poor identification of existing mental disorders, increased alcohol use, extreme poverty leading to increased debt and hopelessness, and lack of stable employment opportunities.[24],[37] The traditional consumption pattern of alcohol has changed due to the reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement.[19],[20]Faith healers play a dominant role in treating mental disorders.

There is less awareness about mental health and available mental health services and even if such knowledge is available, access is limited due to remoteness of many of these villages, and often it involves high out-of-pocket expenditure.[35] Practitioners of modern medicine can play a vital role in not only increasing awareness about mental health in the community, but also engaging with faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to help increase their capacity to identify and manage CMDs that do not need medications and can be managed through simple “talk therapy.” Knowledge on symptoms of severe mental disorders can also help such faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to refer cases to primary care doctors or mental health professionals.Remote settlements make it difficult for ST communities to seek mental health care. Access needs to be increased by using solutions that use training of primary health workers and nonphysician health workers, task sharing, and technology-enabled clinical decision support tools.[3] The SMART Mental Health project was delivered in the tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh using those principles and was found to be beneficial by all stakeholders.[14]Given the lack of knowledge about mental health problems among these communities, the government and nongovernmental organizations should collect and disseminate data on mental disorders among the ST communities. More research funding needs to be provided and key stakeholders should be involved in creating awareness both in the community and among policy makers to develop more projects for ST communities around mental health. Two recent meetings on tribal mental health – Round Table Meeting on Mental Health of ST Populations organized by the George Institute for Global Health, India, in 2017,[51] and the First National Conference on Tribal Mental Health organized by the Indian Psychiatric Society in Bhubaneswar in 2018 – have identified some key areas of research priority for mental health in ST communities.

A national-level policy on mental health of tribal communities or population is advocated which should be developed in consultation with key stakeholders. The Indian Psychiatric Society can play a role in coordinating research activities with support of the government which can ensure regular monitoring and dissemination of the research impact to the tribal communities. There is a need to understand how mental health symptoms are perceived in different ST communities and investigate the healing practices associated with distress/disaster/death/loss/disease. This could be done in the form of cross-sectional or cohort studies to generate proper evidence which could also include the information on prevalence, mental health morbidity, and any specific patterns associated with a specific disorder.

Future research should estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in different age groups and gender, risk factors, and the influence of modernization. Studies should develop a theoretical model to understand mental disorders and promote positive mental health within ST communities. Studies should also look at different ST communities as cultural differences exist across them, and there are also differences in socioeconomic status which impact on ability to access care.Research has shown that the impact and the benefits are amplified when research is driven by priorities that are identified by indigenous communities and involve their active participation. Their knowledge and perspectives are incorporated in processes and findings.

Reporting of findings is meaningful to the communities. And indigenous groups and other key stakeholders are engaged from the outset.[47] Future research in India on ST communities should also adhere to these broad principles to ensure relevant and beneficial research, which have direct impact on the mental health of the ST communities.There is also a need to update literature related to mental health of ST population continuously. Develop culturally appropriate validated instruments to measure mental morbidity relevant to ST population. And use qualitative research to investigate the perceptions and barriers for help-seeking behavior.[48] Conclusion The current review helps not only to collate the existing literature on the mental health of ST communities but also identify gaps in knowledge and provide some indications about the type of research that should be funded in future.Financial support and sponsorshipNil.Conflicts of interestThere are no conflicts of interest.

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Correlates of opium use. Retrospective analysis of a survey of tribal communities in Arunachal Pradesh, India. BMC Public Health 2013;13:325. 19.Mohindra KS, Narayana D, Anushreedha SS, Haddad S.

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Reasons for substance use. A comparative study of alcohol use in tribals and non-tribals. Indian J Psychol Med 2012;34:242-6. [PUBMED] [Full text] 21.Whiteford HA, Degenhardt L, Rehm J, Baxter AJ, Ferrari AJ, Erskine HE, et al.

Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders. Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2013;382:1575-86. 22.Janakiram C, Joseph J, Vasudevan S, Taha F, DeepanKumar CV, Venkitachalam R.

Prevalence and dependancy of tobacco use in an indigenous population of Kerala, India. Oral Hygiene and Health 2016;4:1 23.Manimunda SP, Benegal V, Sugunan AP, Jeemon P, Balakrishna N, Thennarusu K, et al. Tobacco use and nicotine dependency in a cross-sectional representative sample of 18,018 individuals in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. BMC Public Health 2012;12:515.

24.Singh PK, Singh RK, Biswas A, Rao VR. High rate of suicide attempt and associated psychological traits in an isolated tribal population of North-East India. J Affect Dis 2013;151:673-8. 25.Sushila J.

Perception of Illness and Health Care among Bhils. A Study of Udaipur District in Southern Rajasthan. 2005. 26.Sobhanjan S, Mukhopadhyay B.

Perceived psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Observations among the Bhutias of Sikkim, India. Stress Health 2008;24:23-34. 27.Ali A, Eqbal S.

Mental Health status of tribal school going adolescents. A study from rural community of Ranchi, Jharkhand. Telangana J Psychiatry 2016;2:38-41. 28.Diwan R.

Stress and mental health of tribal and non tribal female school teachers in Jharkhand, India. Int J Sci Res Publicat 2012;2:2250-3153. 29.Longkumer I, Borooah PI. Knowledge about attitudes toward mental disorders among Nagas in North East India.

IOSR J Humanities Soc Sci 2013;15:41-7. 30.Lakhan R, Kishore MT. Down syndrome in tribal population in India. A field observation.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2016;7:40-3. [PUBMED] [Full text] 31.Nizamie HS, Akhtar S, Banerjee S, Goyal N. Health care delivery model in epilepsy to reduce treatment gap. WHO study from a rural tribal population of India.

Epilepsy Res Elsevier 2009;84:146-52. 32.Prabhakar H, Manoharan R. The Tribal Health Initiative model for healthcare delivery. A clinical and epidemiological approach.

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34.Yalsangi M. Evaluation of a Community Mental Health Programme in a Tribal Area- South India. Achutha Menon Centre For Health Sciences Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Working Paper No 12. 2012.

35.Tripathy P, Nirmala N, Sarah B, Rajendra M, Josephine B, Shibanand R, et al. Effect of a participatory intervention with women's groups on birth outcomes and maternal depression in Jharkhand and Orissa, India. A cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2010;375:1182-92.

36.Aparajita C, Anita KM, Arundhati R, Chetana P. Assessing Social-support network among the socio culturally disadvantaged children in India. Early Child Develop Care 1996;121:37-47. 37.Chowdhury AN, Mondal R, Brahma A, Biswas MK.

Eco-psychiatry and environmental conservation. Study from Sundarban Delta, India. Environ Health Insights 2008;2:61-76. 38.Jeffery GS, Chakrapani U.

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39.Ozer S, Acculturation, adaptation, and mental health among Ladakhi College Students a mixed methods study of an indigenous population. J Cross Cultl Psychol 2015;46:435-53. 40.Giri DK, Chaudhary S, Govinda M, Banerjee A, Mahto AK, Chakravorty PK. Utilization of psychiatric services by tribal population of Jharkhand through community outreach programme of RINPAS.

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A study on the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in Northern India. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2013;16:640-4. [PUBMED] [Full text] 45.Raina SK, Chander V, Raina S, Kumar D. Feasibility of using everyday abilities scale of India as alternative to mental state examination as a screen in two-phase survey estimating the prevalence of dementia in largely illiterate Indian population.

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47.Banerjee T, Mukherjee SP, Nandi DN, Banerjee G, Mukherjee A, Sen B, et al. Psychiatric morbidity in an urbanized tribal (Santal) community - A field survey. Indian J Psychiatry 1986;28:243-8. [PUBMED] [Full text] 48.Leske S, Harris MG, Charlson FJ, Ferrari AJ, Baxter AJ, Logan JM, et al.

