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€˜None of zithromax generic price azithromycin zithromax or doxycycline us will be safe until everyone is safe. Global access to antibiotics zithromax generic price treatments, tests and treatments for everyone who needs them, anywhere, is the only way out’. This statement by Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of the WHO and Ursula von der Leyen, President of the European Commission1 has become the rallying call for buy antibiotics vaccination.

The success of a safe and efficacious buy antibiotics treatment depends just not only on production and zithromax generic price availability but also crucially on uptake.In countries such as the UK where buy antibiotics treatment prioritisation and rollout are proceeding quickly, attitudes to vaccination have rapidly become a priority.2 treatment hesitancy (‘behavioural delay in acceptance or refusal of treatments despite availability of treatment services’)3 is not a single entity. Reasons vary and there zithromax generic price is a continuum from complete acceptance to refusal of all treatments, with treatment hesitancy lying between the two poles. Factors involved include confidence (trusting or not the treatment or provider), complacency (seeing the need or value of a treatment) and convenience (easy, convenient access to the treatment).3 4 Importantly, attitudes to vaccination can change and people who are initially hesitant can still come to see a treatment’s safety, efficacy and necessity.5Developing strategies to address hesitancy is key.6 The expedited development and relative novelty of the buy antibiotics treatments have led to public uncertainty.4 In addition, efforts to explain the mode of action of these treatments involve a degree of complexity (eg, immune response and genetic mechanisms), which is difficult to communicate quickly and simply.

There are genuine knowledge voids (eg, long-term safety data), which in some cases have been filled with misinformation.7 zithromax generic price Recent studies have assessed potential acceptance rates specifically for the buy antibiotics treatment. A UK study of more than 5000 adults using a validated scale found 71.7% zithromax generic price were willing to be vaccinated, 16.6% were very unsure and 11.7% were strongly hesitant, with hesitancy relatively evenly spread across the population.8 Willingness to take a treatment was closely bound to recognition of the collective importance of this decision as well as beliefs about the likelihood of buy antibiotics , the efficacy, speed of development and side effects of the treatment. This implies that public information emphasising social benefits may be especially effective, at least in a majority of a population, and information that encourages mistrust or undermines social cohesion will lower treatment uptake.We also need to consider more focused strategies about treatment hesitancy for particular groups, including those groups who are most at risk of hesitancy and severe course of illness.

As mental health clinicians, we assessed the impact of mental health conditions on buy antibiotics treatment hesitancy and searched for current guidance in this area using a validated approach.9 We found that there is currently no specific guidance in addressing treatment hesitancy in those with mental health difficulties,10 although it is recognised that this is a high-risk group zithromax generic price who should be monitored. People with mental health issues, particularly with severe mental illness (SMI), are at particular risk both for with buy antibiotics and for more severe complications and higher mortality.11 Historically, the uptake of similar treatments such as the influenza treatment in those with SMI can be as low as 25%,12 and so, similar zithromax generic price to other low uptake groups, focused efforts are needed to increase this. Suggestions for change include offering specific discussions from mental health professionals and peer workers, treatment education and awareness focused for those with SMI, vaccination programmes within mental health services (with coexistent organisational change to facilitate this), alignment with other preventative health strategies (such as influenza vaccination, smoking cessation, metabolic monitoring), focused outreach and monitoring uptake.13Monitoring of vulnerable groups treatment uptake itself presents problems.

In the example zithromax generic price of the UK, monitoring of treatment coverage of most routine immunisation programmes relies on data extracted from primary care systems. To monitor vulnerable groups, the data need to be specifically zithromax generic price recorded. For example, Public Health England’s national immunisation equity audit in 2019 identified inequalities in uptake by a number of important variables (such as age, geography, ethnicity) but could not assess others including mental illness due to a lack of systematically collected data.14 Inequalities that were assessed by the audit were not only in overall coverage but also in timing of treatments and completion of treatment schedules.

In addition, the extent of a particular inequality varies zithromax generic price when it intersects with one or more other factors. In the case of mental illness, multiple long-term conditions across mental and physical health domains as well as socio-economic factors means that both vulnerability and zithromax generic price inequality are likely to be additive.11 However, treatment impact may be greater among the most vulnerable despite lower treatment uptake because the baseline absolute risk is so high.15 Therefore, in the context of a buy antibiotics treatment programme, even if treatment uptake falls short in some high-risk groups, even small increases in treatment uptake will still have significant health benefits.14Uptake of vaccination is crucial both for the individual and protection of others. It is in everyone’s interests to ensure that groups where a low uptake is predicted have extra care and input.

At the moment there is little formal guidance on how to support those with mental health issues to access clear and reliable information, and practical zithromax generic price and easy access to vaccination for those who are willing. If we are to ensure that ‘everyone is safe’, we need a concerted and global effort16 to guide and focus strategies to support and inform those who are both potentially most hesitant and most vulnerable, including and prioritising those with mental health difficulties..

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AdvertisementContinue reading the main storySupported byContinue reading http://gustinrealestate.com/contact the main storyWhat to Look for in a Physical TherapistNot all P.T.s zithromax for sinusitis are created equal. Find a professional who zithromax for sinusitis values evidence over anecdote.In some instances, exercise during physical therapy is even as effective as surgery.Credit...Getty ImagesJuly 6, 2021, 2:03 p.m. ETThere’s been a quiet revolution taking place in the field of physical therapy.

In the early 2000s, you could go to zithromax for sinusitis five different physical therapists for an injury and receive five different treatment plans. Some would have advised targeted exercises to strengthen muscles or classic treatments, like heat and cold packs.Others might have relied on “voodoo treatments” like uasound, lasers and electrotherapy, despite the fact that experts weren’t really sure how — or even if — they worked. Today, many of those techniques have zithromax for sinusitis been set aside as the science has slowly accumulated that they don’t accelerate healing.

You may still find them in some offices, however, as the field has struggled with a lack of uniformity and a lingering reputation for pseudoscience, leaving patients unsure whom to trust.Take uasound, for instance. The technique zithromax for sinusitis has been used in physical therapy since the 1950s to treat everything from back pain to ankle sprains using high-frequency sound waves to speed the healing process. As early as the 1990s, uasound’s efficacy started to be debunked, with few studies showing any clinical benefit, but it’s taken over 20 years for the technique to finally fall out of favor with practitioners.“There’s very little, if any, evidence that uasound does anything at all,” said Bruce Greenfield, a professor in the department of rehabilitation medicine at Emory University.

€œBut P.T.s are using it, and they’re charging for it, and they’re zithromax for sinusitis getting reimbursed for it — basically for a technique that’s not effective. Is that fraud?. I don’t know.”Over the last 15 years, leaders in zithromax for sinusitis the physical therapy field have worked to shed this reputation, improving standards and consistency.

They’ve developed systems to diagnose and classify injuries and turned to scientific research to create evidence-backed treatment guidelines. €œThat’s how you change the face of the profession,” said David Wert, an associate professor of physical therapy at the University of Pittsburgh zithromax for sinusitis. €œUsing evidence and applying interventions for folks that are meaningful.”A Shift From Passive to Active TreatmentOriginally, physical therapy was largely based on the use of treatments like heat and ice to ease people’s pain and aid healing.