Systematic review of interventions for Indigenous adults with mental and substance use disorders in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2016;50:1040-54. 49.Pollock NJ, Naicker K, Loro A, Mulay S, Colman I. Global incidence of suicide among Indigenous peoples.

A systematic review. BMC Med 2018;16:145. 50.Silburn K, et al. Evaluation of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health (Australian institute for primary care, trans.).

Correspondence Address:S V. Siddhardh Kumar DevarapalliGeorge Institute for Global Health, Plot No. 57, Second Floor, Corporation Bank Building, Nagarjuna Circle, Punjagutta, Hyderabad - 500 082, Telangana IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest.

NoneDOI. 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_136_19 Figures [Figure 1] Tables [Table 1], [Table 2].

How to cite propecia pill cost this article:Singh OP. Psychiatry research in India. Closing the research gap propecia pill cost. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:615-6Research is an important aspect of the growth and development of medical science.

Research in India in general and medical research in particular is always being criticized for lack of innovation propecia pill cost and originality required for the delivery of health services suitable to Indian conditions. Even the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) which is a centrally funded frontier organization for conducting medical research couldn't avert criticism. It has been criticized heavily for not producing quality research papers which are pioneering, ground breaking, or pragmatic solutions for health issues plaguing India. In the words of a leading daily, The ICMR could not even list one practical application of its hundreds of research papers published in various national and international research journals which helped cure any disease, or diagnose it with better accuracy or in less time, or even one new basic, applied or clinical research or innovation that opened a new frontier of scientific knowledge.[1]This propecia pill cost clearly indicates that the health research output of ICMR is not up to the mark and is not commensurate with the magnitude of the disease burden in India.

According to the 12th Plan Report, the country contributes to a fifth of the world's share of diseases. The research conducted elsewhere may not be generalized to the Indian population owing propecia pill cost to differences in biology, health-care systems, health practices, culture, and socioeconomic standards. Questions which are pertinent and specific to the Indian context may not be answered and will remain understudied. One of the vital elements in improving this situation is the need for relevant research base that would equip policymakers to take informed health policy decisions.The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare in the 100th report on Demand for Grants (2017–2018) of the Department of Health Research observed that “the biomedical research output needs to be augmented substantially to cater to the health challenges faced by the country.”[1]Among the various reasons, lack of fund, infrastructure, and resources is the prime cause which is glaringly evident from the inadequate budget allocation for biomedical research.

While ICMR has a budget of 232 million dollars propecia pill cost per year on health research, it is zilch in comparison to the annual budget expenditure of the National Institute of Health, USA, on biomedical research which is 32 billion dollars.The lacuna of quality research is not merely due to lack of funds. There are other important issues which need to be considered and sorted out to end the status quo. Some of the factors which need our immediate attention are:Lack of research training and teachingImproper allocation of research facilitiesLack of information about research work happening globallyLack of promotion, motivation, commitment, and passion in the field of researchClinicians being overburdened with patientsLack of collaboration between medical colleges and established research institutesLack of continuity of research in successive batches of postgraduate (PG) students, leading to wastage of propecia pill cost previous research and resourcesDifficulty in the application of basic biomedical research into pragmatic intervention solutions due to lack of interdisciplinary technological support/collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and technological experts.Majority of the biomedical research in India are conducted in medical institutions. The majority of these are done as thesis submission for fulfillment of the requirement of PG degree.

From 2015 onward, publication of papers had been made an obligatory requirement for promotion of faculty to higher posts propecia pill cost. Although it offered a unique opportunity for training of residents and stimulus for research, it failed to translate into production of quality research work as thesis was limited by time and it had to be done with other clinical and academic duties.While the top four medical colleges, namely AIIMS, New Delhi. PGIMER, Chandigarh. CMC, Vellore propecia pill cost.

And SGIMS, Lucknow are among the top ten medical institutions in terms of publication in peer-reviewed journals, around 332 (57.3%) medical colleges have no research paper published in a decade between 2004 and 2014.[2]The research in psychiatry is realistically dominated by major research institutes which are doing commendable work, but there is a substantial lack of contemporary research originating from other centers. Dr. Chittaranjan Andrade (NIMHANS, Bengaluru) and Dr. K Jacob (CMC, Vellore) recently figured in the list of top 2% psychiatry researchers in the world from India in psychiatry.[3] Most of the research conducted in the field of psychiatry are limited to caregivers' burden, pathways of care, and other topics which can be done in limited resources available to psychiatry departments.

While all these areas of work are important in providing proper care and treatment, there is overabundance of research in these areas.The Government of India is aggressively looking forward to enhancing the quality of research and is embarking on an ambitious project of purchasing all major journals and providing free access to universities across the country. The India Genome Project started in January, 2020, is a good example of collaboration. While all these actions are laudable, a lot more needs to be done. Following are some measures which will reduce the gap:Research proposals at the level of protocol can be guided and mentored by institutes.

Academic committees of different zones and journals can help in this endeavorBreaking the cubicles by establishing a collaboration between medical colleges and various institutes. While there is a lack of resources available in individual departments, there are universities and institutes with excellent infrastructure. They are not aware of the requirements of the field of psychiatry and research questions. Creation of an alliance will enhance the quality of research work.

Some of such institutes include Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru. CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi. And National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, KalyaniInitiation and establishment of interactive and stable relationships between basic scientists and clinical and technological experts will enhance the quality of research work and will lead to translation of basic biomedical research into real-time applications. For example, work on artificial intelligence for mental health.

Development of Apps by IITs. Genome India Project by the Government of India, genomic institutes, and social science and economic institutes working in the field of various aspects of mental healthUtilization of underutilized, well-equipped biotechnological labs of nonmedical colleges for furthering biomedical researchMedical colleges should collaborate with various universities which have labs providing testing facilities such as spectroscopy, fluoroscopy, gamma camera, scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and photoacoustic imagingCreating an interactive, interdepartmental, intradepartmental, and interinstitutional partnershipBy developing a healthy and ethical partnership with industries for research and development of new drugs and interventions.Walking the talk – the psychiatric fraternity needs to be proactive and rather than lamenting about the lack of resource, we should rise to the occasion and come out with innovative and original research proposals. With the implementation of collaborative approach, we can not only enhance and improve the quality of our research but to an extent also mitigate the effects of resource crunch and come up as a leader in the field of biomedical research. References 1.2.Nagoba B, Davane M.

Current status of medical research in India. Where are we?. Walawalkar Int Med J 2017;4:66-71. 3.Ioannidis JP, Boyack KW, Baas J.

Updated science-wide author databases of standardized citation indicators. PLoS Biol 2020;18:e3000918. Correspondence Address:Dr. Om Prakash SinghAA 304, Ashabari Apartments, O/31, Baishnabghata, Patuli Township, Kolkata - 700 094, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support.

None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI. 10.4103/indianjpsychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_1362_2Abstract Background. The burden of mental illness among the scheduled tribe (ST) population in India is not known clearly.Aim.

The aim was to identify and appraise mental health research studies on ST population in India and collate such data to inform future research.Materials and Methods. Studies published between January 1980 and December 2018 on STs by following exclusion and inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Quality of the included studies was assessed using an appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies and Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme.

Studies were summarized and reported descriptively.Results. Thirty-two relevant studies were found and included in the review. Studies were categorized into the following three thematic areas. Alcohol and substance use disorders, common mental disorders and sociocultural aspects, and access to mental health-care services.

Sociocultural factors play a major role in understanding and determining mental disorders.Conclusion. This study is the first of its kind to review research on mental health among the STs. Mental health research conducted among STs in India is limited and is mostly of low-to-moderate quality. Determinants of poor mental health and interventions for addressing them need to be studied on an urgent basis.Keywords.

India, mental health, scheduled tribesHow to cite this article:Devarapalli S V, Kallakuri S, Salam A, Maulik PK. Mental health research on scheduled tribes in India. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:617-30 Introduction Mental health is a highly neglected area particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from community-based studies showed that about 10% of people suffer from common mental disorders (CMDs) such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.[1] A systematic review of epidemiological studies between 1960 and 2009 in India reported that about 20% of the adult population in the community are affected by psychiatric disorders in the community, ranging from 9.5 to 103/1000 population, with differences in case definitions, and methods of data collection, accounting for most of the variation in estimates.[2]The scheduled tribes (ST) population is a marginalized community and live in relative social isolation with poorer health indices compared to similar nontribal populations.[3] There are an estimated 90 million STs or Adivasis in India.[4] They constitute 8.6% of the total Indian population.

The distribution varies across the states and union territories of India, with the highest percentage in Lakshadweep (94.8%) followed by Mizoram (94.4%). In northeastern states, they constitute 65% or more of the total population.[5] The ST communities are identified as culturally or ethnographically unique by the Indian Constitution. They are populations with poorer health indicators and fewer health-care facilities compared to non-ST rural populations, even when within the same state, and often live in demarcated geographical areas known as ST areas.[4]As per the National Family Health Survey, 2015–2016, the health indicators such as infant mortality rate (IMR) is 44.4, under five mortality rate (U5MR) is 57.2, and anemia in women is 59.8 for STs – one of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic groups in India, which are worse compared to other populations where IMR is 40.7, U5MR is 49.7, and anemia in women among others is 53.0 in the same areas.[6] Little research is available on the health of ST population. Tribal mental health is an ignored and neglected area in the field of health-care services.

Further, little data are available about the burden of mental disorders among the tribal communities. Health research on tribal populations is poor, globally.[7] Irrespective of the data available, it is clear that they have worse health indicators and less access to health facilities.[8] Even less is known about the burden of mental disorders in ST population. It is also found that the traditional livelihood system of the STs came into conflict with the forces of modernization, resulting not only in the loss of customary rights over the livelihood resources but also in subordination and further, developing low self-esteem, causing great psychological stress.[4] This community has poor health infrastructure and even less mental health resources, and the situation is worse when compared to other communities living in similar areas.[9],[10]Only 15%–25% of those affected with mental disorders in LMICs receive any treatment for their mental illness,[11] resulting in a large “treatment gap.”[12] Treatment gaps are more in rural populations,[13] especially in ST communities in India, which have particularly poor infrastructure and resources for health-care delivery in general, and almost no capacity for providing mental health care.[14]The aim of this systematic review was to explore the extent and nature of mental health research on ST population in India and to identify gaps and inform future research. Materials and Methods Search strategyWe searched major databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar) and made hand searches from January 1980 to December 2018 to identify relevant literature.

Hand search refers to searching through medical journals which are not indexed in the major electronic databases such as Embase, for instance, searching for Indian journals in IndMed database as most of these journals are not available in major databases. Physical search refers to searching the journals that were not available online or were not available online during the study years. We used relevant Medical Subject Heading and key terms in our search strategy, as follows. €œMental health,” “Mental disorders,” “Mental illness,” “Psychiatry,” “Scheduled Tribe” OR “Tribe” OR “Tribal Population” OR “Indigenous population,” “India,” “Psych*” (Psychiatric, psychological, psychosis).Inclusion criteriaStudies published between January 1980 and December 2018 were included.

Studies on mental disorders were included only when they focused on ST population. Both qualitative and quantitative studies on mental disorders of ST population only were included in the analysis.Exclusion criteriaStudies without any primary data and which are merely overviews and commentaries and those not focused on ST population were excluded from the analysis.Data management and analysisTwo researchers (SD and SK) initially screened the title and abstract of each record to identify relevant papers and subsequently screened full text of those relevant papers. Any disagreements between the researchers were resolved by discussion or by consulting with an adjudicator (PKM). From each study, data were extracted on objectives, study design, study population, study duration, interventions (if applicable), outcomes, and results.

Quality of the included studies was assessed, independently by three researchers (SD, SK, and AS), using Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP).[15] After a thorough qualitative assessment, all quantitative data were generated and tabulated. A narrative description of the studies is provided in [Table 1] using some broad categories. Results Search resultsOur search retrieved 2306 records (which included hand-searched articles), of which after removing duplicates, title and abstracts of 2278 records were screened. Of these, 178 studies were deemed as potentially relevant and were reviewed in detail.

Finally, we excluded 146 irrelevant studies and 32 studies were included in the review [Figure 1].Quality of the included studiesSummary of quality assessment of the included studies is reported in [Table 2]. Overall, nine studies were of poor quality, twenty were of moderate quality, and three studies were of high quality. The CASP shows that out of the 32 studies, the sample size of 21 studies was not representative, sample size of 7 studies was not justified, risk factors were not identified in 28 studies, methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them in 24 studies, and nonresponse reasons were not addressed in 24 studies. The most common reasons for studies to be of poor-quality included sample size not justified.

Sample is not representative. Nonresponse not addressed. Risk factors not measured correctly. And methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them.

Studies under the moderate quality did not have a representative sample. Non-responders categories was not addressed. Risk factors were not measured correctly. And methods used were not sufficiently described to allow the study to be replicated by other researchers.The included studies covered three broad categories.

Alcohol and substance use disorders, CMD (depression, anxiety, stress, and suicide risk), socio-cultural aspects, and access to mental health services.Alcohol and substance use disordersFive studies reviewed the consumption of alcohol and opioid. In an ethnographic study conducted in three western districts in Rajasthan, 200 opium users were interviewed. Opium consumption was common among both younger and older males during nonharvest seasons. The common causes for using opium were relief of anxiety related to crop failure due to drought, stress, to get a high, be part of peers, and for increased sexual performance.[16]In a study conducted in Arunachal Pradesh involving a population of more than 5000 individuals, alcohol use was present in 30% and opium use in about 5% adults.[17] Contrary to that study, in Rajasthan, the prevalence of opium use was more in women and socioeconomic factors such as occupation, education, and marital status were associated with opium use.[16] The prevalence of opium use increased with age in both sexes, decreased with increasing education level, and increased with employment.

It was observed that wages were used to buy opium. In the entire region of Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, female substance users were almost half of the males among ST population.[17] Types of substance used were tobacco, alcohol, and opium. Among tobacco users, oral tobacco use was higher than smoking. The prevalence of tobacco use was higher among males, but the prevalence of alcohol use was higher in females, probably due to increased access to homemade rice brew generally prepared by women.

This study is unique in terms of finding a strong association with religion and culture with substance use.[18]Alcohol consumption among Paniyas of Wayanad district in Kerala is perceived as a male activity, with many younger people consuming it than earlier. A study concluded that alcohol consumption among them was less of a “choice” than a result of their conditions operating through different mechanisms. In the past, drinking was traditionally common among elderly males, however the consumption pattern has changed as a significant number of younger men are now drinking. Drinking was clustered within families as fathers and sons drank together.