Practitioners have also been quick zithromax for sinusitis to adopt technologies like laser therapy, which purportedly travels through skin and cells to increase energy production in mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell) to accelerate recovery. But a treatment’s effect on a cell in a petri dish doesn’t necessarily translate to a patient in the clinic. The most recent — and some zithromax for sinusitis say most definitive — study on the technique shows no benefit over a placebo.Over the past two decades, studies and meta-analyses (like the one conducted on uasound) have revealed that these types of passive treatments, where patients lie down on a table and have a therapy performed on them, actually do very little.

And in some cases, they can even slow down recovery.For example, ice has long been used to reduce swelling after an injury by constricting blood vessels in the area, which prevents blood and inflammatory cells from reaching the damaged tissue. But those blood and inflammatory cells are also a necessary part of the healing process, and restricting them with a cold pack or ice bath can delay or even prevent recovery.When compared head-to-head, active exercise-based therapies are both less expensive and more effective than passive ones zithromax for sinusitis. In some instances, exercise is even as effective as surgery.

In one study of 350 patients who had meniscal tears, there was no zithromax for sinusitis difference after six months between the patients who’d had surgery and those who’d used active physical therapy. Other research is currently exploring whether the same might be true for partial rotator cuff tears.Instead, what’s emerged from decades of research as a clear winner — whether it’s used to treat low back pain or frozen shoulder or knee ligament injuries — is good old-fashioned exercise.“We have gotten quite a bit more evidence for the effectiveness of exercise in both facilitating recovery and also protecting people from different kinds of injuries or diseases,” said James Gordon, chair of the division of biokinesiology and physical therapy at the University of Southern California. Marilyn Moffat, a professor of physical therapy at New York University, agreed, saying that for every type of patient seen by physical therapists, “whether it’s patients with cardiovascular disease, whether it’s patients with diabetes, whether it’s patients with orthopedic problems or fibromyalgia or neuromuscular disorders or falls or frailty or obesity, the literature out there in terms of exercise interventions is so strong for every single one.”Changing the Field, SlowlyThese days, most zithromax for sinusitis physical therapists recognize that treatments should consist of exercises that improve strength and flexibility, as well as ergonomic adjustments to people’s work or workout routines to prevent future injuries.

However, some practitioners argue that passive treatments still have their place and they are still taught in physical therapy doctorate programs.James Irrgang, chair of the physical therapy department at the University of Pittsburgh, said he wasn’t surprised there is still a gap between what evidence shows is effective and what some clinical practices do. Across medicine, it traditionally takes 17 years for research to make its way to the zithromax for sinusitis clinic. As a result, Dr.

Irrgang said zithromax for sinusitis that much of the emphasis in physical http://www.em-holtzheim.ac-strasbourg.fr/2020/11/01/reprise-du-2-novembre/ therapy now is on implementation. €œHow do we get the clinicians to adhere to the best available evidence?. €He hope the answer is zithromax for sinusitis through education.

In 2006, Dr. Irrgang — who at the time was the president of the Academy of Orthopaedic Physical Therapy — helped zithromax for sinusitis develop guidelines in the form of a report card for diagnostic and treatment techniques commonly used by physical therapists, based on the best scientific evidence.Some techniques, like doing exercises to increase quadriceps strength after an A.C.L. Tear, get an A.

Others, like using electrotherapy to improve heel pain zithromax for sinusitis for plantar fasciitis, get a D.What to Look for in a Physical TherapistSo how can you tell if your P.T. Is relying on the best science?. During your first visit, the physical therapist will evaluate your symptoms, level of pain, how you move and your limitations for range of motion, strength and balance zithromax for sinusitis.

That will become the basis of a diagnosis. This is zithromax for sinusitis not a medical diagnosis. The physical therapist wants to know what is limiting the function of, say, your knee, via muscle weakness or joint stiffness.Dr.

Moffat said that this initial zithromax for sinusitis appointment is a good time to decide whether you want to work with the physical therapist. €œThe most important thing is what the therapist does with their initial exam,” she said. €œDo they really take the zithromax for sinusitis time initially to examine what’s going on and then determine what’s most appropriate for that patient?.

€After the evaluation, the treatment they recommend should be evidence-based, drawing from the clinical practice guidelines, but it should also be tailored to your individual limitations and goals. It should also be active, incorporating strengthening and stretching exercises.It’s important zithromax for sinusitis for the physical therapist to be empathetic and honest about what your course of treatment will entail, because the process can be painful. Whether or not you like your practitioner can also make a big difference in how you see the outcome.

According to one meta-analysis, patients consistently rated their physical therapists based on how much they liked them as people, not on whether or not they got zithromax for sinusitis better.And if you find yourself in a clinic where passive therapies like heat packs or uasound seem to be the main approach to treatment, “Find another place to go,” Dr. Gordon said. Those treatments zithromax for sinusitis may be useful for temporarily reducing pain or inflammation, “but they are not therapeutic in and of themselves.

They are adjuncts to treatment.”This approach to physical therapy may not use lasers or cryocompression pants or whatever the hot new toy is, and it requires work on the patient’s part, but it does work.“I think we are improving what we do, but I think it’s an evolution,” said Dr. Gordon, who’s been practicing physical therapy for zithromax for sinusitis over 40 years. Incremental, evidence-based advances are “having an impact, but it’s not sexy.

It’s not a new robotic zithromax for sinusitis thing. It’s hard to put it on the seven o’clock news. But it is truly a revolution in health care.”Dana Smith is a health and science writer based in zithromax for sinusitis Durham, N.C.

Her work has appeared in The Atlantic, The Guardian, Scientific American, STAT and more.AdvertisementContinue reading the main story.

AdvertisementContinue reading the main storySupported byContinue zithromax generic price reading the main storyWhat to Look for in a Physical TherapistNot all P.T.s are created equal. Find a professional who values evidence over anecdote.In some instances, zithromax generic price exercise during physical therapy is even as effective as surgery.Credit...Getty ImagesJuly 6, 2021, 2:03 p.m. ETThere’s been a quiet revolution taking place in the field of physical therapy. In the early 2000s, you zithromax generic price could go to five different physical therapists for an injury and receive five different treatment plans. Some would have advised targeted exercises to strengthen muscles or classic treatments, like heat and cold packs.Others might have relied on “voodoo treatments” like uasound, lasers and electrotherapy, despite the fact that experts weren’t really sure how — or even if — they worked.

Today, many of zithromax generic price those techniques have been set aside as the science has slowly accumulated that they don’t accelerate healing. You may still find them in some offices, however, as the field has struggled with a lack of uniformity and a lingering reputation for pseudoscience, leaving patients unsure whom to trust.Take uasound, for instance. The technique has been used in physical therapy since the 1950s to treat zithromax generic price everything from back pain to ankle sprains using high-frequency sound waves to speed the healing process. As early as the 1990s, uasound’s efficacy started to be debunked, with few studies showing any clinical benefit, but it’s taken over 20 years for the technique to finally fall out of favor with practitioners.“There’s very little, if any, evidence that uasound does anything at all,” said Bruce Greenfield, a professor in the department of rehabilitation medicine at Emory University. €œBut P.T.s are using it, and they’re charging for it, and they’re getting reimbursed for it — basically for a technique that’s not zithromax generic price effective.