Alcohol is easily accessible as government itself provides opportunities. Some employers would provide alcohol as an incentive to attract Paniya men to work for them.[19]In a study from Jharkhand, several ST community members cited reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement, as a reason for consuming alcohol. Societal acceptance of drinking alcohol and peer pressure, as well as high emotional problems, appeared to be the major etiology leading to higher prevalence of substance dependence in tribal communities.[20] Another study found high life time alcohol use prevalence, and the reasons mentioned were increased poverty, illiteracy, increased stress, and peer pressure.[21] A household survey from Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh revealed that there was a strong association between opium use and age, occupation, marital status, religion, and ethnicity among both the sexes of STs, particularly among Singhpho and Khamti.[15] The average age of onset of tobacco use was found to be 16.4 years for smoked and 17.5 years for smokeless forms in one study.[22]Common mental disorders and socio-cultural aspectsSuicide was more common among Idu Mishmi in Roing and Anini districts of Arunachal Pradesh state (14.2%) compared to the urban population in general (0.4%–4.2%). Suicides were associated with depression, anxiety, alcoholism, and eating disorders.

Of all the factors, depression was significantly high in people who attempted suicide.[24] About 5% out of 5007 people from thirty villages comprising ST suffered from CMDs in a study from West Godavari district in rural Andhra Pradesh. CMDs were defined as moderate/severe depression and/or anxiety, stress, and increased suicidal risk. Women had a higher prevalence of depression, but this may be due to the cultural norms, as men are less likely to express symptoms of depression or anxiety, which leads to underreporting. Marital status, education, and age were prominently associated with CMD.[14] In another study, gender, illiteracy, infant mortality in the household, having <3 adults living in the household, large family size with >four children, morbidity, and having two or more life events in the last year were associated with increased prevalence of CMD.[24] Urban and rural ST from the same community of Bhutias of Sikkim were examined, and it was found that the urban population experienced higher perceived stress compared to their rural counterparts.[25] Age, current use of alcohol, poor educational status, marital status, social groups, and comorbidities were the main determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependence in a study from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[22] A study conducted among adolescents in the schools of rural areas of Ranchi district in Jharkhand revealed that about 5% children from the ST communities had emotional symptoms, 9.6% children had conduct problems, 4.2% had hyperactivity, and 1.4% had significant peer problems.[27] A study conducted among the female school teachers in Jharkhand examined the effects of stress, marital status, and ethnicity upon the mental health of school teachers.

The study found that among the three factors namely stress, marital status, and ethnicity, ethnicity was found to affect mental health of the school teachers most. It found a positive relationship between mental health and socioeconomic status, with an inverse relationship showing that as income increased, the prevalence of depression decreased.[28] A study among Ao-Nagas in Nagaland found that 74.6% of the population attributed mental health problems to psycho-social factors and a considerable proportion chose a psychiatrist or psychologist to overcome the problem. However, 15.4% attributed mental disorders to evil spirits. About 47% preferred to seek treatment with a psychiatrist and 25% preferred prayers.

Nearly 10.6% wanted to seek the help of both the psychiatrist and prayer group and 4.4% preferred traditional healers.[28],[29] The prevalence of Down syndrome among the ST in Chikhalia in Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh was higher than that reported in overall India. Three-fourth of the children were the first-born child. None of the parents of children with Down syndrome had consanguineous marriage or a history of Down syndrome, intellectual disability, or any other neurological disorder such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy in preceding generations. It is known that tribal population is highly impoverished and disadvantaged in several ways and suffer proportionately higher burden of nutritional and genetic disorders, which are potential factors for Down syndrome.[30]Access to mental health-care servicesIn a study in Ranchi district of Jharkhand, it was found that most people consulted faith healers rather than qualified medical practitioners.

There are few mental health services in the regions.[31] Among ST population, there was less reliance and belief in modern medicine, and it was also not easily accessible, thus the health-care systems must be more holistic and take care of cultural and local health practices.[32]The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health project was implemented in thirty ST villages in West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. The key objectives were to use task sharing, training of primary health workers, implementing evidence-based clinical decision support tools on a mobile platform, and providing mental health services to rural population. The study included 238 adults suffering from CMD. During the intervention period, 12.6% visited the primary health-care doctors compared to only 0.8% who had sought any care for their mental disorders prior to the intervention.

The study also found a significant reduction in the depression and anxiety scores at the end of intervention and improvements in stigma perceptions related to mental health.[14] A study in Gudalur and Pandalur Taluks of Nilgiri district from Tamil Nadu used low cost task shifting by providing community education and identifying and referring individuals with psychiatric problems as effective strategies for treating mental disorders in ST communities. Through the program, the health workers established a network within the village, which in turn helped the patients to interact with them freely. Consenting patients volunteered at the educational sessions to discuss their experience about the effectiveness of their treatment. Community awareness programs altered knowledge and attitudes toward mental illness in the community.[33] A study in Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, found that the community had been taking responsibility of the patients with the system by providing treatment closer to home without people having to travel long distances to access care.

Expenses were reduced by subsidizing the costs of medicine and ensuring free hospital admissions and referrals to the people.[34] A study on the impact of gender, socioeconomic status, and age on mental health of female factory workers in Jharkhand found that the ST women were more likely to face stress and hardship in life due to diverse economic and household responsibilities, which, in turn, severely affected their mental health.[35] Prevalence of mental health morbidity in a study from the Sunderbans delta found a positive relation with psycho-social stressors and poor quality of life. The health system in that remote area was largely managed by “quack doctors” and faith healers. Poverty, illiteracy, and detachment from the larger community helped reinforce superstitious beliefs and made them seek both mental and physical health care from faith healers.[36] In a study among students, it was found that children had difficulties in adjusting to both ethnic and mainstream culture.[27] Low family income, inadequate housing, poor sanitation, and unhealthy and unhygienic living conditions were some environmental factors contributing to poor physical and mental growth of children. It was observed that children who did not have such risk factors maintained more intimate relations with the family members.

Children belonging to the disadvantaged environment expressed their verbal, emotional need, blame, and harm avoidances more freely than their counterparts belonging to less disadvantaged backgrounds. Although disadvantaged children had poor interfamilial interaction, they had better relations with the members outside family, such as peers, friends, and neighbors.[37] Another study in Jharkhand found that epilepsy was higher among ST patients compared to non-ST patients.[31] Most patients among the ST are irregular and dropout rates are higher among them than the non-ST patients. Urbanization per se exerted no adverse influence on the mental health of a tribal community, provided it allowed preservation of ethnic and cultural practices. Women in the ST communities were less vulnerable to mental illness than men.

This might be a reflection of their increased responsibilities and enhanced gender roles that are characteristic of women in many ST communities.[38] Data obtained using culturally relevant scales revealed that relocated Sahariya suffer a lot of mental health problems, which are partially explained by livelihood and poverty-related factors. The loss of homes and displacement compromise mental health, especially the positive emotional well-being related to happiness, life satisfaction, optimism for future, and spiritual contentment. These are often not overcome even with good relocation programs focused on material compensation and livelihood re-establishment.[39] Discussion This systematic review is to our knowledge the first on mental health of ST population in India. Few studies on the mental health of ST were available.

All attempts including hand searching were made to recover both published peer-reviewed papers and reports available on the website. Though we searched gray literature, it may be possible that it does not capture all articles. Given the heterogeneity of the papers, it was not possible to do a meta-analysis, so a narrative review was done.The quality of the studies was assessed by CASP. The assessment shows that the research conducted on mental health of STs needs to be carried out more effectively.

The above mentioned gaps need to be filled in future research by considering the resources effectively while conducting the studies. Mental and substance use disorders contribute majorly to the health disparities. To address this, one needs to deliver evidence-based treatments, but it is important to understand how far these interventions for the indigenous populations can incorporate cultural practices, which are essential for the development of mental health services.[30] Evidence has shown a disproportionate burden of suicide among indigenous populations in national and regional studies, and a global and systematic investigation of this topic has not been undertaken to date. Previous reviews of suicide epidemiology among indigenous populations have tended to be less comprehensive or not systematic, and have often focused on subpopulations such as youth, high-income countries, or regions such as Oceania or the Arctic.[46] The only studies in our review which provided data on suicide were in Idu Mishmi, an isolated tribal population of North-East India, and tribal communities from Sunderban delta.[24],[37] Some reasons for suicide in these populations could be the poor identification of existing mental disorders, increased alcohol use, extreme poverty leading to increased debt and hopelessness, and lack of stable employment opportunities.[24],[37] The traditional consumption pattern of alcohol has changed due to the reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement.[19],[20]Faith healers play a dominant role in treating mental disorders.

There is less awareness about mental health and available mental health services and even if such knowledge is available, access is limited due to remoteness of many of these villages, and often it involves high out-of-pocket expenditure.[35] Practitioners of modern medicine can play a vital role in not only increasing awareness about mental health in the community, but also engaging with faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to help increase their capacity to identify and manage CMDs that do not need medications and can be managed through simple “talk therapy.” Knowledge on symptoms of severe mental disorders can also help such faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to refer cases to primary care doctors or mental health professionals.Remote settlements make it difficult for ST communities to seek mental health care. Access needs to be increased by using solutions that use training of primary health workers and nonphysician health workers, task sharing, and technology-enabled clinical decision support tools.[3] The SMART Mental Health project was delivered in the tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh using those principles and was found to be beneficial by all stakeholders.[14]Given the lack of knowledge about mental health problems among these communities, the government and nongovernmental organizations should collect and disseminate data on mental disorders among the ST communities. More research funding needs to be provided and key stakeholders should be involved in creating awareness both in the community and among policy makers to develop more projects for ST communities around mental health. Two recent meetings on tribal mental health – Round Table Meeting on Mental Health of ST Populations organized by the George Institute for Global Health, India, in 2017,[51] and the First National Conference on Tribal Mental Health organized by the Indian Psychiatric Society in Bhubaneswar in 2018 – have identified some key areas of research priority for mental health in ST communities.

A national-level policy on mental health of tribal communities or population is advocated which should be developed in consultation with key stakeholders. The Indian Psychiatric Society can play a role in coordinating research activities with support of the government which can ensure regular monitoring and dissemination of the research impact to the tribal communities. There is a need to understand how mental health symptoms are perceived in different ST communities and investigate the healing practices associated with distress/disaster/death/loss/disease. This could be done in the form of cross-sectional or cohort studies to generate proper evidence which could also include the information on prevalence, mental health morbidity, and any specific patterns associated with a specific disorder.

Future research should estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in different age groups and gender, risk factors, and the influence of modernization. Studies should develop a theoretical model to understand mental disorders and promote positive mental health within ST communities. Studies should also look at different ST communities as cultural differences exist across them, and there are also differences in socioeconomic status which impact on ability to access care.Research has shown that the impact and the benefits are amplified when research is driven by priorities that are identified by indigenous communities and involve their active participation. Their knowledge and perspectives are incorporated in processes and findings.

Reporting of findings is meaningful to the communities. And indigenous groups and other key stakeholders are engaged from the outset.[47] Future research in India on ST communities should also adhere to these broad principles to ensure relevant and beneficial research, which have direct impact on the mental health of the ST communities.There is also a need to update literature related to mental health of ST population continuously. Develop culturally appropriate validated instruments to measure mental morbidity relevant to ST population. And use qualitative research to investigate the perceptions and barriers for help-seeking behavior.[48] Conclusion The current review helps not only to collate the existing literature on the mental health of ST communities but also identify gaps in knowledge and provide some indications about the type of research that should be funded in future.Financial support and sponsorshipNil.Conflicts of interestThere are no conflicts of interest.

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Learning from the past. Indian J Psychiatry 2010;52:S95-103. 3.Tewari A, Kallakuri S, Devarapalli S, Jha V, Patel A, Maulik PK. Process evaluation of the systematic medical appraisal, referral and treatment (SMART) mental health project in rural India.

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11.Ormel J, VonKorff M, Ustun TB, Pini S, Korten A, Oldehinkel T. Common mental disorders and disability across cultures. Results from the WHO Collaborative Study on Psychological Problems in General Health Care. JAMA 1994;272:1741-8.

12.Thornicroft G, Brohan E, Rose D, Sartorius N, Leese M, INDIGO Study Group. Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination against people with schizophrenia. A cross-sectional survey. Lancet 2009;373:408-15.

13.Armstrong G, Kermode M, Raja S, Suja S, Chandra P, Jorm AF. A mental health training program for community health workers in India. Impact on knowledge and attitudes. Int J Ment Health Syst 2011;5:17.

14.Maulik PK, Kallakuri S, Devarapalli S, Vadlamani VS, Jha V, Patel A. Increasing use of mental health services in remote areas using mobile technology. A pre-post evaluation of the SMART Mental Health project in rural India. J Global Health 2017;7:1-13.

15.16.Ganguly KK, Sharma HK, Krishnamachari KA. An ethnographic account of opium consumers of Rajasthan (India). Socio-medical perspective. Addiction 1995;90:9-12.

17.Chaturvedi HK, Mahanta J. Sociocultural diversity and substance use pattern in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Drug Alcohol Depend 2004;74:97-104. 18.Chaturvedi HK, Mahanta J, Bajpai RC, Pandey A.

Correlates of opium use. Retrospective analysis of a survey of tribal communities in Arunachal Pradesh, India. BMC Public Health 2013;13:325. 19.Mohindra KS, Narayana D, Anushreedha SS, Haddad S.

Alcohol use and its consequences in South India. Views from a marginalised tribal population. Drug Alcohol Depend 2011;117:70-3. 20.Sreeraj VS, Prasad S, Khess CR, Uvais NA.

Reasons for substance use. A comparative study of alcohol use in tribals and non-tribals. Indian J Psychol Med 2012;34:242-6. [PUBMED] [Full text] 21.Whiteford HA, Degenhardt L, Rehm J, Baxter AJ, Ferrari AJ, Erskine HE, et al.

Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders. Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2013;382:1575-86. 22.Janakiram C, Joseph J, Vasudevan S, Taha F, DeepanKumar CV, Venkitachalam R.

Prevalence and dependancy of tobacco use in an indigenous population of Kerala, India. Oral Hygiene and Health 2016;4:1 23.Manimunda SP, Benegal V, Sugunan AP, Jeemon P, Balakrishna N, Thennarusu K, et al. Tobacco use and nicotine dependency in a cross-sectional representative sample of 18,018 individuals in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. BMC Public Health 2012;12:515.

24.Singh PK, Singh RK, Biswas A, Rao VR. High rate of suicide attempt and associated psychological traits in an isolated tribal population of North-East India. J Affect Dis 2013;151:673-8. 25.Sushila J.

Perception of Illness and Health Care among Bhils. A Study of Udaipur District in Southern Rajasthan. 2005. 26.Sobhanjan S, Mukhopadhyay B.

Perceived psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Observations among the Bhutias of Sikkim, India. Stress Health 2008;24:23-34. 27.Ali A, Eqbal S.

Mental Health status of tribal school going adolescents. A study from rural community of Ranchi, Jharkhand. Telangana J Psychiatry 2016;2:38-41. 28.Diwan R.

Stress and mental health of tribal and non tribal female school teachers in Jharkhand, India. Int J Sci Res Publicat 2012;2:2250-3153. 29.Longkumer I, Borooah PI. Knowledge about attitudes toward mental disorders among Nagas in North East India.

IOSR J Humanities Soc Sci 2013;15:41-7. 30.Lakhan R, Kishore MT. Down syndrome in tribal population in India. A field observation.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2016;7:40-3. [PUBMED] [Full text] 31.Nizamie HS, Akhtar S, Banerjee S, Goyal N. Health care delivery model in epilepsy to reduce treatment gap. WHO study from a rural tribal population of India.