Is that fraud?. I don’t know.”Over the last 15 years, zithromax generic price leaders in the physical therapy field have worked to shed this reputation, improving standards and consistency. They’ve developed systems to diagnose and classify injuries and turned to scientific research to create evidence-backed treatment guidelines. €œThat’s how you change the face of the profession,” said David Wert, zithromax generic price an associate professor of physical therapy at the University of Pittsburgh. €œUsing evidence and applying interventions for folks that are meaningful.”A Shift From Passive to Active TreatmentOriginally, physical therapy was largely based on the use of treatments like heat and ice to ease people’s pain and aid healing.

Practitioners have also been quick to adopt technologies like laser therapy, which purportedly travels through skin and cells to increase energy production zithromax generic price in mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell) to accelerate recovery. But a treatment’s effect on a cell in a petri dish doesn’t necessarily translate to a patient in the clinic. The most recent zithromax generic price — and some say most definitive — study on the technique shows no benefit over a placebo.Over the past two decades, studies and meta-analyses (like the one conducted on uasound) have revealed that these types of passive treatments, where patients lie down on a table and have a therapy performed on them, actually do very little. And in some cases, they can even slow down recovery.For example, ice has long been used to reduce swelling after an injury by constricting blood vessels in the area, which prevents blood and inflammatory cells from reaching the damaged tissue. But those blood and inflammatory zithromax generic price cells are also a necessary part of the healing process, and restricting them with a cold pack or ice bath can delay or even prevent recovery.When compared head-to-head, active exercise-based therapies are both less expensive and more effective than passive ones.

In some instances, exercise is even as effective as surgery. In one study of 350 patients who had meniscal tears, there was no difference zithromax generic price after six months between the patients who’d had surgery and those who’d used active physical therapy. Other research is currently exploring whether the same might be true for partial rotator cuff tears.Instead, what’s emerged from decades of research as a clear winner — whether it’s used to treat low back pain or frozen shoulder or knee ligament injuries — is good old-fashioned exercise.“We have gotten quite a bit more evidence for the effectiveness of exercise in both facilitating recovery and also protecting people from different kinds of injuries or diseases,” said James Gordon, chair of the division of biokinesiology and physical therapy at the University of Southern California. Marilyn Moffat, a professor of physical therapy at New York University, agreed, saying that for every type of patient seen by physical therapists, “whether it’s patients with cardiovascular disease, whether it’s patients with diabetes, whether it’s patients with orthopedic problems or fibromyalgia or neuromuscular disorders or falls or frailty or obesity, the literature out there in terms of exercise interventions is so strong for every single one.”Changing the Field, SlowlyThese days, most physical therapists recognize that treatments should consist of exercises that improve strength and flexibility, as well as ergonomic adjustments zithromax generic price to people’s work or workout routines to prevent future injuries. However, some practitioners argue that passive treatments still have their place and they are still taught in physical therapy doctorate programs.James Irrgang, chair of the physical therapy department at the University of Pittsburgh, said he wasn’t surprised there is still a gap between what evidence shows is effective and what some clinical practices do.

Across medicine, it traditionally takes 17 years for research to make its way zithromax generic price to the clinic. As a result, Dr. Irrgang said that much zithromax generic price of the emphasis in physical therapy now is on implementation. €œHow do we get the clinicians to adhere to the best available evidence?. €He hope zithromax generic price the answer is through education.

In 2006, Dr. Irrgang — who at the time was the president of zithromax generic price the Academy of Orthopaedic Physical Therapy — helped develop guidelines in the form of a report card for diagnostic and treatment techniques commonly used by physical therapists, based on the best scientific evidence.Some techniques, like doing exercises to increase quadriceps strength after an A.C.L. Tear, get an A. Others, like using electrotherapy to improve heel pain for plantar fasciitis, get a D.What to Look for in a Physical TherapistSo how can you tell if your P.T zithromax generic price. Is relying on the best science?.

During your first visit, the physical therapist will evaluate your symptoms, level of pain, zithromax generic price how you move and your limitations for range of motion, strength and balance. That will become the basis of a diagnosis. This is zithromax generic price not a medical diagnosis. The physical therapist wants to know what is limiting the function of, say, your knee, via muscle weakness or joint stiffness.Dr. Moffat said zithromax generic price that this initial appointment is a good time to decide whether you want to work with the physical therapist.

€œThe most important thing is what the therapist does with their initial exam,” she said. €œDo they really zithromax generic price take the time initially to examine what’s going on and then determine what’s most appropriate for that patient?. €After the evaluation, the treatment they recommend should be evidence-based, drawing from the clinical practice guidelines, but it should also be tailored to your individual limitations and goals. It should also be active, incorporating strengthening and stretching exercises.It’s important zithromax generic price for the physical therapist to be empathetic and honest about what your course of treatment will entail, because the process can be painful. Whether or not you like your practitioner can also make a big difference in how you see the outcome.

According to one meta-analysis, patients consistently rated their physical therapists based on how much they liked zithromax generic price them as people, not on whether or not they got better.And if you find yourself in a clinic where passive therapies like heat packs or uasound seem to be the main approach to treatment, “Find another place to go,” Dr. Gordon said. Those treatments may be useful for temporarily reducing pain or inflammation, “but they are not therapeutic in and of zithromax generic price themselves. They are adjuncts to treatment.”This approach to physical therapy may not use lasers or cryocompression pants or whatever the hot new toy is, and it requires work on the patient’s part, but it does work.“I think we are improving what we do, but I think it’s an evolution,” said Dr. Gordon, who’s been practicing physical therapy zithromax generic price for over 40 years.

Incremental, evidence-based advances are “having an impact, but it’s not sexy. It’s not a new robotic zithromax generic price thing. It’s hard to put it on the seven o’clock news. But it is truly zithromax generic price a revolution in health care.”Dana Smith is a health and science writer based in Durham, N.C. Her work has appeared in The Atlantic, The Guardian, Scientific American, STAT and more.AdvertisementContinue reading the main story.

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STAT+ is STAT's premium subscription service for in-depth biotech, pharma, policy, zithromax generic price and life science coverage and analysis. Our award-winning team covers news on Wall Street, policy developments in Washington, early science breakthroughs and clinical trial results, and health care disruption in Silicon Valley and beyond. What's included?. Daily reporting and analysis The most comprehensive industry coverage from a powerhouse team of reporters Subscriber-only newsletters Daily newsletters to brief you on the most important industry news of the day STAT+ Conversations Weekly opportunities to engage with our reporters and leading industry experts in live video conversations Exclusive industry events Premium access to subscriber-only networking events around the country The best reporters in the industry The most trusted and well-connected newsroom in the health care industry And much more Exclusive interviews with industry leaders, profiles, and premium tools, like our CRISPR Trackr..

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You have Discover More to go to extreme lengths to find places on Earth that don’t reveal that they’re part of a water-rich zithromax for impetigo planet. Even the highest and driest deserts, like the Atacama Plateau in South America, still get a minimum of a couple of millimeters of annual precipitation on average (although there are places where we don’t yet know what the average is because it’s simply not rained for years). And if you whip out your handy mass spectrometer on a desert walkabout the zithromax for impetigo chances are that you’ll be able to detect at least a few atmospheric water molecules. Go elsewhere, and it’s hard to imagine anything but a water-logged world. More than 70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered in oceans and roughly 97 percent of the surface water is in those oceans, leaving a scant 1 percent as freshwater.