Epilepsy Res Elsevier 2009;84:146-52. 32.Prabhakar H, Manoharan R. The Tribal Health Initiative model for healthcare delivery. A clinical and epidemiological approach.

Natl Med J India 2005;18:197-204. 33.Nimgaonkar AU, Menon SD. A task shifting mental health program for an impoverished rural Indian community. Asian J Psychiatr 2015;16:41-7.

34.Yalsangi M. Evaluation of a Community Mental Health Programme in a Tribal Area- South India. Achutha Menon Centre For Health Sciences Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Working Paper No 12. 2012.

35.Tripathy P, Nirmala N, Sarah B, Rajendra M, Josephine B, Shibanand R, et al. Effect of a participatory intervention with women's groups on birth outcomes and maternal depression in Jharkhand and Orissa, India. A cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2010;375:1182-92.

36.Aparajita C, Anita KM, Arundhati R, Chetana P. Assessing Social-support network among the socio culturally disadvantaged children in India. Early Child Develop Care 1996;121:37-47. 37.Chowdhury AN, Mondal R, Brahma A, Biswas MK.

Eco-psychiatry and environmental conservation. Study from Sundarban Delta, India. Environ Health Insights 2008;2:61-76. 38.Jeffery GS, Chakrapani U.

Eco-psychiatry and Environmental Conservation. Study from Sundarban Delta, India. Working Paper- Research Gate.net. September, 2016.

39.Ozer S, Acculturation, adaptation, and mental health among Ladakhi College Students a mixed methods study of an indigenous population. J Cross Cultl Psychol 2015;46:435-53. 40.Giri DK, Chaudhary S, Govinda M, Banerjee A, Mahto AK, Chakravorty PK. Utilization of psychiatric services by tribal population of Jharkhand through community outreach programme of RINPAS.

Eastern J Psychiatry 2007;10:25-9. 41.Nandi DN, Banerjee G, Chowdhury AN, Banerjee T, Boral GC, Sen B. Urbanization and mental morbidity in certain tribal communities in West Bengal. Indian J Psychiatry 1992;34:334-9.

[PUBMED] [Full text] 42.Hackett RJ, Sagdeo D, Creed FH. The physical and social associations of common mental disorder in a tribal population in South India. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2007;42:712-5. 43.Raina SK, Raina S, Chander V, Grover A, Singh S, Bhardwaj A.

Development of a cognitive screening instrument for tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in northern India. J Neurosci Rural Pract 2013;4:147-53. [PUBMED] [Full text] 44.Raina SK, Raina S, Chander V, Grover A, Singh S, Bhardwaj A. Identifying risk for dementia across populations.

A study on the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in Northern India. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2013;16:640-4. [PUBMED] [Full text] 45.Raina SK, Chander V, Raina S, Kumar D. Feasibility of using everyday abilities scale of India as alternative to mental state examination as a screen in two-phase survey estimating the prevalence of dementia in largely illiterate Indian population.

Indian J Psychiatry 2016;58:459-61. [PUBMED] [Full text] 46.Diwan R. Mental health of tribal male-female factory workers in Jharkhand. IJAIR 2012;2278:234-42.

47.Banerjee T, Mukherjee SP, Nandi DN, Banerjee G, Mukherjee A, Sen B, et al. Psychiatric morbidity in an urbanized tribal (Santal) community - A field survey. Indian J Psychiatry 1986;28:243-8. [PUBMED] [Full text] 48.Leske S, Harris MG, Charlson FJ, Ferrari AJ, Baxter AJ, Logan JM, et al.

Systematic review of interventions for Indigenous adults with mental and substance use disorders in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2016;50:1040-54. 49.Pollock NJ, Naicker K, Loro A, Mulay S, Colman I. Global incidence of suicide among Indigenous peoples.

A systematic review. BMC Med 2018;16:145. 50.Silburn K, et al. Evaluation of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health (Australian institute for primary care, trans.).

Correspondence Address:S V. Siddhardh Kumar DevarapalliGeorge Institute for Global Health, Plot No. 57, Second Floor, Corporation Bank Building, Nagarjuna Circle, Punjagutta, Hyderabad - 500 082, Telangana IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest.

NoneDOI. 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_136_19 Figures [Figure 1] Tables [Table 1], [Table 2].

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Starting propecia early

It’s leveraging expertise to respond more quickly to outbreaks by "pivoting to work together," starting propecia early said Jean Patterson, lead program officer for the CREID my sources network. Researchers can use a prototype pathogen approach to study how and where infectious diseases emerge from wildlife to make the leap into people. Reporting from 10 centers in the US and 28 other countries, scientists are developing diagnostic, therapeutic, and treatment families that can be targeted and deployed faster the next time a "Pathogen X" unleashes into the world.

Krammer, who did not respond to interview requests, has speculated that new treatments could be developed just 3 weeks after discovering a new propecia, and could be used immediately in a phase 3 trial — vaulting starting propecia early past phase 1-2 trials. "Since a correlate of production was determined for a closely related propecia, the correlate can be used to measure treatment efficacy," he writes. Then, results from the clinical trial could be available close to 3 months later.

And while clinical trials are underway, production could be ramped up globally and distribution chains starting propecia early activated in advance, so at that 3-month mark, treatment rollout could start right away, he suggests. New world records would be set. And in the event the propecia that emerges is identical or nearly indistinguishable to one of the developed treatments, existing http://www.buxmontseniorservices.org/business-services-ssi stockpiles could already be used for phase 3 trials, which would buy even more time.

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"For a propecia that spreads less efficiently than SARSCoV-2, it may take significantly longer for enough events to occur in the treatment population to evaluate efficacy," says Wang..

It’s leveraging expertise to respond more quickly to outbreaks propecia pill cost by "pivoting to work together," said Jean Patterson, lead program officer for the CREID network. Researchers can use a prototype pathogen approach to study how and where infectious diseases emerge from wildlife to make the leap into people. Reporting from 10 centers in the US and 28 other countries, scientists are developing diagnostic, therapeutic, and treatment families that can be targeted and deployed faster the next time a "Pathogen X" unleashes into the world.

Krammer, who did not respond to interview requests, has speculated that new treatments could be developed propecia pill cost just 3 weeks after discovering a new propecia, and could be used immediately in a phase 3 trial — vaulting past phase 1-2 trials. "Since a correlate of production was determined for a closely related propecia, the correlate can be used to measure treatment efficacy," he writes. Then, results from the clinical trial could be available close to 3 months later.

And while clinical trials are propecia pill cost underway, production could be ramped up globally and distribution chains activated in advance, so at that 3-month mark, treatment rollout could start right away, he suggests. New world records would be set. And in the event the propecia that emerges is identical or nearly indistinguishable to one of the developed treatments, existing stockpiles could already be used for phase 3 trials, which would buy even more time.

But how propecia pill cost fast is too fast?. Wang, now a professor at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, says he's not sure if doing a number of phase 1 and 2 trials on related propeciaes would be enough to replace initial studies for a treatment for a new pathogen.

More investment into the understanding of immune response to a wide range of propeciaes will help propecia pill cost inform future treatment development, but the timeline proposed for the phase 3 trial would be an absolute best case scenario, he says. "And it is highly dependent on the rate of at the sites selected for the treatment studies," he says. In the Oxford AstraZeneca studies, there were concerns early on over whether there would be enough cases to gather evidence given the low rate of in the UK over the summer.

"For a propecia that spreads less efficiently than SARSCoV-2, it may take significantly longer for enough events to occur in the treatment population to evaluate efficacy," says Wang..

Do you need a prescription for propecia

The Part B premium is $148.50 do you need a prescription for propecia in 2021. MIPP is for some groups who are either not eligible for -- or who are not yet enrolled in-- the Medicare Savings Program (MSP), which is the main program that pays the Medicare Part B premium for low-income people. Some people are not eligible for an MSP even though they have full Medicaid with no spend down.

This is because they are in a special Medicaid eligibility category -- discussed below -- with Medicaid income limits that are actually HIGHER do you need a prescription for propecia than the MSP income limits. MIPP reimburses them for their Part B premium because they have “full Medicaid” (no spend down) but are ineligible for MSP because their income is above the MSP SLIMB level (120% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). Even if their income is under the QI-1 MSP level (135% FPL), someone cannot have both QI-1 and Medicaid).

Instead, these consumers can have their Part B premium reimbursed through the do you need a prescription for propecia MIPP program. In this article. The MIPP program was established because the State determined that those who have full Medicaid and Medicare Part B should be reimbursed for their Part B premium, even if they do not qualify for MSP, because Medicare is considered cost effective third party health insurance, and because consumers must enroll in Medicare as a condition of eligibility for Medicaid (See 89 ADM 7).

There are generally four groups of dual-eligible consumers that are eligible for do you need a prescription for propecia MIPP. Therefore, many MBI WPD consumers have incomes higher than what MSP normally allows, but still have full Medicaid with no spend down. Those consumers can qualify for MIPP and have their Part B premiums reimbursed.

Here is an do you need a prescription for propecia example. Sam is age 50 and has Medicare and MBI-WPD. She gets $1500/mo gross from Social Security Disability and also makes $400/month through work activity.

$ 167.50 -- EARNED INCOME - Because she is disabled, the DAB earned income disregard applies do you need a prescription for propecia. $400 - $65 = $335. Her countable earned income is 1/2 of $335 = $167.50 + $1500.00 -- UNEARNED INCOME from Social Security Disability = $1,667.50 --TOTAL income.

This is above the do you need a prescription for propecia SLIMB limit of $1,288 (2021) but she can still qualify for MIPP. 2. Parent/Caretaker Relatives with MAGI-like Budgeting - Including Medicare Beneficiaries.

Consumers who fall into the DAB category (Age 65+/Disabled/Blind) and would otherwise be do you need a prescription for propecia budgeted with non-MAGI rules can opt to use Affordable Care Act MAGI rules if they are the parent/caretaker of a child under age 18 or under age 19 and in school full time. This is referred to as “MAGI-like budgeting.” Under MAGI rules income can be up to 138% of the FPL—again, higher than the limit for DAB budgeting, which is equivalent to only 83% FPL. MAGI-like consumers can be enrolled in either MSP or MIPP, depending on if their income is higher or lower than 120% of the FPL.

If their income is under 120% FPL, they are eligible do you need a prescription for propecia for MSP as a SLIMB. If income is above 120% FPL, then they can enroll in MIPP. (See GIS 18 MA/001 - 2018 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare, #4) 3.

New Medicare Enrollees who are Not Yet in a Medicare Savings Program When a consumer has Medicaid through the New do you need a prescription for propecia York State of Health (NYSoH) Marketplace and then enrolls in Medicare when she turns age 65 or because she received Social Security Disability for 24 months, her Medicaid case is normally** transferred to the local department of social services (LDSS)(HRA in NYC) to be rebudgeted under non-MAGI budgeting. During the transition process, she should be reimbursed for the Part B premiums via MIPP. However, the transition time can vary based on age.

AGE 65+ do you need a prescription for propecia For those who enroll in Medicare at age 65+, the Medicaid case takes about four months to be rebudgeted and approved by the LDSS. The consumer is entitled to MIPP payments for at least three months during the transition. Once the case is with the LDSS she should automatically be re-evaluated for MSP.

Consumers UNDER 65 who receive Medicare due do you need a prescription for propecia to disability status are entitled to keep MAGI Medicaid through NYSoH for up to 12 months (also known as continuous coverage, See NY Social Services Law 366, subd. 4(c). These consumers should receive MIPP payments for as long as their cases remain with NYSoH and throughout the transition to the LDSS.

NOTE during hair loss treatment emergency their case may remain with NYSoH for more do you need a prescription for propecia than 12 months. See here. See GIS 18 MA/001 - 2018 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare, #4 for an explanation of this process.

Note do you need a prescription for propecia. During the hair loss treatment emergency, those who have Medicaid through the NYSOH marketplace and enroll in Medicare should NOT have their cases transitioned to the LDSS. They should keep the same MAGI budgeting and automatically receive MIPP payments.

See GIS do you need a prescription for propecia 20 MA/04 or this article on hair loss treatment eligibility changes 4. Those with Special Budgeting after Losing SSI (DAC, Pickle, 1619b) Disabled Adult Child (DAC). Special budgeting is available to those who are 18+ and lose SSI because they begin receiving Disabled Adult Child (DAC) benefits (or receive an increase in the amount of their benefit).

Consumer must do you need a prescription for propecia have become disabled or blind before age 22 to receive the benefit. If the new DAC benefit amount was disregarded and the consumer would otherwise be eligible for SSI, they can keep Medicaid eligibility with NO SPEND DOWN. See this article.

Consumers may have income higher than MSP limits, but keep full Medicaid do you need a prescription for propecia with no spend down. Therefore, they are eligible for payment of their Part B premiums. See page 96 of the Medicaid Reference Guide (Categorical Factors).

If their income is lower than the MSP SLIMB threshold, they can be added to do you need a prescription for propecia MSP. If higher than the threshold, they can be reimbursed via MIPP. See also 95-ADM-11.

Medical Assistance Eligibility for Disabled Adult Children, Section C (pg 8) do you need a prescription for propecia. Pickle &. 1619B.

5. When the Part B Premium Reduces Countable Income to Below the Medicaid Limit Since the Part B premium can be used as a deduction from gross income, it may reduce someone's countable income to below the Medicaid limit. The consumer should be paid the difference to bring her up to the Medicaid level ($904/month in 2021).

They will only be reimbursed for the difference between their countable income and $904, not necessarily the full amount of the premium. See GIS 02-MA-019. Reimbursement of Health Insurance Premiums MIPP and MSP are similar in that they both pay for the Medicare Part B premium, but there are some key differences.

MIPP structures the payments as reimbursement -- beneficiaries must continue to pay their premium (via a monthly deduction from their Social Security check or quarterly billing, if they do not receive Social Security) and then are reimbursed via check. In contrast, MSP enrollees are not charged for their premium. Their Social Security check usually increases because the Part B premium is no longer withheld from their check.

MIPP only provides reimbursement for Part B. It does not have any of the other benefits MSPs can provide, such as. A consumer cannot have MIPP without also having Medicaid, whereas MSP enrollees can have MSP only.

Of the above benefits, Medicaid also provides Part D Extra Help automatic eligibility. There is no application process for MIPP because consumers should be screened and enrolled automatically (00 OMM/ADM-7). Either the state or the LDSS is responsible for screening &.

Distributing MIPP payments, depending on where the Medicaid case is held and administered (14 /2014 LCM-02 Section V). If a consumer is eligible for MIPP and is not receiving it, they should contact whichever agency holds their case and request enrollment. Unfortunately, since there is no formal process for applying, it may require some advocacy.

If Medicaid case is at New York State of Health they should call 1-855-355-5777. Consumers will likely have to ask for a supervisor in order to find someone familiar with MIPP. If Medicaid case is with HRA in New York City, they should email mipp@hra.nyc.gov.