Water is zithromax for impetigo also seldom static, whether it’s flowing in ocean currents or being evaporated and precipitated. Averaged out over the planet there is about 100 centimeters of rainfall a year, but that’s across a total surface area of around 5.1x1018 square centimeters. In other words, doing the back-of-the-envelope calculation, some 510 trillion metric tons of water gets evaporated and then re-precipitated every year on Earth. But the catch is that we zithromax for impetigo don’t really know where all of this water came from in the first place. For a long while our picture of the formation of a rocky planet like the Earth has involved a violent, hot assembly some 4.5 billion years ago out of comparatively dry material in the inner solar system.

Water would have come along later, with proposals for possible delivery by comets from the chill, frozen outer solar system, or by rocky but still volatile-rich meteoritic infall. But these options have proven tricky to justify completely for a zithromax for impetigo variety of reasons. Comets, for instance, often (but not always) have a deuterium concentration that doesn’t match what we see in Earth’s water—limiting their likely contribution. Similarly, water-rich rocky meteoritic material—so-called carbonaceous chondrites—have isotopic differences that could also limit how much they contributed to a zithromax for impetigo young planet. At the same time, the representative type of material for building the entirety of a rocky Earth (and matching the planet’s overall isotopic composition in elements like oxygen and calcium) seems to closely resemble what’s called enstatite chondrite.

Chunks of enstatite chondrite are still around in the solar system, and occasionally fall as meteorites. But they’ve been thought to be too dry to zithromax for impetigo be involved in Earth’s water supply. Now, in a work reported by Piani, et al. In the journal Science, an analysis of the composition of 13 enstatite chondrite meteorite samples reveals a much higher than expected hydrogen content. Extrapolating from these numbers the researchers claim that if this is the type of protoplanetary material that built Earth, it could have resulted in a total, initial water content of at least three times the present mass of water in our zithromax for impetigo oceans.

The same material could have also provided a starter mix of atmospheric nitrogen to the young planet. This possibility is enormously appealing for its relative simplicity. Our wet world was simply made this way from the very beginning, with little need to invoke any more complex evolution zithromax for impetigo except for a small drizzling from comets and other outer solar system material. Whether or not this idea holds up to further scientific scrutiny, it’s a beautiful reminder that even the simplest things in our lives, like a glass of water or a shower in the morning, are actually windows into the deepest origins of everything we know.Scientists just completed one of the most comprehensive investigations of Earth’s climate history—and the findings aren’t favorable. They found that the planet could eventually warm to levels it hasn’t reached in at least 34 million years.

The researchers, led by Thomas Westerhold of the University of Bremen in Germany, constructed datasets using chemical analyses of ancient sediments, drilled from zithromax for impetigo the bottom of the ocean. These sediments, some of which are 66 million years old, are filled with the preserved shells of tiny organisms that can tell scientists about the temperature and chemical composition of the ocean when they were formed. The sediments, collected from around the world over the course of many years, allowed the researchers to reconstruct Earth’s climate history going zithromax for impetigo back to the mass extinction that killed three-quarters of the planet’s species, including dinosaurs. They found that the planet has passed through four distinct climate phases. Warmhouse, hothouse, coolhouse and icehouse states.

Transitions from one state to another have generally depended on changing greenhouse gas levels, often driven zithromax for impetigo by volcanic eruptions and other natural processes, and shifts in the Earth’s orbit that affected the amount of solar energy reaching the planet. In the hottest phases, more than 50 million years ago, temperatures on Earth were more than 10 degrees Celsius hotter than they are today. But it’s important to note that it took the planet thousands or even millions of years to reach these levels—and that was long before humans ever walked the Earth. That’s in stark contrast to the kind of climate change that human activity is driving zithromax for impetigo today. For several million years now, the world has been in an icehouse state.

But that’s quickly changing. If human societies do nothing to curb their greenhouse gas emissions, in just a few centuries the Earth could once zithromax for impetigo again reach a temperature threshold not seen for at least 34 million years. Before the industrial era, such a magnitude of warming would have taken thousands of years to occur, at least. €œIf you look at the worst-case scenario [by 2300], the change in mean global temperature is larger than most of the natural variability going back over the last zithromax for impetigo 66 million years related to changes in the Earth’s orbit,” said Jim Zachos, a paleoclimatologist at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and a co-author of the new study, which was published Thursday in the journal Science. It’s not an inevitable future.

With immediate and stringent action to reduce climate change, the world can keep global temperatures from rising more than a few degrees above their preindustrial levels. But the study does warn that without these efforts, Earth is zithromax for impetigo on track for some of the strongest, fastest climate change the planet has ever experienced. The study may also provide some important insights into how climate change could unfold in the coming decades and centuries. Earth’s climate doesn’t always shift in linear, predictable ways. There are all kinds of feedback processes that can speed things up or slow things down—such zithromax for impetigo as the speed at which glaciers and sea ice melt or the way that clouds change in response to future warming.

In the ancient past, for instance, the study suggests that the world’s ice sheets played an important role in regulating the pace and predictability of the Earth’s climate response to natural changes in greenhouse gases or orbital shifts. Today, scientists believe that the world’s melting ice may also have a big impact on future climate change. These kinds of feedback zithromax for impetigo processes can make it challenging to predict future change, especially over relatively short periods of time. Reconstructing the Earth’s long-term climate history can help scientists test the models they use to predict its future. If a model can accurately simulate the past, scientists may have more confidence in its ability to simulate present-day climate processes.

€œThat’s the beauty of this record,” Zachos said zithromax for impetigo. €œIt’s something we’ve always wanted to have because of the applicability to testing climate theory.” Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News. E&E provides daily coverage of essential energy and environmental news at www.eenews.net.Woo-hoo, d’oh, or meh? zithromax for impetigo. Which of these Simpsonian reactions is appropriate to the fact, revealed by a 2019 survey conducted by researchers at Penn State University and the National Center for Science Education (NCSE), that about two in three—67 percent—of public high school biology teachers are presenting evolution forthrightly, emphasizing the broad scientific consensus on evolution while not giving any credence to creationism?. Only in the context of the long and contentious history of evolution education in the United States is it clear what the most plausible answer is.

American teachers have not always been afforded the luxury of teaching evolution zithromax for impetigo forthrightly. John Thomas Scopes, for example, was famously prosecuted for violating Tennessee’s ban on teaching evolution in 1925. Although his conviction was subsequently overturned, a national survey of high school biology teachers conducted in 1939–1940 revealed that only about half were teaching evolution as a central principle of biology. And bans on teaching evolution remained in place in Arkansas, Mississippi and Tennessee until zithromax for impetigo 1970. New obstacles then emerged, particularly requirements to teach various forms of creationism as alternatives to evolution.

As recently as 15 years ago, in Dover, Pennsylvania, the local school board attempted to require its high school biology teachers to read a statement to their ninth-grade students describing “Darwin’s theory of evolution” as “not a fact,” and commending “intelligent design”—then a trendy slogan for creationism—to their attention as a scientifically credible alternative. The teachers, to their credit, unanimously refused to zithromax for impetigo comply. But their refusal, together with the controversy surrounding the related trial over the constitutionality of the board’s actions, Kitzmiller v. Dover, intrigued two parents a hundred miles to the northwest, in State College, Pa zithromax for impetigo. Michael Berkman and Eric Plutzer were not just any concerned parents, though.

They were political scientists at Penn State with a particular interest in education policy. What—they wondered—are high school biology teachers zithromax for impetigo teaching about evolution, and what factors influence their teaching practices?. To satisfy their curiosity, Berkman and Plutzer conducted the first modern national survey of high school biology teachers in 2007. The results were dire. Only a slight majority, 51 percent, reported that they emphasized the broad scientific consensus on evolution while not giving any credence to creationism, as zithromax for impetigo if to suggest no progress in the 67 years since the less rigorous survey of 1939–1940.

That’s why the results of the 2019 survey—a collaboration between Plutzer and the NCSE—are so encouraging. Between 2007 and 2019, there definitely was progress. From 51 percent of high school biology teachers reporting emphasizing evolution zithromax for impetigo and not creationism in 2007 to 67 percent in 2019. It was matched by a drop from 23 to 12 percent of teachers who offer mixed messages by endorsing both evolution and creationism as a valid scientific alternative to evolution, from 18 to 15 percent of teachers who endorse neither evolution nor creationism, and from 8.6 to 5.6 percent of teachers who endorse creationism while not endorsing evolution. Credit.

National Center for Science Education zithromax for impetigo What accounts for the improvement?. Did intelligent design’s crushing defeat in the Kitzmiller trial make the difference?. Probably not zithromax for impetigo. Science teachers are guided not by case law but by state science standards, which specify what students in the state’s public schools are expected to learn. Standards thus influence the content of textbooks, statewide testing, and coursework for pre-service and in-service teachers.

Importantly, they also provide a shield for teachers facing misguided community pressure over socially zithromax for impetigo contentious topics like evolution. The results of the 2019 survey suggest that a concerted effort to improve state science standards helped to improve evolution education. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which debuted in 2013, include “Biological Evolution. Unity and Diversity” as a disciplinary core idea of the life sciences at the zithromax for impetigo middle and high school levels. By now, 20 states (plus the District of Columbia) have adopted the NGSS, and a further 24 states have adopted standards based on the same evolution-friendly framework on which the NGSS are based.

Were states that adopted the NGSS especially hospitable to the teaching of evolution?. Not zithromax for impetigo really. In 2007, their teachers were less likely to endorse evolution and not creationism than the national average. By 2019, they were more likely. While a variety of explanations are possible, teachers in NGSS states reported having taken more pre-service and in-service coursework in zithromax for impetigo evolution than their colleagues elsewhere, suggesting that the increased expectations impelled both novice and veteran teachers to upgrade their content knowledge of evolution.

Despite the encouraging trend over a mere dozen years, there is still reason for concern. After all, more than one in six high school biology teachers, 17.6 percent, are still presenting creationism as a scientifically zithromax for impetigo credible alternative to evolution. And almost as many high school biology teachers, 15 percent, are still failing to emphasize the broad scientific consensus on evolution, despite its general prevalence in state science standards and despite encouragement from professional organizations. D’oh!. With 13,500-odd local school districts having primary responsibility for curriculum and instruction, zithromax for impetigo changes to science education are inevitably going to be slow, scattered and incremental.

Still, with the aid of uncounted scientists, educators, policymakers, administrators and concerned citizens in general (and perhaps even a certain episode of The Simpsons), clear and convincing improvements for evolution education were demonstrably attained in just a dozen years. It is a victory worth not only celebrating—woo-hoo!. €”but also enlarging upon.ARGENTINA zithromax for impetigo The earliest dinosaurs laid soft-shelled eggs, paleontologists say. A new chemical analysis of a more than 200-million-year-old fossilized egg from Patagonia—and a clutch of more recent eggs from Mongolia, found in the Gobi Desert—revealed a thin film matching the characteristics of modern soft-shelled eggs. ENGLAND Archaeologists found that 20 deep shafts, previously thought to be natural sinkholes and ponds, were dug by Neolithic humans.

The shafts form a circle two kilometers in diameter, with the zithromax for impetigo Durrington Walls monument at its center, just three kilometers from Stonehenge. BRAZIL In a new paper, researchers documented the largest lightning bolt ever recorded. The “mega-flash,” zithromax for impetigo which extended for more than 700 kilometers in southern Brazil in 2018, was detected by a new advanced weather satellite in geostationary orbit. ISRAEL Researchers sequenced DNA samples from the Dead Sea Scrolls, identifying fragments made from sheep skin and others made from cow hide. The technique could help match fragments together and unravel the artifacts' geographic origins.

INDONESIA Scientists identified an elusive zithromax for impetigo nose-horned dragon lizard in the forests of North Sumatra. Despite appearing in the mythology of the indigenous Bataks, the visually striking species had been spotted by scientists only once before—almost 130 years ago. AUSTRALIA Submarine drones uncovered an extensive system of underwater “rivers” of dense, salty water along Australia's continental shelf. These flows carry organic matter zithromax for impetigo from the coast into the deep ocean, and their volume varies seasonally, peaking in winter.The items below are highlights from the free newsletter, “Smart, useful, science stuff about buy antibiotics.” To receive newsletter issues daily in your inbox, sign-up here.. Please consider a monthly contribution to support this newsletter.

At Nature, Nicky Phillips, David Cyranoski and Smriti Mallapaty covered the announcement that a collaboration between researchers at AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford is pausing Phase 3 treatment-candidate experiments due to a “suspected adverse event” in a study participant in the UK (9/9/20). The collaboration’s Phase 3 studies are being paused in the U.S., Brazil, South Africa and the UK, zithromax for impetigo Nature reports. €œThe news highlights the importance of waiting for the results of large, properly designed trials [experiments] to assess safety before approving a treatment for widespread use,” the story states. Investigators will start by trying to find out if the participant received the treatment candidate or a placebo, the story states. And then if it was the treatment, they will assess whether the participant’s reaction is related or unrelated to zithromax for impetigo receiving it.

€œI have every confidence that this group [of investigators] will very quickly assess this adverse event and make the results of that investigation known,” said a McGill University bioethicist quoted in the story. Presumably in response to reports of political pushing for approvals this fall, the chief executive officers (CEOs) of 9 pharmaceutical companies released a pledge (dated 9/8/20) to “uphold the integrity zithromax for impetigo of the scientific process as they work towards potential global regulatory filings and approvals of the first buy antibiotics treatments.” The CEOs — including those for AstraZeneca, BioNTech, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson &. Johnson, Merck, Moderna, and Pfizer — assert they will “only submit for approval or emergency use authorization after demonstrating safety and efficacy through a Phase 3 clinical study that is designed and conducted to meet requirements of expert regulatory authorities such as [the U.S. Food and Drug Administration].” In other words, they don’t plan to cut any corners in their research nor to yield to political pressure. For more contextualized commentary on what Ed Silverman describes as a “highly unusual turn of events," see zithromax for impetigo his column at STAT (9/7/20).

Meanwhile, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has quickly taken measures to block any political influence over ongoing research to develop treatments to protect us from antibiotics, report Anna Edney, Drew Armstrong, and Robert Langreth for Bloomberg (9/8/20). One measure reportedly includes the FDA “sticking by" June guidance that the agency zithromax for impetigo will only consider for approval treatment candidates that are at least 50% effective. Lower down in the story, the reporters write, “There is no guarantee the treatments furthest along in development will be the most effective, or be safe.” And it could take “months more” for Phase 3 findings to be conclusive, the story suggests. Still, the story ends with estimates by drug makers for how soon they might complete their Phase 3 studies (efficacy and safety experiments in thousands of study subjects) of antibiotics treatment candidates.