If Medicaid case is with other local districts in NYS, call your local county DSS. Once enrolled, it make take a few months for payments to begin. Payments will be made in the form of checks from the Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), the fiscal agent for the New York State Medicaid program.

MIPP is for some groups who are either not eligible for -- or who propecia pill cost http://oneworldjiujitsu.com/photos-videos/ are not yet enrolled in-- the Medicare Savings Program (MSP), which is the main program that pays the Medicare Part B premium for low-income people. Some people are not eligible for an MSP even though they have full Medicaid with no spend down. This is because they are in a special Medicaid eligibility category -- discussed below -- with Medicaid income limits that are actually HIGHER than the MSP income limits.

MIPP reimburses them for their Part B premium because they have “full Medicaid” (no spend down) but are propecia pill cost ineligible for MSP because their income is above the MSP SLIMB level (120% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). Even if their income is under the QI-1 MSP level (135% FPL), someone cannot have both QI-1 and Medicaid). Instead, these consumers can have their Part B premium reimbursed through the MIPP program.

In this propecia pill cost article. The MIPP program was established because the State determined that those who have full Medicaid and Medicare Part B should be reimbursed for their Part B premium, even if they do not qualify for MSP, because Medicare is considered cost effective third party health insurance, and because consumers must enroll in Medicare as a condition of eligibility for Medicaid (See 89 ADM 7). There are generally four groups of dual-eligible consumers that are eligible for MIPP.

Therefore, many MBI WPD consumers have incomes higher than what MSP normally allows, but still have propecia pill cost full Medicaid with no spend down. Those consumers can qualify for MIPP and have their Part B premiums reimbursed. Here is an example.

Sam is propecia pill cost age 50 and has Medicare and MBI-WPD. She gets $1500/mo gross from Social Security Disability and also makes $400/month through work activity. $ 167.50 -- EARNED INCOME - Because she is disabled, the DAB earned income disregard applies.

$400 - $65 = propecia pill cost $335. Her countable earned income is 1/2 of $335 = $167.50 + $1500.00 -- UNEARNED INCOME from Social Security Disability = $1,667.50 --TOTAL income. This is above the SLIMB limit of $1,288 (2021) but she can still qualify for MIPP.

2 propecia pill cost. Parent/Caretaker Relatives with MAGI-like Budgeting - Including Medicare Beneficiaries. Consumers who fall into the DAB category (Age 65+/Disabled/Blind) and would otherwise be budgeted with non-MAGI rules can opt to use Affordable Care Act MAGI rules if they are the parent/caretaker of a child under age 18 or under age 19 and in school full time.

This is referred to as “MAGI-like budgeting.” Under MAGI rules income can be up to 138% of the FPL—again, higher than the limit for DAB budgeting, which is equivalent to only 83% propecia pill cost FPL. MAGI-like consumers can be enrolled in either MSP or MIPP, depending on if their income is higher or lower than 120% of the FPL. If their income is under 120% FPL, they are eligible for MSP as a SLIMB.

If income is above propecia pill cost 120% FPL, then they can enroll in MIPP. (See GIS 18 MA/001 - 2018 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare, #4) 3. New Medicare Enrollees who are Not Yet in a Medicare Savings Program When a consumer has Medicaid through the New York State of Health (NYSoH) Marketplace and then enrolls in Medicare when she turns age 65 or because she received Social Security Disability for 24 months, her Medicaid case is normally** transferred to the local department of social services (LDSS)(HRA in NYC) to be rebudgeted under non-MAGI budgeting.

During the transition process, she should be propecia pill cost reimbursed for the Part B premiums via MIPP. However, the transition time can vary based on age. AGE 65+ For those who enroll in Medicare at age 65+, the Medicaid case takes about four months to be rebudgeted and approved by the LDSS.

The consumer propecia pill cost is entitled to MIPP payments for at least three months during the transition. Once the case is with the LDSS she should automatically be re-evaluated for MSP. Consumers UNDER 65 who receive Medicare due to disability status are entitled to keep MAGI Medicaid through NYSoH for up to 12 months (also known as continuous coverage, See NY Social Services Law 366, subd.

4(c). These consumers should receive MIPP payments for as long as their cases remain with NYSoH and throughout the transition to the LDSS. NOTE during hair loss treatment emergency their case may remain with NYSoH for more than 12 months.

See here. See GIS 18 MA/001 - 2018 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare, #4 for an explanation of this process. Note.

During the hair loss treatment emergency, those who have Medicaid through the NYSOH marketplace and enroll in Medicare should NOT have their cases transitioned to the LDSS. They should keep the same MAGI budgeting and automatically http://specialmomentsphotobooth.com/rockfords-very-own-frost-and-friends-11-11-11 receive MIPP payments. See GIS 20 MA/04 or this article on hair loss treatment eligibility changes 4.

Those with Special Budgeting after Losing SSI (DAC, Pickle, 1619b) Disabled Adult Child (DAC). Special budgeting is available to those who are 18+ and lose SSI because they begin receiving Disabled Adult Child (DAC) benefits (or receive an increase in the amount of their benefit). Consumer must have become disabled or blind before age 22 to receive the benefit.

If the new DAC benefit amount was disregarded and the consumer would otherwise be eligible for SSI, they can keep Medicaid eligibility with NO SPEND DOWN. See this article. Consumers may have income higher than MSP limits, but keep full Medicaid with no spend down.

Therefore, they are eligible for payment of their Part B premiums. See page 96 of the Medicaid Reference Guide (Categorical Factors). If their income is lower than the MSP SLIMB threshold, they can be added to MSP.

If higher than the threshold, they can be reimbursed via MIPP. See also 95-ADM-11. Medical Assistance Eligibility for Disabled Adult Children, Section C (pg 8).

When the Part B Premium Reduces Countable Income to Below the Medicaid Limit Since the Part B premium can be used as a deduction from gross income, it may reduce someone's countable income to below the Medicaid limit. The consumer should be paid the difference to bring her up to the Medicaid level ($904/month in 2021). They will only be reimbursed for the difference between their countable income and $904, not necessarily the full amount of the premium.

See GIS 02-MA-019. Reimbursement of Health Insurance Premiums MIPP and MSP are similar in that they both pay for the Medicare Part B premium, but there are some key differences. MIPP structures the payments as reimbursement -- beneficiaries must continue to pay their premium (via a monthly deduction from their Social Security check or quarterly billing, if they do not receive Social Security) and then are reimbursed via check.

In contrast, MSP enrollees are not charged for their premium. Their Social Security check usually increases because the Part B premium is no longer withheld from their check. MIPP only provides reimbursement for Part B.

It does not have any of the other benefits MSPs can provide, such as. A consumer cannot have MIPP without also having Medicaid, whereas MSP enrollees can have MSP only. Of the above benefits, Medicaid also provides Part D Extra Help automatic eligibility.

There is no application process for MIPP because consumers should be screened and enrolled automatically (00 OMM/ADM-7). Either the state or the LDSS is responsible for screening &. Distributing MIPP payments, depending on where the Medicaid case is held and administered (14 /2014 LCM-02 Section V).

If a consumer is eligible for MIPP and is not receiving it, they should contact whichever agency holds their case and request enrollment. Unfortunately, since there is no formal process for applying, it may require some advocacy. If Medicaid case is at New York State of Health they should call 1-855-355-5777.

Consumers will likely have to ask for a supervisor in order to find someone familiar with MIPP. If Medicaid case is with HRA in New York City, they should email mipp@hra.nyc.gov. If Medicaid case is with other local districts in NYS, call your local county DSS.

Once enrolled, it make take a few months for payments to begin. Payments will be made in the form of checks from the Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), the fiscal agent for the New York State Medicaid program. The check itself comes attached to a remittance notice from Medicaid Management Information Systems (MMIS).