Moderna reportedly says as soon as Thanksgiving, and Pfizer reportedly has been saying next zithromax for impetigo month. I remain reasonably skeptical. On Twitter, I came across a searchable web zithromax for impetigo site called “Dear zithromax,” which bills itself as an “interdisciplinary all-female team of researchers and clinicians with expertise including nursing, mental health, demography, health policy/economics, and epidemiology.” Posts date back to July but the site appears to have officially launched 9/10/20. Their mission is to “educate and empower individuals to successfully navigate the buy antibiotics information overwhelm.” About two-thirds of the way down the home page, there’s a “submit a question” link. And below that, previous posts are indexed by topic and dates.

The risk of catching antibiotics on an airplane is “relatively low” if travelers are screened for sickness, wear masks, and are spaced out among seats, according to experts interviewed by zithromax for impetigo Noah Y. Kim for Kaiser Health News (9/10/20). The air exchange rate and use of HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters on planes also significantly reduce the risk of catching the zithromax from travelers who are several rows away, according to the story. There is zithromax for impetigo still a risk from an infected person seated nearby, the story states. And air filtration alone is insufficient to prevent transmission even when travelers are distanced in the plane, Kim writes.

Delta, Hawaiian, Southwest and JetBlue currently keep middle seats open, the story states. Security checks zithromax for impetigo and waiting at gates also pose some transmission risk. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control has not confirmed any antibiotics transmission aboard a U.S. Flight, an airline industry source says in the story, but that might reflect the difficulty of determining where people zithromax for impetigo in the U.S.

Contract the zithromax, Kim writes. €œEven though flying is a relatively low-risk activity,” the story states, “traveling should still be avoided unless absolutely necessary.” An undated, recently published ESPN interactive, bylined by Kyle Bonagura, illustrates its analysis and mapping of anonymized cellphone tracking data for three 2019 zithromax for impetigo U.S. College football games. The maps provide a sense of where fans travel to and disperse to after games and thus the regional concentration of potential antibiotics (and other infectious disease) spread resulting from the mixing of people before, during and after big match-ups. The piece zithromax for impetigo includes updates on some of the football conferences’ plans and protocols for the 2020 season.

The Big Ten and Pac-12 have postponed their seasons, whereas the SEC (Southeastern Conference) seems to be allowing each school to set its own attendance guidelines. I can’t pretend to follow NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) football designations but some or all of the NCAA teams drew “more than 47.5 million" attendees last season, the piece states. €œEven with fewer teams in action and limited-capacity crowds, the prospect that college football could play a role in spreading the zithromax for impetigo antibiotics is too obvious to ignore,” the story states. Thanks to a reader for alerting me to this piece. Check out “To build emotional strength, expand your brain,” by Kerry Hannon at The New York Times (9/2/20).

It basically asserts that learning new material, such as a language or craft, that expands your horizons helps you deal with change and crisis, such as the antibiotics zithromax for impetigo zithromax. Near the end, the piece lists some free or low-cost online class sites and some programs that allow nontraditional students to audit classes or work on projects with enrolled graduate and undergraduate students. You might enjoy “Looks like I wasn’t muted during our Zoom meeting,” by Susie Aquilina, for McSweeney’s (9/10/20)..

You have to go to extreme lengths to find zithromax generic price places on Earth that don’t reveal that they’re part of a water-rich planet. Even the highest and driest deserts, like the Atacama Plateau in South America, still get a minimum of a couple of millimeters of annual precipitation on average (although there are places where we don’t yet know what the average is because it’s simply not rained for years). And if you whip out your handy mass spectrometer on a desert walkabout the zithromax generic price chances are that you’ll be able to detect at least a few atmospheric water molecules.

Go elsewhere, and it’s hard to imagine anything but a water-logged world. More than 70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered in oceans and roughly 97 percent of the surface water is in those oceans, leaving a scant 1 percent as freshwater. Water is also seldom static, whether it’s zithromax generic price flowing in ocean currents or being evaporated and precipitated.

Averaged out over the planet there is about 100 centimeters of rainfall a year, but that’s across a total surface area of around 5.1x1018 square centimeters. In other words, doing the back-of-the-envelope calculation, some 510 trillion metric tons of water gets evaporated and then re-precipitated every year on Earth. But the catch is that we don’t really know where all of zithromax generic price this water came from in the first place.

For a long while our picture of the formation of a rocky planet like the Earth has involved a violent, hot assembly some 4.5 billion years ago out of comparatively dry material in the inner solar system. Water would have come along later, with proposals for possible delivery by comets from the chill, frozen outer solar system, or by rocky but still volatile-rich meteoritic infall. But these options have proven tricky to zithromax generic price justify completely for a variety of reasons.

Comets, for instance, often (but not always) have a deuterium concentration that doesn’t match what we see in Earth’s water—limiting their likely contribution. Similarly, water-rich rocky meteoritic material—so-called carbonaceous chondrites—have isotopic differences that could zithromax generic price also limit how much they contributed to a young planet. At the same time, the representative type of material for building the entirety of a rocky Earth (and matching the planet’s overall isotopic composition in elements like oxygen and calcium) seems to closely resemble what’s called enstatite chondrite.

Chunks of enstatite chondrite are still around in the solar system, and occasionally fall as meteorites. But they’ve been thought zithromax generic price to be too dry to be involved in Earth’s water supply. Now, in a work reported by Piani, et al.

In the journal Science, an analysis of the composition of 13 enstatite chondrite meteorite samples reveals a much higher than expected hydrogen content. Extrapolating from these numbers the researchers claim that if this is the type of protoplanetary material that built Earth, it could have resulted in a total, initial water zithromax generic price content of at least three times the present mass of water in our oceans. The same material could have also provided a starter mix of atmospheric nitrogen to the young planet.

This possibility is enormously appealing for its relative simplicity. Our wet world was simply made this way from the very beginning, with little need to invoke any more complex evolution zithromax generic price except for a small drizzling from comets and other outer solar system material. Whether or not this idea holds up to further scientific scrutiny, it’s a beautiful reminder that even the simplest things in our lives, like a glass of water or a shower in the morning, are actually windows into the deepest origins of everything we know.Scientists just completed one of the most comprehensive investigations of Earth’s climate history—and the findings aren’t favorable.

They found that the planet could eventually warm to levels it hasn’t reached in at least 34 million years. The researchers, led by Thomas Westerhold of zithromax generic price the University of Bremen in Germany, constructed datasets using chemical analyses of ancient sediments, drilled from the bottom of the ocean. These sediments, some of which are 66 million years old, are filled with the preserved shells of tiny organisms that can tell scientists about the temperature and chemical composition of the ocean when they were formed.

The sediments, collected from around the world zithromax generic price over the course of many years, allowed the researchers to reconstruct Earth’s climate history going back to the mass extinction that killed three-quarters of the planet’s species, including dinosaurs. They found that the planet has passed through four distinct climate phases. Warmhouse, hothouse, coolhouse and icehouse states.

Transitions from one state to another have generally depended on changing greenhouse gas levels, often driven by volcanic eruptions and other natural processes, and shifts zithromax generic price in the Earth’s orbit that affected the amount of solar energy reaching the planet. In the hottest phases, more than 50 million years ago, temperatures on Earth were more than 10 degrees Celsius hotter than they are today. But it’s important to note that it took the planet thousands or even millions of years to reach these levels—and that was long before humans ever walked the Earth.

That’s in zithromax generic price stark contrast to the kind of climate change that human activity is driving today. For several million years now, the world has been in an icehouse state. But that’s quickly changing.

If human societies do nothing to curb their greenhouse gas emissions, in just a few centuries the zithromax generic price Earth could once again reach a temperature threshold not seen for at least 34 million years. Before the industrial era, such a magnitude of warming would have taken thousands of years to occur, at least. €œIf you look at the worst-case scenario [by 2300], the change in mean global temperature is larger than most of the natural variability going back over the last 66 million years related to changes in the Earth’s orbit,” said Jim Zachos, a paleoclimatologist at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and a co-author of the new study, which was published Thursday in zithromax generic price the journal Science.

It’s not an inevitable future. With immediate and stringent action to reduce climate change, the world can keep global temperatures from rising more than a few degrees above their preindustrial levels. But the study does warn that without these efforts, Earth zithromax generic price is on track for some of the strongest, fastest climate change the planet has ever experienced.

The study may also provide some important insights into how climate change could unfold in the coming decades and centuries. Earth’s climate doesn’t always shift in linear, predictable ways. There are all kinds of feedback processes that can speed things up or slow things down—such as the speed at which glaciers and zithromax generic price sea ice melt or the way that clouds change in response to future warming.

In the ancient past, for instance, the study suggests that the world’s ice sheets played an important role in regulating the pace and predictability of the Earth’s climate response to natural changes in greenhouse gases or orbital shifts. Today, scientists believe that the world’s melting ice may also have a big impact on future climate change. These kinds zithromax generic price of feedback processes can make it challenging to predict future change, especially over relatively short periods of time.

Reconstructing the Earth’s long-term climate history can help scientists test the models they use to predict its future. If a model can accurately simulate the past, scientists may have more confidence in its ability to simulate present-day climate processes. €œThat’s the zithromax generic price beauty of this record,” Zachos said.

€œIt’s something we’ve always wanted to have because of the applicability to testing climate theory.” Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News. E&E provides daily coverage of essential energy and environmental news zithromax generic price at www.eenews.net.Woo-hoo, d’oh, or meh?. Which of these Simpsonian reactions is appropriate to the fact, revealed by a 2019 survey conducted by researchers at Penn State University and the National Center for Science Education (NCSE), that about two in three—67 percent—of public high school biology teachers are presenting evolution forthrightly, emphasizing the broad scientific consensus on evolution while not giving any credence to creationism?.

Only in the context of the long and contentious history of evolution education in the United States is it clear what the most plausible answer is. American teachers zithromax generic price have not always been afforded the luxury of teaching evolution forthrightly. John Thomas Scopes, for example, was famously prosecuted for violating Tennessee’s ban on teaching evolution in 1925.

Although his conviction was subsequently overturned, a national survey of high school biology teachers conducted in 1939–1940 revealed that only about half were teaching evolution as a central principle of biology. And bans on teaching evolution remained in place in Arkansas, Mississippi and zithromax generic price Tennessee until 1970. New obstacles then emerged, particularly requirements to teach various forms of creationism as alternatives to evolution.

As recently as 15 years ago, in Dover, Pennsylvania, the local school board attempted to require its high school biology teachers to read a statement to their ninth-grade students describing “Darwin’s theory of evolution” as “not a fact,” and commending “intelligent design”—then a trendy slogan for creationism—to their attention as a scientifically credible alternative. The teachers, to zithromax generic price their credit, unanimously refused to comply. But their refusal, together with the controversy surrounding the related trial over the constitutionality of the board’s actions, Kitzmiller v.

Dover, intrigued two parents a hundred miles to the northwest, in State zithromax generic price College, Pa. Michael Berkman and Eric Plutzer were not just any concerned parents, though. They were political scientists at Penn State with a particular interest in education policy.

What—they wondered—are high school biology teachers teaching about evolution, zithromax generic price and what factors influence their teaching practices?. To satisfy their curiosity, Berkman and Plutzer conducted the first modern national survey of high school biology teachers in 2007. The results were dire.

Only a slight majority, 51 percent, reported that they emphasized the broad zithromax generic price scientific consensus on evolution while not giving any credence to creationism, as if to suggest no progress in the 67 years since the less rigorous survey of 1939–1940. That’s why the results of the 2019 survey—a collaboration between Plutzer and the NCSE—are so encouraging. Between 2007 and 2019, there definitely was progress.

From 51 percent of high school biology teachers reporting emphasizing zithromax generic price evolution and not creationism in 2007 to 67 percent in 2019. It was matched by a drop from 23 to 12 percent of teachers who offer mixed messages by endorsing both evolution and creationism as a valid scientific alternative to evolution, from 18 to 15 percent of teachers who endorse neither evolution nor creationism, and from 8.6 to 5.6 percent of teachers who endorse creationism while not endorsing evolution. Credit.

National Center zithromax generic price for Science Education What accounts for the improvement?. Did intelligent design’s crushing defeat in the Kitzmiller trial make the difference?. Probably not zithromax generic price.

Science teachers are guided not by case law but by state science standards, which specify what students in the state’s public schools are expected to learn. Standards thus influence the content of textbooks, statewide testing, and coursework for pre-service and in-service teachers. Importantly, they also provide a shield for teachers facing zithromax generic price misguided community pressure over socially contentious topics like evolution.

The results of the 2019 survey suggest that a concerted effort to improve state science standards helped to improve evolution education. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which debuted in 2013, include “Biological Evolution. Unity and Diversity” as a disciplinary core idea of the life sciences at the middle and high zithromax generic price school levels.

By now, 20 states (plus the District of Columbia) have adopted the NGSS, and a further 24 states have adopted standards based on the same evolution-friendly framework on which the NGSS are based. Were states that adopted the NGSS especially hospitable to the teaching of evolution?. Not really zithromax generic price.

In 2007, their teachers were less likely to endorse evolution and not creationism than the national average. By 2019, they were more likely. While a variety of explanations are possible, teachers in NGSS states reported having taken more pre-service and in-service coursework in evolution than their colleagues elsewhere, suggesting that the increased expectations zithromax generic price impelled both novice and veteran teachers to upgrade their content knowledge of evolution.

Despite the encouraging trend over a mere dozen years, there is still reason for concern. After all, more than one in six high school biology teachers, 17.6 percent, zithromax generic price are still presenting creationism as a scientifically credible alternative to evolution. And almost as many high school biology teachers, 15 percent, are still failing to emphasize the broad scientific consensus on evolution, despite its general prevalence in state science standards and despite encouragement from professional organizations.

D’oh!. With 13,500-odd local school districts having primary responsibility for curriculum and instruction, changes to science education are inevitably going to be slow, scattered zithromax generic price and incremental. Still, with the aid of uncounted scientists, educators, policymakers, administrators and concerned citizens in general (and perhaps even a certain episode of The Simpsons), clear and convincing improvements for evolution education were demonstrably attained in just a dozen years.

It is a victory worth not only celebrating—woo-hoo!. €”but also enlarging upon.ARGENTINA The earliest dinosaurs laid soft-shelled zithromax generic price eggs, paleontologists say. A new chemical analysis of a more than 200-million-year-old fossilized egg from Patagonia—and a clutch of more recent eggs from Mongolia, found in the Gobi Desert—revealed a thin film matching the characteristics of modern soft-shelled eggs.

ENGLAND Archaeologists found that 20 deep shafts, previously thought to be natural sinkholes and ponds, were dug by Neolithic humans. The shafts form a zithromax generic price circle two kilometers in diameter, with the Durrington Walls monument at its center, just three kilometers from Stonehenge. BRAZIL In a new paper, researchers documented the largest lightning bolt ever recorded.

The “mega-flash,” which extended for more than zithromax generic price 700 kilometers in southern Brazil in 2018, was detected by a new advanced weather satellite in geostationary orbit. ISRAEL Researchers sequenced DNA samples from the Dead Sea Scrolls, identifying fragments made from sheep skin and others made from cow hide. The technique could help match fragments together and unravel the artifacts' geographic origins.

INDONESIA Scientists identified an elusive zithromax generic price nose-horned dragon lizard in the forests of North Sumatra. Despite appearing in the mythology of the indigenous Bataks, the visually striking species had been spotted by scientists only once before—almost 130 years ago. AUSTRALIA Submarine drones uncovered an extensive system of underwater “rivers” of dense, salty water along Australia's continental shelf.

These flows carry organic matter zithromax generic price from the coast into the deep ocean, and their volume varies seasonally, peaking in winter.The items below are highlights from the free newsletter, “Smart, useful, science stuff about buy antibiotics.” To receive newsletter issues daily in your inbox, sign-up here.. Please consider a monthly contribution to support this newsletter. At Nature, Nicky Phillips, David Cyranoski and Smriti Mallapaty covered the announcement that a collaboration between researchers at AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford is pausing Phase 3 treatment-candidate experiments due to a “suspected adverse event” in a study participant in the UK (9/9/20).

The collaboration’s Phase 3 studies are being paused in zithromax generic price the U.S., Brazil, South Africa and the UK, Nature reports. €œThe news highlights the importance of waiting for the results of large, properly designed trials [experiments] to assess safety before approving a treatment for widespread use,” the story states. Investigators will start by trying to find out if the participant received the treatment candidate or a placebo, the story states.

And then if it was the treatment, zithromax generic price they will assess whether the participant’s reaction is related or unrelated to receiving it. €œI have every confidence that this group [of investigators] will very quickly assess this adverse event and make the results of that investigation known,” said a McGill University bioethicist quoted in the story. Presumably in response to reports of political pushing for approvals this fall, the chief executive officers (CEOs) of 9 pharmaceutical companies released a pledge (dated 9/8/20) to “uphold the integrity of the scientific process zithromax generic price as they work towards potential global regulatory filings and approvals of the first buy antibiotics treatments.” The CEOs — including those for AstraZeneca, BioNTech, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson &.

Johnson, Merck, Moderna, and Pfizer — assert they will “only submit for approval or emergency use authorization after demonstrating safety and efficacy through a Phase 3 clinical study that is designed and conducted to meet requirements of expert regulatory authorities such as [the U.S. Food and Drug Administration].” In other words, they don’t plan to cut any corners in their research nor to yield to political pressure. For more contextualized commentary on what Ed Silverman describes as a “highly unusual turn of zithromax generic price events," see his column at STAT (9/7/20).

Meanwhile, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has quickly taken measures to block any political influence over ongoing research to develop treatments to protect us from antibiotics, report Anna Edney, Drew Armstrong, and Robert Langreth for Bloomberg (9/8/20). One measure reportedly includes the FDA “sticking by" June guidance zithromax generic price that the agency will only consider for approval treatment candidates that are at least 50% effective.

Lower down in the story, the reporters write, “There is no guarantee the treatments furthest along in development will be the most effective, or be safe.” And it could take “months more” for Phase 3 findings to be conclusive, the story suggests. Still, the story ends with estimates by drug makers for how soon they might complete their Phase 3 studies (efficacy and safety experiments in thousands of study subjects) of antibiotics treatment candidates. Moderna reportedly says zithromax generic price as soon as Thanksgiving, and Pfizer reportedly has been saying next month.

I remain reasonably skeptical. On Twitter, I came across a searchable web site called “Dear zithromax,” which bills itself as an “interdisciplinary all-female team of researchers and clinicians with expertise including zithromax generic price nursing, mental health, demography, health policy/economics, and epidemiology.” Posts date back to July but the site appears to have officially launched 9/10/20. Their mission is to “educate and empower individuals to successfully navigate the buy antibiotics information overwhelm.” About two-thirds of the way down the home page, there’s a “submit a question” link.

And below that, previous posts are indexed by topic and dates. The risk of catching antibiotics on an airplane is “relatively low” if travelers are screened for sickness, wear masks, and are spaced out among seats, zithromax generic price according to experts interviewed by Noah Y. Kim for Kaiser Health News (9/10/20).

The air exchange rate and use of HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters on planes also significantly reduce the risk of catching the zithromax from travelers who are several rows away, according to the story. There is still a zithromax generic price risk from an infected person seated nearby, the story states. And air filtration alone is insufficient to prevent transmission even when travelers are distanced in the plane, Kim writes.

Delta, Hawaiian, Southwest and JetBlue currently keep middle seats open, the story states. Security checks zithromax generic price and waiting at gates also pose some transmission risk. The U.S.

Centers for Disease Control has not confirmed any antibiotics transmission aboard a U.S. Flight, an airline industry source says in the story, zithromax generic price but that might reflect the difficulty of determining where people in the U.S. Contract the zithromax, Kim writes.

€œEven though flying is a relatively low-risk activity,” the story states, “traveling should still be avoided unless absolutely necessary.” An undated, recently published ESPN interactive, bylined by Kyle Bonagura, illustrates its analysis and mapping of anonymized cellphone tracking data for three 2019 U.S zithromax generic price. College football games. The maps provide a sense of where fans travel to and disperse to after games and thus the regional concentration of potential antibiotics (and other infectious disease) spread resulting from the mixing of people before, during and after big match-ups.

The piece includes updates on some zithromax generic price of the football conferences’ plans and protocols for the 2020 season. The Big Ten and Pac-12 have postponed their seasons, whereas the SEC (Southeastern Conference) seems to be allowing each school to set its own attendance guidelines. I can’t pretend to follow NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) football designations but some or all of the NCAA teams drew “more than 47.5 million" attendees last season, the piece states.

€œEven with fewer teams in action and zithromax generic price limited-capacity crowds, the prospect that college football could play a role in spreading the antibiotics is too obvious to ignore,” the story states. Thanks to a reader for alerting me to this piece. Check out “To build emotional strength, expand your brain,” by Kerry Hannon at The New York Times (9/2/20).

It basically asserts that learning new material, such as a language or craft, that expands your horizons helps you deal with change and crisis, such as the antibiotics zithromax. Near the end, the piece lists some free or low-cost online class sites and some programs that allow nontraditional students to audit classes or work on projects with enrolled graduate and undergraduate students. You might enjoy “Looks like I wasn’t muted during our Zoom meeting,” by Susie Aquilina, for McSweeney’s (9/10/20)..